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UNIVERSITY OF MAIDUGURI Maiduguri, Nigeria

CENTRE FOR DISTANCE LEARNING

ARTS

ISL 315: THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF WEST AFRICAN SCHOLARS TO ISLAM UNIT: 3

ISL 315_ THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF WEST AFRICAN SCHOLARS TO ISLAM

Published

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2010 ©

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means without prior permission in writing from the University of Maiduguri. This text forms part of the learning package for the academic programme of the Centre for Distance Learning, University of Maiduguri. Further enquiries should be directed to the: Coordinator Centre for Distance Learning University of Maiduguri P. M. B. 1069 Maiduguri, Nigeria. This text is being published by the authority of the Senate, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri – Nigeria.

ISBN: 978-8133-

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PREFACE This study unit has been prepared for learners so that they can do most of the study on their own. The structure of the study unit is different from that of conventional textbook. The course writers have made efforts to make the study material rich enough but learners need to do some extra reading for further enrichment of the knowledge required.

The learners are expected to make best use of library facilities and where feasible, use the Internet. References are provided to guide the selection of reading materials required.

The University expresses its profound gratitude to our course writers and editors for making this possible. Their efforts will no doubt help in improving access to University education.

Professor M. M. Daura

Vice-Chancellor

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HOW TO STUDY THE UNIT You are welcome to this study Unit. The unit is arranged to simplify your study. In each topic of the unit, we have introduction, objectives, in-text, summary and selfassessment exercise. The study unit should be 6-8 hours to complete. Tutors will be available at designated contact centers for tutorial. The center expects you to plan your work well. Should you wish to read further you could supplement the study with more information from the list of references and suggested readings available in the study unit. PRACTICE EXERCISES/TESTS 1. Self-Assessment Exercises (SAES) This is provided at the end of each topic. The exercise can help you to assess whether or not you have actually studied and understood the topic. Solutions to the exercises are provided at the end of the study unit for you to assess yourself. 2. Tutor-Marked Assignment (TMA) This is provided at the end of the study Unit. It is a form of examination type questions for you to answer and send to the center. You are expected to work on your own in responding to the assignments. The TMA forms part of your continuous assessment (C.A.) scores, which will be marked and returned to you. In addition, you will also write an end of Semester Examination, which will be added to your TMA scores. Finally, the center wishes you success as you go through the different units of your study.

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INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE This course will study in topic 1: a General overview of Islam in African; in topic 2: Contact of Islam to West Africa. While topic 3 will discuss Islam in Kanem Borno; topic 4 will elaborate on The contribution of Borno Ulama to Islam and topic 5 on The contribution of Sheikh Yusuf Al-Qarqari of Borno to Islam. However, topic 6 will identify The Contribution Ulama of soles to caliphate to the development of Islam in Hausa Land and topic 7 will list scholars of West African, Kanem Borno, and Sokoto Caliphate.

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INTRODUCTION

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THE GENERAL OVERVIEW OF ISLAM IN AFRICA

In this topic we shall outline a general overview of Islam, and the gates through which Islam penetrated in to West Africa.

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OBJECTIVES At the end of this topic, you should be able to: i. Outline a general overview of Islam in African ii. Discuss the difficulties that the early Muslims faced towards Islamic propagation. iii. Assess the factors that contributed to the Islamization of African people.

1.3 IN-TEXT 1.3.1 GENERAL OVERVIEW OF ISLAM IN AFRICA Before the introduction of Islam into Africa, Africans were believers of a supreme being, who created the whole cosmos. The main features of African traditional religion, includes religious heritage of mankind. The traditional African religion deals with holy ghost and spirit. This was as a result of the instinct of man‟s eternal quest to comprehend the universe and to come to terms with the forces that control his inner being. The African concept of man, is that he is made up of a body a ghost and a spirit. In this way, the community in Africa is not only made up of the living. But also the dead. Thus, it gives the features of African Traditional Religion. However these features includes; Widespread of belief in a god who is also known by various local names. This and the source of all positive powers and has power over life and death. To the Africans God is the ancestral spirits who plays a very prominent role to their religion. Then, there are also supernatural entities or lesser deities also who derive their powers essentially from God. Indeed. Africans also believed that God, has power to reward men but can also punish with misfortunes such as: the fire disaster, floods, earthquake as well as storms, and diseases and death. Among some Africans there exist the mythical powers which are recognized and reckoned with for their ability to aid or harm man. Among them are agents of witchcrafts, magic and sorcery. There are also ideas of charms. Amulets and talisman which are used for protective as well as for offensive purposes. Furthermore, Africans societies are religious oriented societies devoted to the worship of their forefathers. Yet, Islam reached Africa through many gate ways. It is a well known fact that one of the early converts to Islam was Bilal Ibn Rabah, a freed slave of Ethiopian origin and the first mu‟adhdhin among the Muslims the prophet Mohammed (SAW) sent a group of his early converts to Aksum, whose life in Mecca was unbreable as a result of persecution in the hands of the Qurayshite Oligarchy. The arrival of the refugees marks the earliest contact between nascent Islam and CDL, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri

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Ethiopia and stands out as a significant milestone and point of departure for history of Islam in the century. The hijrah to Aksum was the first recorded contact between Islam and Africa. As reckoned by the prophets biographer Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Hisham. Indeed, all other commentators both Muslims and non-Muslin have based their accounts on these early sources. Right from this early migration, Islam penetrated into Africa through Ethiopian region from the Red Sea Coast, through the Dahlak Islands to Zeila further south, at about seventh century (too C.E). The Dahlak route did not play a significant role in the spread of Islam into the interior, because of the existence of a well established Christian state and church. The ban on Islamic faith by the Christian rulers and clergy made Islam so difficult to penetrate in to the Ethiopian region more especially the Aksumite state of Christian dom. Consequently the existence of migration, Jihadist movements, commercial activities, indigenous ethnic movement and the act of reforms has immensely contributed to the spread of Islam in Africa.

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TRIBUTARIES OF ISLAM TO AFRICA

The tributaries of which Islam came to African includes migration, Jihadist movements, commercial activities, ethnic movements, and religious reforms

MIGRATION

The free movement of indigenous tribes and ethnic groups helped the spread of Islam in Africa. The first immigrants were the early converts of Islam who left the Mecca to Abysinia under the command of the Holy Prophet Mohammad (SAW). This immigration is the first role of Islamization of some few Ethiopians under the protection of the Aksumite kingdom.

JIHADIST MOVEMENT

The Islamic, Muslims Jihadist, as “Uqba bn Nafii a Jihadist and Islamic reformist, made a great impact on the Islamization of Africans. Uqba was successful who started a campaign right from Egypt up to Spain in Europe. His influence has been felt all over Africa and North Africa in particular.

COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES

Trading activities, flourished into the principal commercial centers, along the major trade routs. The existence of small Arab groups and traders settled in the coastal districts in the neighbourhood of Zeila, gradually pushed Inland propagating Islam to nomadic and sedentary populations of the hinterland.

