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CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDY MATERIAL CORE COURSE OF BSc COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY V SEMESTER CUCBCSS 2014 Admission Onwards ...
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CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION

STUDY MATERIAL

CORE COURSE OF BSc COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY V SEMESTER CUCBCSS 2014 Admission Onwards

COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

School of Distance Education

CALICUT UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION STUDY MATERIAL

CORE COURSE OF V SEMESTER BSc Counselling Psychology COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

Prepared By:

Sri. Eldhose N.J, Research Scholar Department of Psychology, University of Calicut

Settings & Lay Out By: SDE Computer Cell. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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MODULE 1:

THE PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH

MODULE 2:

THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH

MODULE 3:

THE COGNITIVE APPROACH

MODULE 4:

THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH

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MODULE 1: THE PSYCHOANALYTIC APPROACH Psychoanalytic theory is the theory of personality organization and the dynamics of personality development that guides psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating psychopathology.  Sigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality argues that human behavior is the result of the interactions among three component parts of the mind: the id, ego, and superego.  This "structural theory" of personality places great importance on how conflicts among the parts of the mind shape behavior and personality. These conflicts are mostly unconscious.  According to Freud, personality develops during childhood and is critically shaped through a series of five psychosexual stages, which he called his psychosexual theory of development.  During each stage, a child is presented with a conflict between biological drives and social expectations; successful navigation of these internal conflicts will lead to mastery of each developmental stage, and ultimately to a fully mature personality.  Freud's ideas have since been met with criticism, in part because of his singular focus on sexuality as the main driver of human personality development. FREUD'S STRUCTURE OF THE HUMAN MIND According to Freud, our personality develops from the interactions among what he proposed as the three fundamental structures of the human mind: the id, ego, and superego. Conflicts among these three structures, and our efforts to find balance among what each of them "desires," determines how we behave and approach the world. What balance we strike in any given situation determines how we will resolve the conflict between two overarching behavioral tendencies: our biological aggressive and pleasure-seeking drives vs. our socialized internal control over those drives.

The Id COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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The id, the most primitive of the three structures, is concerned with instant gratification of basic physical needs and urges. It operates entirely unconsciously (outside of conscious thought). For example, if your id walked past a stranger eating ice cream, it would most likely take the ice cream for itself. It doesn't know, or care, that it is rude to take something belonging to someone else; it would care only that you wanted the ice cream. The Superego The superego is concerned with social rules and morals—similar to what many people call their "conscience" or their "moral compass." It develops as a child learns what their culture considers right and wrong. If your superego walked past the same stranger, it would not take their ice cream because it would know that that would be rude. However, if both your id and your superego were involved, and your id was strong enough to override your superego's concern, you would still take the ice cream, but afterward you would most likely feel guilt and shame over your actions. The Ego In contrast to the instinctual id and the moral superego, the ego is the rational, pragmatic part of our personality. It is less primitive than the id and is partly conscious and partly unconscious. It's what Freud considered to be the "self," and its job is to balance the demands of the id and superego in the practical context of reality. So, if you walked past the stranger with ice cream one more time, your ego would mediate the conflict between your id ("I want that ice cream right now") and superego ("It's wrong to take someone else's ice cream") and decide to go buy your own ice cream. While this may mean you have to wait 10 more minutes, which would frustrate your id, your ego decides to make that sacrifice as part of the compromise– satisfying your desire for ice cream while also avoiding an unpleasant social situation and potential feelings of shame. Freud believed that the id, ego, and superego are in constant conflict and that adult personality and behavior are rooted in the results of these internal struggles throughout childhood. He believed that a person who has a strong ego has a healthy personality and that imbalances in this system can lead to neurosis (what we now think of as anxiety and depression) and unhealthy behaviors. PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT Freud (1905) proposed that psychological development in childhood takes place in a series of fixed stages. These are called psychosexual stages because each stage represents the fixation of libido (roughly translated as sexual drives or instincts) on a different area of the body. As a person grows physically certain areas of their body become important as sources of potential frustration (erogenous zones), pleasure or both. Freud believed that life was built round tension and pleasure. Freud also believed that all tension was due to the build up of libido (sexual energy) and that all pleasure came from its discharge. In describing human personality development as psychosexual Freud meant to convey that what develops is the way in which sexual energy accumulates and is discharged as we mature biologically. (NB Freud used the term 'sexual' in a very general way to mean all pleasurable actions and thoughts). Freud stressed that the first five years of life are crucial to the formation of adult personality. The id must be controlled in order to satisfy social demands; this sets up a conflict between frustrated wishes and social norms. The ego and superego develop in order to exercise this control and direct the need for gratification into socially acceptable channels. Gratification

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centers in different areas of the body at different stages of growth, making the conflict at each stage psychosexual.

Oral Stage (0-1 year) In the first stage of personality development the libido is centered in a baby's mouth. It gets much satisfaction from putting all sorts of things in its mouth to satisfy the libido, and thus its id demands. Which at this stage in life are oral, or mouth orientated, such as sucking, biting, and breastfeeding. Freud said oral stimulation could lead to an oral fixation in later life. We see oral personalities all around us such as smokers, nail-biters, finger-chewers, and thumb suckers. Oral personalities engage in such oral behaviors, particularly when under stress. Anal Stage (1-3 years) The libido now becomes focused on the anus and the child derives great pleasure from defecating. The child is now fully aware that they are a person in their own right and that their wishes can bring them into conflict with the demands of the outside world (i.e. their ego has developed). Freud believed that this type of conflict tends to come to a head in potty training, in which adults impose restrictions on when and where the child can defecate. The nature of this first conflict with authority can determine the child's future relationship with all forms of authority. Early or harsh potty training can lead to the child becoming an anal-retentive personality who hates mess, is obsessively tidy, punctual and respectful of authority. They can be stubborn and tight-fisted with their cash and possessions. This is all related to pleasure got from holding on to their faeces when toddlers, and their mum's then insisting that they get rid of it by placing them on the potty until they perform! Phallic Stage (3 to 5 or 6 years) Sensitivity now becomes concentrated in the genitals and masturbation (in both sexes) becomes a new source of pleasure. The child becomes aware of anatomical sex differences, which sets in motion the conflict between erotic attraction, resentment, rivalry, jealousy and fear which Freud called the Oedipus complex (in boys) and the Electra complex (in girls). This is resolved through the process of identification, which involves the child adopting the characteristics of the same sex parent. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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 Oedipus Complex The most important aspect of the phallic stage is the Oedipus complex. This is one of Freud's most controversial ideas and one that many people reject outright. The name of the Oedipus complex derives from the Greek myth where Oedipus, a young man, kills his father and marries his mother. Upon discovering this he pokes his eyes out and becomes blind. This Oedipal is the generic (i.e. general) term for both Oedipus and Electra complexes. In the young boy, the Oedipus complex or more correctly, conflict, arises because the boy develops sexual (pleasurable) desires for his mother. He wants to possess his mother exclusively and get rid of his father to enable him to do so. Irrationally, the boy thinks that if his father were to find out about all this, his father would take away what he loves the most. During the phallic stage what the boy loves most is his penis. Hence the boy develops castration anxiety. The little boy then sets out to resolve this problem by imitating, copying and joining in masculine dad-type behaviors. This is called identification, and is how the three-to-five year old boy resolves his Oedipus complex. Identification means internally adopting the values, attitudes and behaviors of another person. The consequence of this is that the boy takes on the male gender role, and adopts an ego ideal and values that become the superego. Freud (1909) offered the Little Hans case study as evidence of the Oedipus complex.  Electra Complex For girls, the Oedipus or Electra complex is less than satisfactory. Briefly, the girl desires the father, but realizes that she does not have a penis. This leads to the development of penis envy and the wish to be a boy. The girl resolves this by repressing her desire for her father and substituting the wish for a penis with the wish for a baby. The girl blames her mother for her 'castrated state' and this creates great tension. The girl then represses her feelings (to remove the tension) and identifies with the mother to take on the female gender role. Latency Stage (5 or 6 to puberty) No further psychosexual development takes place during this stage (latent means hidden). The libido is dormant. Freud thought that most sexual impulses are repressed during the latent stage and sexual energy can be sublimated (re: defense mechanisms) towards school work, hobbies and friendships. Much of the child's energy is channeled into developing new skills and acquiring new knowledge and play becomes largely confined to other children of the same gender. Genital Stage (puberty to adult) This is the last stage of Freud's psychosexual theory of personality development and begins in puberty. It is a time of adolescent sexual experimentation, the successful resolution of which is settling down in a loving one-to-one relationship with another person in our 20's. Sexual instinct is directed to heterosexual pleasure, rather than self pleasure like during the phallic stage. For Freud, the proper outlet of the sexual instinct in adults was through heterosexual intercourse. Fixation and conflict may prevent this with the consequence that sexual perversions may develop. For example, fixation at the oral stage may result in a person gaining sexual pleasure primarily from kissing and oral sex, rather than sexual intercourse.