INDIGENOUS ETHNIC MOVEMENT

The indigenous ethnic movement culminated into the establishment of several petty states in the basin of the Awash River and further south. The first of these states was the sultanate of Shawa, whose founders claimed descent from the Makhzuni tribe of Mecca to which Khalid bn Ni-Walid belongs

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RELIGIOUS REFORMS The great propagators of Islam in Ethiopia were clerics, who were initially of non-Ethiopian origin, oral traditions strongly emphasized the crucial role played by Muslims scholars in propagating Islam. The oral traditions spoke of the arrival of holy men from either Yemen or the Hijaz. These made the spread of Islam so effective with the help of indigenous scholars propagating Islam into Africa.

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SUMMARY

Islam gained access to Africa in general and North Africa in particular, through the agency of migration, Jihadist, movements commercial activities, Indigenous and ethnic movements as well as religious reformers. Islam also gained access to African and North Africa in particular through the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden coastal areas. The propagators of Islam were Muslim clerics, traders and the proliferation of trade routes and the activities of local Muslims merchants led to the growth of small trading settlements which served as centers for the diffusion of Islam.

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SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1. 2.

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Explain in detail how Islam came to Africa. Enumerate the factors that contributed to the Isamization of Africa.

REFERENCE Hiskett M. (1975) A History of Hausa Islamic verse. London. London University Press

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SUGGESTED FOR READING Adam Abdullahi Ilorin (1978) Islam in Nigeria. Hiskett M. (1975) A History of Hausa Islamic verse. London. London University Press Jhon, Ardon (2002) African Traditional Religion. Ibadan. Ibadan University press.

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TOPIC 2: TABLE OF CONTENTS 2.0

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INTRODUCTION

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This topic will discuss some principal areas of Islamic contact with West Africa.

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OBJECTIVES At the end of the topic you should be able to: i. identify some principal cities and town in which Islam has a great impact in West Africa ii. elaborate on the contributions of Islam in West Africa.

2.3 IN-TEXT 2.3.1 INTRODUCTION OF ISLAM IN WEST AFRICA The gate through which Islam entered Africa is still the tributary gates that allowed Islam to reached West Africa. Then early prophets companions migration. Umar bn Khattab‟s Muslims jihadist force in 639 C.E, under the command of Amr bn Al-As penetrated into Egypt. The advancement of Uqba Ibn Nafa force up Europe through Egypt via tunis to spain. Traders and indegeous Muslims scholars have also contributed to spread and development of Islam in Africa and West Africa in particular. According to a number of accounts West Africa had first made contact with Islam around the 7th century. These accounts state that, Amr bin Al-As first conquered Egypt in 641 C.E during the reign of Umar bin Al-Khattab the second Caliph of Islam. Umar bn Al-As moved southwards upto sudan, but withdraw, because of scanty success. When he was re-appointed governor of Egypt by Mu‟awiyyah in July 658C.E, he took uqbah bn Nafii with him for his braved and extremely enterprising cavalry. Amr bn Al-as died in 663C.E but uqbah continued to ask the caliph Amirulmumin to send him on an expedition to Africa, west of Hijazi. When he was appointed he continue to penetrate from the Red Sea upto North Africa. Uqba therefore advanced as far as Tunisia about 1,500 miles from the main Arab base at Al-fustat. The Arab armies had reached the same area before, Uqbah decided based was established in the areas. From such a base Islamic colony could be formed to pacify the surrounding areas and a provincial government could be firmly established. At that time the contest in North Africa was between three groups. The Bazantines, in the costal fortresses, the Berbers tribes in the Allas and the Arabs. The Berbers were divided into three main ethnic groups: the Locata, Sanhaja and Zahatec, each sub-divided into vast numbers of small groups. Each group moved towards an enemy a group for Islamic propagation. In 670 C.E Uqbah decided and close a desert area south of cartage that was Qairawan which later become a great and famous city where a mosque and a house

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for the governor were established, the Muslims built an army base around this nucleus. The army base was thirty five miles from the seashore, meaning that whoever wants to attack Qairaman would have to across the rolling stepped later Uqbah took certain Berber districts. In 682C.E Uqbah set out to conquer the west with an attempt to capture the Byzatines forces on the coast, he pushed forward towards Calvary thousand of miles westward. Fortunately, he defeated many forces of Byzantines and Berbers, 683.C.E. Subsequently and with the death of Uqbah, the Arabs abandoned conquest and returned back to Barqah while the Berbers occupied the Arab‟s base at Qairawan. In 683C.E caliph Yazid B. Mu‟awiya died and another civil war broke out among the Muslims because of sectarian inclinations such as the revolts of the Kharajites against sunnis. Therefore, in 686 C.E Muslims army tried under Zubair B. Qays in Bilad Ifriqiyah (Africa) to defeat Byzantine and Berber armies in the plains of Qairawan but found their forces very strong and drew back and left Qairawan. Hassan B. Nu‟man a general with different war tactics led an army to Ifriqiya and was successful in pushing out the forces of Byzantine and defeated the Byzantine. He advanced against the Berbers of the atlas. He also advanced gradually against the Berber tribes who had earlier formed a strong hold against the Muslim Army. Berber nomads acknowledged the leadership of a woman; a KAHINAH (a prophetess) who was said to have professed Judaism and had much influence to her religious pretension. She was quoted to have said that the Arabs only entered Ifriqiyah Maghrib) just for its wealth and its rich crops. Orchads and olive groves of the coastal plain. In 702C.E the forces of Hassan bin Nu‟man advanced toward the ravages committed by the camel tribes who were in the coastal plain. In pursuance of the woman KAHINAH who controls the city dwellers, villagers and farmers and with her policy against the Arabs. The mujahids (fighters) found it difficult to defeat the remnants of the Greek population and the settled Berbers. Consequently a great battle was fought at sulgatah on the coastal plain of about 85 miles away, west of Carthages‟. Fortunately the Berbers were completely defeated, the Kahinah was killed and the city was seized by Muslim Army. In 705 C.E Hassan was then replaced by Musa B. Nusayr to consolidate the victory achieved by his predecessor. He therefore marched along the coastal plain, reached and occupied Tangier and then pacified the Atlantic coast of what is now called Morocco. Religion and politics now went into hands of Muslims and the final Muslims victory won the majority of the Berber who alternately been apostatized, after their defect and accept Islam. Hence, many of them were said to be enthusiastic Muslims more than the Arabs. The conversion of the pagans Berbers to Islam was slow at the beginning but later they were trained and recruited by the Arabs Mujahids into their armies. The new converts of Berbers formed a strong armies under the Arabs Muslims leaders and were able to succeeded and subjugate the Maghrib and later Spain. It was these Berber nomads, particularly those of the sanhaja confederation, formed the major link for the Islamization of Africa and the Savannah lands of western Sudan (West CDL, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri

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Africa). One of the major tribe of this federation, the lamtungs, had earlier moved into central Mauritania and later pushed southward to gain control of the town of Audaghast which was the terminus of a caravan route to sijikmasa in southern Morocco. By the first half of the 8th century Islam began to work its way cross the sahara trade route from North to West Africa. Not long after the Muslims conquered the North Africa, the Ummayyad rulers began to organized military expenditure into the southern regions of Morocco and as far south as the boundaries of ancient Ghana between 734C.E and 740 C.E. the expeditions returned to North Africa with booty and brought back larger quantities of war Ifriqiyyah, Ubayd Allah bin Al-Habib. It was these good supplies that attracted the Ummayad governor to find ways and means of getting more supply of this precious metal from West Africa. It also created a network between west Africa and Arab countries that is more efficient and secure this trans-saharan trade rotes. Before then the Berber used the trans-saharan trade across the desert to Arabs world particularly the Sanhaja. To increases their opportunity to be more active in trade route with Arabs across the desert from Western Sudan to ancient Ghana and Kanem Borno regions in particular their main interest during that time was to obtained slaves and food stuffs in return for cloth salt and horse that attract other Arabs to joined in accompanying those trader across the trans-sarah. Principally for the prospects obtaining of commercial qualities of gold that pave away for the Arabs to start expanding the religion to West Africa that increase the numbers of merchants to settle in the commercial centres along or at the terminus of the trans-saharan trade route. Among the main commercial centers which sprang up along these trade routes from the 8 century where Tahart, Sijimasa, Wargla, Ladmakka and Audaghost Tahert in (modern Algeria). An important commercial centre that was established in 770 sand was linked to Gao in West Africa by a trans-sahara trade route which passed through Wargala and Tadmakka and Sijilmasa in Morocco. Which passed through southward to Audaghost in West Sahara and from there to Ancient Ghana. Another trans-sahara trade linked the Kanem-Borno region with some part of North Africa. During the 8th century therefore the situation developed in which the Sanhaja of the west sahara, became more increasing under the influence of Islam. It is probable that by the 10th century some of their leaders that started to embraced Islam. Moreover, West African merchants were also in contact with both the sanhaja and the Muslim merchants from North Africa. By the late 9th and early 10th C.E some of them later had begin to establish Muslims Quarters in the capitals of the West African states of Gao in ancient Ghana. Another point is that the majority of the North African merchants who engaged in trade with West Africans from the middle of 8th century were not only of Berbers stock but were also unorthodox Muslims. According to one Arabic writer or scholar Al-Zuhri, who wrote in the first half of the 12 century, they had adopted a school which took them outside the law other words.

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Consequently, among the Sanhaja in the western sahara, part of which is covered today by the Islamic republic of Mauritania and other West Africa places in early Islam, were unorthodox Muslims. This was the leading factors which aided AlMoravid movement. Others factors includes. 1. West Africa was a land of gold that attracted the attention of Muslims traders in North Africa to the Commercial activities across the sahara to West Africa. 2. The Fertile land of Africa attracted Arab farmers to settled and farm varieties of crops and vegetations.

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SUMMARY The efforts of Muslims jihadists and scholar led to the establishment of some Islamic states. These includes the Islamic republic of man Tania, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco, the rich minerals of Africa also attracted the attention of Muslims traders to the commercial activities and some to fertile land which attracted the Arabs to farm.

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SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1. 2.

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Discuss the ways which Islam came to Africa. What are the factors that led the Muslims Arabs to settle in Africa.

REFERENCES Alkali, M.N (1989) “Islam is the central Biladal Sudan and the Emergence of the Kingdom of Kanem”. Paper presented at the Islam in African conference Abuja Nov. Bala Usman and Nur Alkali (1983) Studies in the History of Pre-Colonial Borno, Zaria.

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SUGGESTED READING Bala Usman and Nur Alkali (1983) Studies in the History of Pre-Colonial Borno, Zaria.

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TOPIC: 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS 3.0

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Kanem Borno Empire

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ISLAM IN KANEM BORNO

Kanem Borno is among the earlier empire south of sahara of Africa. The region embarrassed Islam as early as 700AD, during the time of Mai Humma Jilmi. The empire is also surrounded by some pockets pagans groups who also resisted the empire against their Islamization.

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OBJECTIVES At the end of this unit, you should be able to: i. discuss the developments of Kanem Borno empire ii. enumerate their contributions to Islam.

3.3 IN-TEXT 3.3.1 ISLAM IN KANEM-BORNO The Kanem empire existed in modern Chad and Libya. It was known to the Arabian geographers as the Kanem-Bornu Empire from the 9th Century AD onward and lasted, in some form, until 1893. at its height it encompassed an area covering not only much of Chad, but also parts of modern southern Libya and eastern Niger. Its succeeding state, the Borno Empire, would dominate these lands as well as northeastern Nigeria and Northern Cameroon. The history of the empire from the 13th century onwards is mainly known from the Royal chronicle or Girgam discovered in 1851 by the German traveler Heinrich Barth.

3.3.2

ORIGIN

The kanem Empire originated at an unknown period to the northeast of Lake Chad. It was located at the southern end of the trans-saharan trade route between Tripoli and the region of Lake Chad. Besides its Urban elite it include a confederation or nomadic peoples who spoke languages of the Teda – Daza (Toubou) group. One theory, based on early Arabic sources. Suggests that the dominance of the Zaghawa people bound the confederation together. The Diwan refers to the Zaghawa as Duguwa. The Sayfuwa, often tought to have been the only dynasty of Kanem, only took power in the process of Isamization. Their ancestor Sef was since the thirteenth century identified with the Legendary Yemenite hero Sayf Ibn Ghi Yazan, hence it became customary to call the second ruling dynasty Sayfawa instead of Sefuwa. Both, the Duguwa and the subsequent Sayfawa, seem to have belonged to the same ruling establishment of the Magumi. Also the royal title Mai would appear to have been shared by the Duguwa and the sayfawa. In the pre-Islamic period the subjects regarded their king as divine. The major factor that influence the history of the state of Kanem as the early penetration of Islam. North African traders, Berbers and Arabs, brought the new religion. Towards 1068, Hummay, a member of the Sayfawa establishment, who was already a Muslim, discarded the last Duguwa king Selma from power and thus CDL, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri

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established the new dynasty of the sayfawa. Islam offered the Sayfawa rulers the advantage of new ideas from Arabia and the Mediterranean world, as well as literacy in administration. But many people resisted the new religion favouring traditional beliefs and practices. When Hummay had assumed power on the basis of his strong Islamic following, for example, it is believed that the Duguwa/Zaghawa began some kind of internal opposition. This pattern of conflict and compromised with Islam occurs repeatedly in Chadian History. When the ruling dynasty changed, the royal establishment abandoned its capital of Manan and settled in the new capital Njimi further south of Kanem (the word for “south” in the Teda Lnguage). By the 13th century, Kanem‟s rule expanded. At the same time, the Kanembu people drew closer to the new rulers and increased the growing population in the new capital of Njimi. Even though the Kanembu became the main power-base of the Sayfuwa, kanem‟s rulers continued to ravel frequently throughout the kingdom and especially towards Borno, west of Lake Chad. Herders and farmers alike recognized the government‟s power and acknowledged their allegiance by paying tribute. Dabbalemi devised a system to reward commanders with authority over the people they conquered. This system, however, tempted military officers to pass their positions to their sons, thus transforming the office from one based on achievement and loyalty to the Mai into one based on hereditary nobility. Dabbalemi was able to suppress this tendency, but after his death, dissession among his sons weakened the Sayfawa Dynasty. Dynastic feuds degenerated into civil war, and kanem‟s outlying peoples soon ceased paying tribute.