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PSYCHOANALYTIC TERMS & CONCEPTS DEFINED  Confrontation This is a practice often done prior to an intervention where the patient is encouraged to attend to experiences that they have been avoiding.  Resistance Resistance refers to a patient’s unconscious opposition to the unveiling and exploration of painful memories during psychoanalysis. It is often conveyed through mental process, fantasies, memories, character defensives, and behaviors. While it initially occurs unconsciously, it may persist long after the patient is made consciously aware of this behavior.  Transference Transference is the projection onto another person (e.g., the analyst) of feelings, past associations, or experiences. This is an important concept in psychoanalysis because it demonstrates that past experiences impact the present. Interpreting transference in the psychoanalytic setting can shed light on unresolved conflicts.  Countertransference This refers to the analyst’s feelings and attitudes towards the patient: his/her reaction to the patient’s transference, how his/her own experiences impact his/her understanding of the patient, and the analyst’s emotional responses to the patient.  Fantasy A fantasy loosely refers to an imagined situation that expresses certain desires or aims of the imagining individual. It can occur at the conscious level, also known as a daydream, or unconsciously, sometimes referred to as phantasy.  Dream It is a mental event that consists of hallucinations involving imagery and emotions. Dreams occur during the rapid-eye movement (REM) stage during sleep. According to Freud, current concerns and unconscious childhood wishes are present during the day and require gratification and it is dreams that allow us to respond to this demands while continuing to sleep (e.g., a person who is thirsty dreams about drinking water which allows him to continue sleeping rather than having to wake up and satisfy his thirst).  Ego Ideal This is a part of the superego that contains standards, values and moral ideals. Failure to meet these standards can cause feelings of guilt or shame, while success can enhance self-esteem.  Fixation Fixation is a state where a person becomes attached to or overly invested in another individual or object. Fixation is the result of conflict occurring during the psychosexual stages of development. Due to frustration or overindulgence occurs, the libido becomes focused on that stage leading to problematic behaviors later on (e.g., an individual with an oral fixation may engage in nail biting).  Libido A term generally used to refer to one’s sexual desires or more specifically, the mental energy responsible for one’s sex drive. This concept represents Freud’s notion that

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sexual interest exists throughout life and that it is responsible for activities that involve sexual desire and/or affection.  Parapraxis (Freudian Slip) Revealing an unconscious desire or conflict through a mistake, for example, a slip of the tongue or forgetting someone’s name.  Pleasure Principle The driving force of the id, this refers to one’s desire to obtain immediate gratification of needs by obtaining pleasure and avoiding pain. When our basic needs are not met, feelings of anxiety may develop.  Unconscious Sigmund Freud proposed that there are three parts (levels) of the mind, the conscious, preconscious, and the unconscious. The unconscious is the part of the mind that stores feelings, thoughts, and urges unaware to the individual. These mental contents and processes often influence the conscious experience even though we are unaware of their existence. DEFENSE MECHANISMS  Defense Mechanisms Defense mechanisms are used by the ego as a way to deal with conflict of problems in life. Operating at an unconscious level, defense mechanisms help to reduce negative feelings (e.g. anxiety and guilt). Common defense mechanisms:

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1. Denial Denial is the refusal to accept reality or fact, acting as if a painful event, thought or feeling did not exist. It is considered one of the most primitive of the defense mechanisms because it is characteristic of early childhood development. Many people use denial in their everyday lives to avoid dealing with painful feelings or areas of their life they don’t wish to admit. For instance, a person who is a functioning alcoholic will often simply deny they have a drinking problem, pointing to how well they function in their job and relationships. 2. Regression Regression is the reversion to an earlier stage of development in the face of unacceptable thoughts or impulses. For an example an adolescent who is overwhelmed with fear, anger and growing sexual impulses might become clingy and start exhibiting earlier childhood behaviors he has long since overcome, such as bedwetting. An adult may regress when under a great deal of stress, refusing to leave their bed and engage in normal, everyday activities. 3. Acting Out Acting Out is performing an extreme behavior in order to express thoughts or feelings the person feels incapable of otherwise expressing. Instead of saying, “I’m angry with you,” a person who acts out may instead throw a book at the person, or punch a hole through a wall. When a person acts out, it can act as a pressure release, and often helps the individual feel calmer and peaceful once again. For instance, a child’s temper tantrum is a form of acting out when he or she doesn’t get his or her way with a parent. Self-injury may also be a form of acting-out, expressing in physical pain what one cannot stand to feel emotionally. 4. Dissociation Dissociation is when a person loses track of time and/or person, and instead finds another representation of their self in order to continue in the moment. A person who dissociates often loses track of time or themselves and their usual thought processes and memories. People who have a history of any kind of childhood abuse often suffer from some form of dissociation. In extreme cases, dissociation can lead to a person believing they have multiple selves (“multiple personality disorder”). People who use dissociation often have a disconnected view of themselves in their world. Time and their own self-image may not flow continuously, as it does for most people. In this manner, a person who dissociates can “disconnect” from the real world for a time, and live in a different world that is not cluttered with thoughts, feelings or memories that are unbearable. 5. Projection Projection is the misattribution of a person’s undesired thoughts, feelings or impulses onto another person who does not have those thoughts, feelings or impulses. Projection is used especially when the thoughts are considered unacceptable for the person to express, or they feel completely ill at ease with having them. For example, a spouse may be angry at their significant other for not listening, when in fact it is the angry spouse who does not listen. Projection is often the result of a lack of insight and acknowledgement of one’s own motivations and feelings. 6. Reaction Formation Reaction Formation is the converting of unwanted or dangerous thoughts, feelings or impulses into their opposites. For instance, a woman who is very angry with her boss and would like to quit her job may instead be overly kind and generous toward her boss and express a desire to keep working there forever. She is incapable of expressing the negative emotions of anger and unhappiness with her job, and instead becomes overly kind to publicly demonstrate her lack of anger and unhappiness.