3.3.3

FROM KANEM TO BORNO

By the end of the 14th Century, internal struggles and external attacked has torn Kanem apart. Between 1376 and 1400, six mias reigned, but Bulala invaders (from the area around Lake Fitri to the east) killed five of them. This proliferation of mias resulted in numerous claimants to the throne and led to a series of internecine wars. Finally, around 1396 the Bulala forced Mai Umar Idrismi to abandon Njimi and move the kanembu people to Bornu on the western edge of Lake Chad.

3.3.4

KANEM-BORNO EMPIRE

Kanem-Borno in the 13th century included the region around Lake Chad, stretching as far north as Fezzan. Kanem today forms the northern part of the Republic of Chad. Islam was accepted for the first time by the Kanem ruler, UmmeJilmi, who ruled between 1085-1097 C.E, through a scholar named Muhammad B. Mani, credited for bringing Islam to Kanem-Borno, Umme-Jilmi became a devout Muslim. He left on a pilgrimate but died in Egypt before reaching makkah. Al-Bakri also mentions that Umayyad refuges, who had fled from Baghdad following plans to liquidate their dynasty at the hands of the Abbasids, were residing in Kanem. With the introduction of Islam in Kanem, it became the principal focus of Muslim influence in the central Sudan and relations were established with the Arab world in the Middle East and the Maghrib. Umme‟s son Dunama I (1092-1150) also CDL, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri

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went on a pilgrimate and crowned in Egypt, while embarking at suez for makkah, during the third pilgrimage journey. During the reign of Dunama II (1221 – 1259), a kanem embassy was established in Tunisia around 1257, as mentioned by the famous Andalusian Hitorian Ibn Klhaldun (D. 1406 C.E). It was almost at the same time that a college and a hostel were established in Cairo, named Madrasah Ibn Rashiq. Toward the end of the 13th century, Kanem became a center of Islamic knowledge and famous teachers came from Mali to teach in Kanem. By the middle of the 13 th century, kanem established diplomatic relations with Tuat (in the Algerian Sahara) and with the Hafsid State of Tunis at embassy level. The Kanem scholars and poets could write classical Arabic of a very high standard. We have evidence of this in a letter written by the chief scribe of the Kanem court dating from 1391 to 1392. The historian Ibn Khaldun calls Dunama II as the „Kind of Kanem and Lord of Borno‟, because his empire had expanded as far as kano in the west and Wadai in the east. It is said that Dunama II opened a Talisman (Munni or Mune), considered sacred by his people and thus brought a period of hardship to his people. It was because of his enthusiasm for the religion of Islam that he committed this „abomination‟ (perhaps the talisman was a traditional symbol of divine (Kingship) and alienated many of his subjects). In the late 14th century, a new capital of the kanem empire was established in Bonro at Ngazaragamu by „Ali B. Dunama, also called „Ali Ghazi, who ruled during the period 1476 to 1503. this thriving capital continued until 1811. „Ali revived Islam. He keen on learning its principles. He used to visit the chief Imam Umar Masramba to learn more about the Islamic legal system. He, by his own example, persuaded the nobility and chiefs of limits the number of their wives to only four. The Islamization of Borno dates from the time of Mai Idriss Alooma (15701602). We come to know about him through his chronicler, Ahmad bin Fartiwa. In the 9th year of his reign, he went on a pilgrimage to Makkah and built a hostel there for pilgrims from Borno. He revived the Islamic practices and made all and sundry follow them. He also set up Qadhis courts to introduce Islamic laws in place of the traditional system of customary law. He built a large number of brick mosques to replace the existing ones, built with needs.

3.3.5

MAI DUNAMA DABBALEMI

Kanem‟s expansion peaked during the long and energetic reign of Mai Dunama Dabbalemi (ca 1221 -1259), also of the Sayfawa dynasty. Dabbalemi initiated diplomatic exchanges with sultans in North Africa and apparently arranged for the establishment of a special hostel in Cairo to facilitate pilgrimages to Mecca. During his reign, he declared Jihad against the surrounding tribes and initiated an extended period of conquest. After consolidating their territory around Lake Chad the Fezzan region (In present day Libya) fell under Kanem‟s authority and the empire‟s influence extended westward to Kano (In present-day Nigeria), eastwards (in present-day Cameroon). Portraying these boundaries on maps can be misleading, however, because the degree of control extended in ever-weakening gradations from the core of the empire around Njimi to remote peripheries, from which the empire around CDL, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri

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Njimi to remote peripheries, from which allegiance and tribute were usually only symbolic. Moreover, Cartographic lines are static and misrepresent the mobility inherent in nomadism and migration, which were common. The loyalty of peoples and their leaders was more important in governance than the physical control of territory. Dabbalemi devised a system to reward military commanders with authority over the people they conquered. This system, however, tempted military officers to pass their positions to their sons, thus transforming the office from one based on achievement and loyalty to the Mai into one based on hereditary nobility. Dabbalemi was able to suppress this tendency, but after his death, dissension among his sons weakened the Sayfawa Dynasty. Dynastic fueds degenerated into civil war, and Kanem‟s outlying peoples soon ceased paying tribute.

3.3.6

IDRISS ALOOMA

Alooma is remembered for his military for his military skills, administrative reforms and Islamic piety. His main adversaries were the Hausa to the west, the Tuareg and Toubou to the north and the Bulala to the east. One epie poem extols his victories in 330 wars and more than 1,000 battles. His innovations included the employment of fixed military camps (with walls): permanent sieges and “scorehed earth” tactics, where soldiers burned everything in their path; armored horses and riders and the use of Berber camelry, Kotoko boatmen, and iron-hel;meted musketeers trained by Turkish military advisers. His active diplomacy featured relations with Tripoli, Egypt and the Ottoman Empire, which sent a 200 member ambassadorial party across the desert to Alooma‟s court at Ngazargamu. Alooma also signed what was probably the first written treaty or cease-fires in Chadian history (like many cease-fires negotiated in the 1970s and 1980s, it was promptly broken). Alooma introduced a number of legal and administrative reforms based on his religious beliefs and Islamic law (Sharia). He sponsored the construction of numerous mosques and made a pilgrimage to Mecca, where he arranged for the establishment of a hostel to be used by pilgrims from his empire. As with other dynamic politicians, Alooma‟s reformist goals led him to seek loyal and competent advisers and allies and he frequently relied on slaves who had been educated in noble homes. Alooma regularly sought advice from a council composed of heads of the most important clans. He required major political figures to live at the court and the reinforced political alliances through appropriate marriages (Alooma himself was the son of a kanuri father and a Bulala mother). Kanem-Borno under Alooma was strong and wealthy, Government revenue came from tribute (or body, if the recalcitrant people had to be conquered), sales of slaves and duties on and participation in trans-saharan trade. Unlike West Africa, the Chadian region did not have hold. Still, it was central to one of the most convenient trans-saharan routes. Between Lake Chad and Fezzan lay a sequence of well-spaced wells oases and from Fezzan there were easy connections to North Africa and the Mediterranean Sea. Many products were sent North, including Natron (Sodium Carbonate), Cotton, Kola nuts, Ivory, Ostrich feathers, perfume, Wax and hides, but CDL, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri

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the most important of all were slaves. Imports included salt, horses, silks, glass, muskets and copper. Alooma took a keen interest in trade and other economic matters, he is credited with having the roads cleared,

3.4

SUMMARY

Kanem Borno was as old as the introduction of Islam in to the region. Islam was introduced to kanem Borno through the Trans-Saharan and Savannah routes. The geographical position of the Kanem-Borno placed her at the centre of Africa. The routes led to the chances of the Ulama of Kanem-Borno contributed greatly to the studies and administration of Shariah. The Borno Ulama write so many books on Jurisprudence and laws to the changing needs of their time.