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7. Repression Repression is the unconscious blocking of unacceptable thoughts, feelings and impulses. The key to repression is that people do it unconsciously, so they often have very little control over it. “Repressed memories” are memories that have been unconsciously blocked from access or view. But because memory is very malleable and ever-changing, it is not like playing back a DVD of your life. The DVD has been filtered and even altered by your life experiences, even by what you’ve read or viewed. 8. Displacement Displacement is the redirecting of thoughts feelings and impulses directed at one person or object, but taken out upon another person or object. People often use displacement when they cannot express their feelings in a safe manner to the person they are directed at. The classic example is the man who gets angry at his boss, but can’t express his anger to his boss for fear of being fired. He instead comes home and kicks the dog or starts an argument with his wife. The man is redirecting his anger from his boss to his dog or wife. Naturally, this is a pretty ineffective defense mechanism, because while the anger finds a route for expression, it’s misapplication to other harmless people or objects will cause additional problems for most people. 9. Intellectualization Intellectualization is the overemphasis on thinking when confronted with an unacceptable impulse, situation or behavior without employing any emotions whatsoever to help mediate and place the thoughts into an emotional, human context. Rather than deal with the painful associated emotions, a person might employ intellectualization to distance themselves from the impulse, event or behavior. For instance, a person who has just been given a terminal medical diagnosis, instead of expressing their sadness and grief, focuses instead on the details of all possible fruitless medical procedures. 10. Rationalization Rationalization is putting something into a different light or offering a different explanation for one’s perceptions or behaviors in the face of a changing reality. For instance, a woman who starts dating a man she really, really likes and thinks the world of is suddenly dumped by the man for no reason. She reframes the situation in her mind with, “I suspected he was a loser all along.” 11. Undoing Undoing is the attempt to take back an unconscious behavior or thought that is unacceptable or hurtful. For instance, after realizing you just insulted your significant other unintentionally, you might spend then next hour praising their beauty, charm and intellect. By “undoing” the previous action, the person is attempting to counteract the damage done by the original comment, hoping the two will balance one another out. 12. Sublimation Sublimation is simply the channeling of unacceptable impulses, thoughts and emotions into more acceptable ones. For instance, when a person has sexual impulses they would like not to act upon, they may instead focus on rigorous exercise. Refocusing such unacceptable or harmful impulses into productive use helps a person channel energy that otherwise would be lost or used in a manner that might cause the person more anxiety. Sublimation can also be done with humor or fantasy. Humor, when used as a defense mechanism, is the channeling of unacceptable impulses or thoughts into a light-hearted story or joke. Humor reduces the intensity of a situation, and places a cushion of laughter between the

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person and the impulses. Fantasy, when used as a defense mechanism, is the channeling of unacceptable or unattainable desires into imagination. For example, imagining one’s ultimate career goals can be helpful when one experiences temporary setbacks in academic achievement. Both can help a person look at a situation in a different way, or focus on aspects of the situation not previously explored. PSYCHIC DETERMINISM “Freud's Psychic determinism maintains that mental events are not random”.Psychic determinism is the position (most commonly credited to Freud) that psychic events occur because of an underlying cause that can be identified through the careful application of analysis. Freud postulated that the reason we think and act the way we do is because early in life (from birth to age 5) we go through what he called psychosexual stages of development. As a result, we supposedly incorporate our early human history into our unconscious. Freud taught that our childhood then determines what we do. Just as in the Garden of Eden, there was blaming others, shirking responsibility, and playing the victim, so too with Freud’s psychic determinism. According to Freud, the reason we do what we do and think what we think is because we are psychically determined to do so. In the Freudian system, I blame my early psychosexual stages of development; I am not responsible because I was programmed by early life experiences to do and think; and I am a victim of the results of my psychosexual stages of development, which have been programmed into my unconscious. THE CENTRALITY OF UNCONSCIOUS MIND While we are fully aware of what is going on in the conscious mind, we have no idea of what information is stored in the unconscious mind.The unconscious contains all sorts of significant and disturbing material which we need to keep out of awareness because they are too threatening to acknowledge fully.The unconscious mind acts as a repository, a ‘cauldron’ of primitive wishes and impulse kept at bay and mediated by the preconscious area. For example, Freud (1915) found that some events and desires were often too frightening or painful for his patients to acknowledge, and believed such information was locked away in the unconscious mind. This can happen through the process of repression. The unconscious mind contains our biologically based instincts (eros and thanatos) for the primitive urges for sex and aggression (Freud, 1915). Freud argued that our primitive urges often do not reach consciousness because they are unacceptable to our rational, conscious selves. People has developed a range of defence mechanisms (such as repression) to avoid knowing what their unconscious motives and feelings are. Freud (1915) emphasized the importance of the unconscious mind, and a primary assumption of Freudian theory is that the unconscious mind governs behavior to a greater degree than people suspect. Indeed, the goal ofpsychoanalysis is to reveal the use of such defence mechanisms and thus make the unconscious conscious.Freud believed that the influences of the unconscious reveal themselves in a variety of ways, including dreams, and in slips of the tongue, now popularly known as 'Freudian slips'. Freud (1920) gave an example of such a slip when a British Member of Parliament referred to a colleague with whom he was irritated as 'the honorable member from Hell' instead of from Hull.