3.5

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1. 2.

3.6

Discuss and elaborate, the circumstance that led to the Islamization of kanem Borno. Explain in detail the routes which Islam entered Kanem Borno

REFERENCES Barkindo, Bawuro, The early states of the Central Sudan: Kanem, Borno and Some of their neighbours to e. 1500 A.D. In: J. Ajayi und M. Crowder (Hg). History of West Africa, Bd, I, 3, Ausg. Harlow 1985, 225-254. Lange, Dierk, Ancient Kingdoms of west Africa: Africa-Centred and Canaanite Israelite perspectives Dettelbach 2004. (The book suggests a pre-Christian origin of Kanem in Connection with the Phoenician expansion). Urvoy, Yves, L’empire du Bornou, Paris 1949.

3.7

SUGGESTED READING Barkindo, Bawuro, The early states of the Central Sudan: Kanem, Borno and Some of their neighbours to e. 1500 A.D. In: J. Ajayi und M. Crowder (Hg). History of West Africa, Bd, I, 3, Ausg. Harlow 1985, 225-254. Urvoy, Yves, L’empire du Bornou, Paris 1949.

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TOPIC 4: TABLE OF CONTENTS 4.0

Topic: THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF BORNO ULAMA TO ISLAM

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4.3.1 The Kanem-Borno Ulama 4.3.2 Sheikh Al-Tahir Al-Fallata 4.3.2.1

Tahir Al-Fallati On Faith

4.3.2.2

Tahir Al-Fallati On Action

4.3.2.3

Tahir Al-Fallati On Realization

4.3.2.4

His Intellectual Contribution

4.4

SUMMARY

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4.0

TOPIC:

THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF BORNO ULAMA TO ISLAM

4.1

INTRODUCTION The Borno (Ulama) scholars, have played a vital role in the development of Islam in the region. There contribution includes spiritually, educationally and politically. Spiritually, educationally Ulama in Kanem Borno lies on educating and preaching the citizens on the science of Islam. The oneness of God, performing the Islamic spiritual activities according to the teaching of Islam which, boosted literacy rate in Kanem Borno. And how to live, in good eagerly manner. The closeness of the Borno Ulama to the royal courts made them powerful politically, that consequently then impact felt by the Muslim followers.

4.2

OBJECTIVES At the end of this topic, you should be able to: i. determine the contributions of Borno Ulama to the development of Islam in the region.

4.3 IN-TEXT 4.3.1 THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF BORNO ULAMA TO ISLAM The Borno Ulama has committed Islam in the region, according to the teaching of Qur‟an and hadith of the prophet Muhammad (SAW). The delivered Islam to stands for belief in one God and in all the Prophets of God, the last of who was Muhammad (SAW). And for complete submission to the Divine will as revealed through his prophets. A Muslim believes in the prophet hood of Abraham, Moses and Isah, holding that all of them conveyed to mankind the same message from God. The final revelation came through prophet Muhammad (SAW) which is known as Islam. 4.3.2

THE KANEM BORNO For the purpose of this course, the known Kanem Borno Ulama has been selected, who have appeared very important in the history of kanem-Borno. One of then Shaykh Al-Tahir Al-Fallata who belong to the sayfawa era, and the other are is Shaykh Yusuf AL-Qargari. Who was born and lived in kukawa. 4.3.3

SHAYKH AL-TAHIR AL-FALLATA The Shaykh of Borno, known as Shaykh Al-Tahir Al-Fallata, Ibn Ibrahim was known as Shaykh Feramma which is the Kanuri expression associating the Shaykh with his place of birth, known as that Baqar. For him as true Islamic scholar, he was known with charismatic behaviour of faith, action and realization. Thus, fath in Allah and his prophets, action in accordance with that faith and the realization of one. Relation to God as result of action and obedience.

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4.3.3.1 Tahir-Al-Fallati on Faith According to the preaching of al-fallati on faith is based on what was brought by Qur‟an. The Holy book of Islam, Imam consists in believing that Allah alone is worthy of worship and that Muhammad (SAW) is the messenger of Allah, Al-Fallati as sufi Ulama, adheres to the statistics traditions. That the true existence is that of Allah alone. Man and the entire creation exist only because Allah wills them to exist. 4.3.3.2 Tahir Al-Fallati on Action According to allama Al-Fallati, action is the manifestation of how far is servants adheres to the teaching of Qur‟an of Sunnah of the prophet Muhammad (SAW). To him, action needs rules and regulations which organizes individuals spiritual and social behaviour. 4.3.3.3 Tahir Al-Fallati on Realization According to Tahir Al-Fallati, man‟s relation to Allah is spiritual aspect known as Ihsan. Which prophet Muhammad (SAW) explained that, you should worship Allah as if you are seeing him, for the sees you though you do not see him. To him, all action should be performed with Allah in your vision. That is a worshipper should realized that Allah is seeing you in all ramification of his deed or action. 4.3.3.4 His Intellectual Contribution The Shaykh, Al-Fallati after having preached, and teaches, he was able to write so many books on various aspect of Islamic subject. These includes i. Qasidat-Fi madh Qunama ii. Qasidat- Al-Bawwab iii. Khabar-Al-Basur iv. Ad-Qurar Al-wani v. Al-Mazumat Al-Kubra 4.4

4.5

4.6 4.7

SUMMARY Shaykh Tahir Al-Fallati has contributed greatly in the Islam, more especially on the area of faith, action, realization and published so many books for Muslims consumption. SELF ASSESSMENTS EXERCISE 1. Who is shaykh Tahir Al-Fallati? 2. What are the areas of Islamic doctrine in which Tahir excelled? 3. What contribution did he make during his life time? REFERENCE Abdullahi A. Ilorin., Al-Islam Fi Najiriya Beruit. Qarat Arabiya 1971. C. E. J whitting, Infaq al-Maisur. London Luzac. 1957. SUGGESTION READING Abdullahi A. Ilorin., Al-Islam Fi Najiriya Beruit. Qarat Arabiya 1971. C. E. J whitting, Infaq al-Maisur. London Luzac. 1957.