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REPETITION COMPULSION Repetition compulsion is a psychological phenomenon in which a person repeats atraumatic event or its circumstances over and over again. This includes re-enacting the event or putting oneself in situations where the event is likely to happen again. This “re-living” can also take the form of dreams in which memories and feelings of what happened are repeated, and even hallucination. Freud believed that the nature of the conflicts among the id, ego, and superego change over time as a person grows from child to adult. Specifically, he maintained that these conflicts progress through a series of five basic stages, each with a different focus: oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital. He called his idea the psychosexual theory of development, with each psychosexual stage directly related to a different physical center of pleasure. Across these five stages, the child is presented with different conflicts between their biological drives (id) and their social and moral conscience (superego) because their biological pleasure-seeking urges focus on different areas of the body (what Freud called "erogenous zones"). The child's ability to resolve these internal conflicts determines their future ability to cope and function as an adult. Failure to resolve a stage can lead one to become fixated in that stage, leading to unhealthy personality traits; successful resolution of the stages leads to a healthy adult. PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERVENTIONS  Free Associations Method - This method replaced hypnosis in Freud's therapy. It consists in gathering the free associations provided by the patient during the cure. These associations points to the inner conflicts and repressed drives included in neurotic symptoms.  Interpretation of Freudian Slips and Mistakes - This is a remarkable contribution of Freud to the exploration of the unconscious. For most of us the so-called "faulty acts" - as for instance lapses and slips of all kinds - have no contextual significance for our psychic life. Freud is the first scientist to detect the significance of slips and mistakes, starting from the premise, acknowledged in practice, of the determinism of all our psychic processes.  Analysis/Interpretation of Dreams - By far the most important psychoanalytic technique, also called the royal road to the unconscious by Freud himself, dream interpretation is considered by him an irreplaceable means to access the unconscious. The first dream ever interpreted in Freud's style is the Irma's injection published in his Dream Interpretation (1900).  Analysis/Interpretation of Symbols - Symbols occur in dreams, fantasies, fairy tales and other such psychical and cultural products, and they may be interpreted in the same way as dreams. Freud claims that most of such symbols are sexual. PSYCHOANALYTIC THERAPY Psychoanalytic therapy is a type of treatment based upon the theories of Sigmund Freud, who is considered one of the forefathers of psychology and the founder of psychoanalysis. This therapy explores how the unconscious mind influences thoughts and behaviours, with the aim of offering insight and resolution to the person seeking therapy. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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   

Psychoanalytic therapy tends to look at experiences from early childhood to see if these events have affected the individual’s life, or potentially contributed to current concerns. This form of therapy is considered a long-term choice and can continue for weeks, months or even years depending on the depth of the concern being explored. Differing from several other therapy types, psychoanalytic therapy aims to make deepseated changes in personality and emotional development. History of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapy The theories behind psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapy come from famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. During the late 1800s Freud began studying with Jean-Martin Charcot in Paris, a neurologist who used hypnosis to treat women suffering from what at the time was called hysteria. Charcot found that by talking to his patients about past traumatic experiences, symptoms lessened. When Freud continued his work apart from Charcot he went on to develop his own method of 'talk therapy'. In his work Freud established therapeutic techniques such as free association, dream analysis and transference, many of which remain central to psychoanalysis today. Critically, Freud's theories (especially those to do with sexuality and women) have come under scrutiny, however much of his work remains influential in the world of psychotherapy. Assumptions of psychoanalytic therapy It can be helpful to know what assumptions psychoanalysts work from when considering a therapy type. While each therapist will work in different ways according to the needs of the individual seeking therapy, many work on the following assumptions: Psychological problems are rooted in the unconscious. Manifest symptoms are caused by hidden or 'latent' disturbances. Typical causes for psychological upset include unresolved issues during development or repressed trauma. Treatment looks to bring repressed conflicts to the surface where individuals can deal with it. By working through and understanding conflicts, this type of therapy aims to change the participant on a deeper level. How does psychoanalytic therapy work? Psychoanalytic therapy is insight driven and therefore looks to foster change by helping you to understand your past and how events from your early life could be affecting you now. Sessions will vary according to where you are in the course of your therapy, but much of the time will be spent talking freely to your therapist in a safe, non-judgmental environment. The psychoanalyst will listen to your concerns and look out for patterns or certain events that may hold significance. In this type of therapy it is believed that unconscious feelings and childhood events play a key role in mental distress. As well as listening to you discuss your experiences, your therapist may use other techniques to help identify potential causes for your concerns. Such techniques may include:  Free association Free association involves you talking about whatever comes into your mind without censoring or editing the flow of memories/ideas. Your therapist will encourage you to speak freely to help you return to an earlier emotional state so they can better understand any recurrent patterns of conflict you may be experiencing.