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TOPIC 5: TABLE OF CONTENTS 5.0

TOPIC:

SHEIKH YUSUF AL-QARQARI

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5.3.1 Sheikh Yusuf Ibn Abdul-Qadir 5.3.1.1

His Contribution To Islam

5.3.1.2

His Spiritual Contribution

5.3.1.3

His Intellectual Contribution

5.4

SUMMARY

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TOPIC:

SHAYKH YUSUF AL-QARQARI

5.1

INTRODUCTION Shaykh Yusuf Ibn Abdul-Qadir Al-Qarqari, was the name of the quarters in Kukawa where the Shaykh was born and grew up. Consequently, he got his name as Al-Barnawi, who lives in the thirteen century. The family of Yusuf Al-Qarqari was apparently that of learned people. He was famous as the chief Imam of Borno during his time. He was well known as the Khatib of Borno.

5.2

OBJECTIVES: At the end of this topic, you should be able to: i. determine the contributions of one of the Borno Ulama to the development of Islam in the region

5.3 IN-TEXT 5.3.1 AL-QARQARI 5.3.1.1 His Contribution to Islam Shaykh Yusuf Al-Qarqari has made a tremendous efforts educationally and spiritually to the development of Islam in Borno. He wrote an eulogy of the prophet Muhammad (SAW). He preached Islam and called people to the religion from far and near of the Borno region. 5.3.1.2 His Spiritual Contribution Shaykh Al-Qarqari Al-Barnawi, has attributed in his writing that the proper development of human life man needs two kinds of things. A. Resource to maintain life and fulfill the material needs of the individual and society. B. the knowledge of the principles of individual and social behaviour to enable man to have self-fulfilment and to maintain justice and tranquility in human life. He often quoted, to his disciple that Tauhid is the Bed Rock of Islam. It is the revolutionary concept and constitutes the essence of the teachings of Islam. Tauhid teaches man to know that Allah is the supreme lord of the universe. He is omnipotent, omnipresent and the sustainer of the world and mankind. 5.3.1.3 Intellectual Contribution The Shaykh Al-Qargari Al-Barnawi has contributed educationally by writing so many books of journals. These includes i. Madha-Al-Nabiya:. Eulogy of the prophet, ii. Ritha, Ashj-shaykh Al-Amin iii. Mujam-Al-Mu’allifin iv. Minah Al wahhad fi Qawai id al Hab CDL, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri

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Al-Qasidat Al Faridat Al-Ajibah

5.4

SUMMARY Shaykh Yusuf Al-Qargari played very significant roles in the development of history of kanem Borno, not only in religion but also in the socio-political and intellectual history of the Kanem-Borno.

5.5

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1. Briefly, state the contribuytion of Shaykh Yusuf Al-Qargari to the development of history of kanem Borno 2, Discuss fully the life and intellectual works of Shaykh Yusuf Al-Qargari of Borno.

5.6

REFERENCES Historical society of Nigeria (1961) Bulletin of New, IV A.D.H Bivar, and Mivyn Hiskett (1962) the Arabic Literature of Nigeria to 1804. in Bulletin of the school of oriented and African Studies. London! University of London. Vol XXV Part II. P 104-148. C. E. J (1957) “Infaq al-0Maisur London Luzac J.S. Triminggham (1962) A history of Islam in West Africa. Oxford, Oxford University Press Abdullahi a. 91971) “Al-Islam fi Nijiriya Beruit Qarat Al-Arabiya.

5.7

SUGGESTED READING A.D.H Bivar, and Mivyn Hiskett (1962) the Arabic Literature of Nigeria to 1804. in Bulletin of the school of oriented and African Studies. London! University of London. Vol XXV Part II. P 104-148. J.S. Triminggham (1962) A history of Islam in West Africa. Oxford, Oxford University Press Abdullahi a. 91971) “Al-Islam fi Nijiriya Beruit Qarat Al-Arabiya.

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TOPIC 6: TABLE OF CONTENTS 6.0

TOPIC: THE CONTRIBUTION OF ULAMA IN THE SOKOTO CALIPHATE- 24

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6.3.1 The Contribution of Ulama in the Sokoto Caliphate 6.3.2 Hausa Land Before The Advent Of Ulama 6.3.3 Who Are The Fulani Ulama 6.3.4 The Life History Of Usman Ibn Fodio 6.3.4.1

How The Acquire Knowledge

6.3.4.2

His Teaching And Preaching

6.3.4.3

Attempt To Kill Shehu By The Ruler Of Gobir

6.3.4.4

His Hijrah Migration From Degel To Gudu

6.4

SUMMARY

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TOPIC: THE CONTRIBUTION OF ULAMA IN THE SOKOTO CALIPHATE TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF ISLAM IN HAUSA LAND

6.1

INTRODUCTION The Muslim of the Hausa Land were drawn from three ethnics groups which includes Hausa, Fulani and Tuareg of the desert, some Muslims scholars settled at the kings court and made a good livings as scribes astrologers. Writers of charms and so on, some especially the Tuareg continued to follow nomadic life of their people. With all his hardships, we read of Tuareg scholars who owned super libraries of hand-copied manuscripts, but paved in tents. Many of the Fulani scholars adopted a compromised between the two ways of life and settled in communities of scholars in the country but kept closetles with their relatives, the pastoral Fulani who traveled each year with their herds in a great migration in search of water and pasture.

6.2

OBJECTIVES At the end of this topic, you should be able to: i. discuss the contribution of ulama in Sokoto ii. outline the development of Islam in Hausaland iii. enumerate the contribution of Shehu Usman Dan Fodio to Islam in Hausaland

6.3

IN-TEXT

6.3.1

HAUSA LAND BEFORE THE ADVENT OF THE ULAMA

The people of Hausa land have different cultures and different activities in the course of these activities the people demonstrate their various beliefs and customs. In human culture four things religion play a vital role, the religions beliefs Hausa land before the advent of the Ulama it was traditional which believed in various object Gods. But they recognized the supreme creator as God, yet they worship other God beside him they worshipped God magic through (BORI) cult in order to received medicine, they performed difficult rituals as a means to communicate to their spirit there were no systematic law because the law of Islam have been totally intercalated, misinterpreted and distorted bu Jeudo Christian Nation and etc, that is why they regarded (JUJU) or (BORI). This is the reason why ALLAH uses to send a reformer at the every beginning of the century.

6.3.2

WHO ARE THE FULANI ULAMA

The prominent Fulani Ulama in the Hausaland are Sheikh Uthman bin Fodio, his brother Abdullahi bin Fodio and the noble son Muhammad Bello, these Ulama CDL, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri

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were historically the bedrock and the backbone of the development of Islam in the totality of the Ummah living) within the Hausa land and beyond which expanded to Yoruba land and others.

6.3.4

THE LIFE HISTORY OF UTHMAN BIN FODIO

Uthman was the descendent of Musa Jokolo who is said to have migrated from Futa Toro in the fifteen century to kinni from where they moved to maratta in the early eighteen century his father Muhammad Ibn Saleh Ibn Fodio moved from Maratta to a placed called Degel in present (Wurno) after the birth of Shehu Ibn Fodio moved from Maratta to a placed called Degel in present (Wurno) after the birth of Shehu Uthman in 1754 and he is a member of a learned Fulani clan which has settle in Hausa Land.

6.3.4.1

HOW HE ACQUIRED KNOWLEDGE

The fundamental rules of Islamic Jurisprudence and so on. He used to moved from one scholar to another for the acquisition of knowledge among his scholars include Jubril bin Uman who had prepared the ground for Shehu‟s reformation.

6.3.4.2

HIS TEACHING AND PREACHING

Uthman bin Fodio began his teaching and preaching at the age of twenty (2) from one village to another, from one town to another, he remained unsettled for good nineteen years by which time he has satisfied that he had instituted a machinery for the education of the common people in very village and town of the Hausa Land, all along he paid a particular attention to women education he insisted that women should attend his public lectures despite the bitter criticism of other scholars he use to invite women to his lecture place he is reported to have said: Oh! Muslim women! Not heed to the words of these misguided Ulama who only tell you about the duty of obedience to your husband but they do no tell you anything about obedience to you Lord ALLAH and his messenger Muh’d (SAW). By this word Shehu won the heart of many people.

6.3.4.3

ATTEMPT TO KILL SHEHU BY THE RULER OF GOBIR

In 1788 the ruler of Gobir plotted to kill him but failed. The ruler of Gobir Bawa Jangwarzo then tried to buy the goodwill of Shehu, during the end festivals he invited all the Ulama among whom was Shehu Uthman to his court at Magami and gave all of the Ulama annuals gift. The remaining Ulama accepted the gift except Shehu Uthman who seized that opportunity and demanded for the following things: 1. To allow me to preach and call them to the path of ALLAH in our domain. 2. Not to prevent anyone who intends to me from doing so 3. To treat with respect anybody who wars turbans 4. To free all political prisoners 5. Not to over burden the people with light taxes CDL, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri

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Immediately after working out this demands Bawa Jangwarzo accepted them and Uthman has allowed to continued with his missionary activities without any hindrance this gave him success and the numbers of his followers increased. After the death of Bawa Jangwarzo his successor (Nafata) openly opposed Shehu Uthman and his mission this made Nafata to rule that: 1. No man should accept Islam unless those Muslim - Borno 2. All convert should renounce the faith of Islam and revert to their paganism. 3. Men should no longer wear the Turban and women should no more veils themselves. 4. No body except Uthman would be allowed to preach Islam.

6.3.4.4

HIS JIHIRAH MIGRATION FROM DEGEL TO GUDU

These four ruling Shehu and his followers regarded as threat; he commanded some of his followers to migrate from Gonir to Gimbana in present Kebbi State. It was clear that the atmosphere in Gobir was no more conducive for shehu‟s activities, consequently he had some of his followers migrated from Degel to Gudu on 21st Feburuary 1804- 10th Dhul-Hajja 1218 which marked the beginning of his Hijirah. It was clear that the atmosphere in Gobir was no more conducive for shehu‟s activities, consequently he and some of his followers migrated from Degel to Gudu on 21st February 1804 – 10th Dhulo – Hijja 1218 which marked the beginning of his Hihirah. After the Hijrah had taken place the emigrant decided to give their allegiance to Shehy as the Amiral-Muminin, the commander of the mininin faithful after he was elected as capital at Abuja famous today for its beautiful portray unlike the other Hausa emirates Zaria included to the south many pagan people who did not acknowledge her authority.

6.4

SUMMARY The contribution of the Fulani Ulama to the development of Islam in Hausa Land has no limits but let summarize it as follows: 1. it is clear that Uthman and his disciples were absolutely sincere in their bit to revive an reformise Islam and set up an Islamic system of government and social order in accordance with the prophet (SAW) model of the generality of the Hausa land and even their neighbours. 2. The activities of the Ulama helped greatly in reviving the Islamic spirit back to glory as epitomized by the administration of the orthodox caliphs. 3. As the result of learning many books were written by the scholars of the Hausa land such as Binfodio these book include a. Usul-Al-din b. Kitab-Ulum-wal-Mu-Amalah c. Umdatal Ubbad and composed several poems in

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Arabic and fulfilled languages all the books are teaching the public the basic tens of Islam. Women education was insisted rapidly Purifying Islam in the Hausa Land and purging it from all innovation.

SELF ASSESSMENT EXERCISE 1. 2.

Discuss extensively, on how Islam came to Hausa Land and relate how Usman Ibn Fodio brought Islam to Hausa Land. Briefly, Discuss the correspondence between Usman and the Bawa Jangwarzo.

6.6

REFERENCES Historical society of Nigeria (1961) Bulletin of New, IV A.D.H Bivar, and Mivyn Hiskett (1962) the Arabic Literature of Nigeria to 1804. in Bulletin of the school of oriented and African Studies. London! University of London. Vol XXV Part II. P 104-148. C. E. J (1957) “Infaq al-0Maisur London Luzac J.S. Triminggham (1962) A history of Islam in West Africa. Oxford, Oxford University Press Abdullahi a. 91971) “Al-Islam fi Nijiriya Beruit Qarat Al-Arabiya.

6.7

SUGGESTED READING A.D.H Bivar, and Mivyn Hiskett (1962) the Arabic Literature of Nigeria to 1804. in Bulletin of the school of oriented and African Studies. London Abdullahi a. 91971) “Al-Islam fi Nijiriya Beruit Qarat Al-Arabiya.

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ISL 315_ THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF WEST AFRICAN SCHOLARS TO ISLAM

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TOPIC 7: TABLE OF CONTENTS 7.0

TOPIC: LISTS OF SCHOLARS OF WEST AFRICA

7.1

INTRODUCTION

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7.3.1 KANEM BORNO SCHOLARS 7.3.2 HAUSA/FULANI SCHOLARS 7.4

SUMMARY

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SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISE

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7.6

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7.7

SUGGESTED READING

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ISL 315_ THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF WEST AFRICAN SCHOLARS TO ISLAM

7.0

7.1

TOPIC:

UNIT_3

LIST OF SCHOLARS OF WEST AFRICA, KANEMBORNO AND SOKOTO CALIPHATE WHO HAVE TREMENDOUSLY CONTRIBUTED TO ISLAM

INTRODUCTION Infact, one of the most important ways in the building and preservation of Islamic intellectual tradition in the Bilad Al-Sudan and West Africa in particular has been the Hererant Ulama and Jihadist movement Ulama. In keeping with the Islamic tradition, the African (Ulama) scholars upheld scholarship as an integral part of their life, that made them to deliver and expand Islam from Nook al comer of Africa. Their efforts, are made to encompassed sword and the pen. Subsequently, they became leader of their community not only in the religious and political spheres as well as in the field of knowledge.

7.2

OBJECTIVES At the end of this topic, you should be able to: i. identify the names of West African scholars, Borno Ulama and Hausa/Fulani Ulama who have sacrifices the life, energy and time for the sake of development of Islam and civilization of the entire region of Africa.

7.3 IN-TEXT 7.3.1 A LIST OF ULAMA IN WEST AFRICA The list of the west African Scholars who have tremendously contributed to the development of Islam politically, socially, economically as well as spiritually, includes, the following: I.

Sheikh Umar Al-Futi

II. III. IV. V. VI.

Ahmad Bamba Ibn Turmant Wali Dan Marina Sheikh Abdulkadir Tijjani Sheikh Ibrahim Inyas

The scholars who have contributed to the development of Islam in kanem Borno, political, socially, economically as well as spiritually they include the following; I. Sheikh Abu-Fattihi II. Sheikh Abubakar Al-Miskin III. Sheikh Ibrahim Saleh Al-Bardawi IV. Sheikh Muhammad Abba Aji V. Sheikh Prof Abubakar Mustapha VI. Sheikh Prof. Tijjani Almiskin VII. Sheikh Prof. Abubakar Mua‟zu Nguru CDL, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri

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ISL 315_ THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF WEST AFRICAN SCHOLARS TO ISLAM

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The list of the Hausa/Fulani Scholars who have contributed to the development of Islam, Spiritually, Political, socially as well as economically, they include the following: I. Sheikh Abubakar Buba Sokoto II. Sheikh Abubakar Mahmud Gumi III. Sheikh Adam Abdullahi Ilorin IV. Sheikh Dahiru Usman Bauchi V. Sheikh Muhammad Ibrahim Al-Nafawi VI. Sheikh Nasiru Kabara VII. Sheikh Dr. Junaidu Muhammad Buhari

7.4

SUMMARY Generally, the African Islamic scholars have played very significant roles individually, as well as collectively. Not only in religion but also in the sociopolitical and economic-political aspects. Their roles have to be adequately recognized and properly used in any attempt to recall the past history of the Islamic region, with a view to learning useful lessons from them. Certainly, most of the scholars in Africa like their counterparts in other parts of the world have three things in common. They are teaching, preaching and writing within their knowledge of Qur‟an and Sunnah of the prophet Muhammad (SAW). The West African scholars are great teachers who impart knowledge not only to West Africans but to other nations of the world. Preaching is their profession which they are known. The world gets to know them and benefit from their wealthy knowledge is through their literary work.

7.5

SELF-ASSESSMENT EXERCISE list three of the African endogenous scholars who have contributed greatly in the development of Islam 2. list three modern Islamic scholars 1.

7.6

REFERENCES Adam, Abdullahi Al-Ilori (1968) Al-Islam fi Nijeriya wa Sheikh Usman Ibn Fodio Al-Fulani. Sheikh Abdullah bin Muhammad Foduye (1961) Diya’al Ta’wil Fi Ma’ani Al Tanzil Cairo: Matba At Al-Isriqamah.

7.7

SUGGESTED READING Adam, Abdullahi Al-Ilori (1968) Al-Islam fi Nijeriya wa Sheikh Usman Ibn Fodio Al-Fulani. Ahmad Sanusi Gumbi (1978) Tarihin Sheikh Abubakar Mahmud Gumi. Kaduna: Gumbi Enterprises N.D Philip K. Hitti (1966) History of the Arab Oxford: Oxford Press.

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ISL 315_ THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF WEST AFRICAN SCHOLARS TO ISLAM

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SOLUTIONS TO EXERCISES TOPIC 1: 1. Islam paved ways to Africa through trade routes, red sea, coastal areas, Muslims clerics, Muslims traders, migration, Jihadist movements and indigenous ethnic movements. 2. The factors which contributed to the Islamization of Africa, includes Muslims Jihadist, Muslims reformers, as well as proliferation of trade routes across the great Sahara of Africa. TOPIC 2: 1. The gate ways in which Islam came to Africa is through Muslims Jihadists as well as Muslims scholars. This led to establishment of some Islamic states, which includes Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and Egypt. 2. The factors that led to settlement of Muslims Arabs in Africa was as a results of suitable African land which promotes agricultural activities, accommodative indigenous African traders, which promote commercial activities, the gifted African land of gold, which attracted the Arab traders for their commercial activities, from Africa to other Muslims world. TOPIC 3: 1. The circumstances that led to the Islamization of Kanem Borno, includes the following, the Trans-Saharan Muslims nomads who settled with endogenous Kanuri people, the Ibaddiya Berber teachers and traders. 2. The routes which Islam entered Kanem Borno, is through commercial routes especially fezzan-kawar, Bilima-Kanem, and Qayrawan-Zaytuna TransSaharan trade routes. It was one of these trade routes that Amir uqba bn Nafi used during his 660 AD led expedition of North Africa to Kanemi Borno. TOPIC 4: 1. Sheikh Tahir al-Fallata of Borno is popularly known as Sheikh feramma, which is a Kanuri expression of a place of his birth. Sheikh Tahir, genealogically, is Sheikh Tahir Ibn Ibrahim, al Baqari al Barnawi. A true Islamic scholar, having profound charismatic behaviour of faith, action and realization. 2. Sheikh Tahir al-fallata has excelled on Islamic doctrine in the field of faith, action and realization. Thus, faith in Allah and his prophets, action according to the rules and regulations of individuals spiritual and social behaviour, and realization, is based on Allah sees what ever action or deeds that are rendered by a believer. 3. Sheikh al-fallata has contributed greatly in the Islamic teaching, preaching and intellectual work, where he wrote many books in the field of faith and action.

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ISL 315_ THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF WEST AFRICAN SCHOLARS TO ISLAM

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TOPIC 5: 1. The contributions of Sheikh Yusuf Abdul-qadir al alqarqari rendered to the development of history of Kanem Borno include the following. I wrote an enology of the prophet Muhammad (SAW) and called people to the religion of Allah (Islam). 2. Sheikh Yusuf al-qarqari was born and grew in Kukawa the old headquarter of Kanem Borno. He as made tremendous efforts educationally and spiritually to the development of Islam in Borno, where he wrote many materials on Islam. TOPIC 6: 1. Islam came to Hausa land through the Tran-Sahara trade routes, Muslims traders and as well as Muslims Jihadist movement. Usman Ibn Fodio brought Islam into Hausa land through preaching and Jihad that is Islamic holy war. Then finally he established Islamic institution within his empire. 2. Infact, Usman Ibn Fodio has corresponded with Bawa Jangwarzo on the right of the Muslims followers in his domain. The Muslims believers were subjected by Bawa-Jeangwarzo who made Muslim lives unbearable consequently, Shehu Usman Ibn seized un-opportunity during one Sallah time and demanded some vital conditions for the relief of his followers from the Bawa‟s subjugation. TOPIC 7: The lists of the three of the African endogenous scholars who have contributed greatly in the development of Islam include the following. i. Sheikh Umar al-futi ii. Ahmad Bamba iii. Ibn Turmont 4. The lists of three modern Islamic scholars includes i. Sheikh Abubakar ii. Sheikh Mahmud Gwul iii. Adam Abdullahi Ilewn 3.

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ISL 315_ THE CONTRIBUTIONS OF WEST AFRICAN SCHOLARS TO ISLAM

UNIT_3

TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTION:

45 MINUTES FOR EACH QUESTION UNIT-TEST I

1. Enumerate the gate ways which Islam came to Africa. 2. Discuss the factors contributed to the Islamization of West Africa. 3. Discuss the circumstances that led to the Islamization of Kanem Borno. 4. Briefly, discuss the life and works of Sheikh Tahir al-Fallata. 5. Discuss the contributions of Sheikh Yusuf Abdul-qadir to the

development of History of Kanem Borno. 6. Give an account of Usman Ibn Fodio on his correspondence with Bawa

Jangwarzo. 7. List three African endogenous scholars and three Hausa modern scholars.

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