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 Therapeutic transference Transference relates to the way you may be transferring thoughts or feelings connected to influential figures in your life (for example your parents or siblings) onto your therapist. While this may not happen in every case, if it does your therapist should discuss transference with you to help you gain further insight into the way you deal with people in your daily life.  Interpretation A key element of psychoanalytic therapy is interpreting and 'reading between the lines'. While your therapist is likely to stay relatively quiet and allow you to talk freely, they will occasionally interject with thoughts or interpretations of the topics you discuss. Your psychoanalyst may also ask you about your dreams; Freud wrote a lot on the subject of dream analysis and believed that dreams were important resources for understanding the unconscious. Applications of psychoanalytic therapy Psychoanalytic therapy can be used by those with a specific emotional concern as well as those who simply want to explore themselves. Understanding why we are the way we are often brings with it a sense of well-being and a stronger sense of self. As psychoanalytic therapy is considered one of the more long-term therapy types, it is perhaps less useful for those seeking quick, solution-focused therapies. Psychoanalytic therapy is a gradual process that takes time, however the results can be life changing. Some believe due to the nature of the therapy, psychoanalytic work is better suited to more general concerns such as anxiety, relationship difficulties, sexual issues or low self-esteem. Phobias, social shyness and difficulties sleeping are further examples of areas that could be addressed within psychoanalytic therapy. Critics have pointed out that the therapy may not be as useful to those with more specific or obsession-based concerns such as obsessive compulsive behaviour, as you may be too concerned by your actions to participate fully. The premise of psychoanalytic therapy can also be applied in a group setting. This is called group analysis and was established in the 1940s by S.H Foulkes. This form of therapy brings together psychoanalytic techniques with interpersonal functions.

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MODULE 2: THE BEHAVIOURAL APPROACH Behaviorism see psychological disorders as the result of maladaptive learning, as people are born tabula rasa (a blank slate). They do not assume that sets of symptoms reflect single underlying causes. Behaviorism assumes that all behavior is learnt from the environment and symptoms are acquired through classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning involves learning by association and is usually the cause of most phobias. Operant conditioning involves learning by reinforcement (e.g. rewards) and punishment, and can explain abnormal behavior should as eating disorders. Consequently, if a behavior is learnt, it can also be unlearned. HISTORY OF BEHAVIOR THERAPY Behaviour therapy had its beginnings in the early 1900’s and became established as a psychological approach in the 1950s and 1960s. At this time, it received much resistance from the current school of thought, psychoanalysis.There have been a number of people that that have contributed to the development of behavioural therapy:  Ivan Pavlov (1849 – 1936) Pavlov’s contributions to behavioural therapy were accidental. He was originally studying the digestive process of dogs when he discovered that associations can develop when pairing a stimulus (food) that has a response (dog salivates) with a stimulus that has no response (bell). The stimulus with no response (bell) eventually develops the same response (dog salivates) as the stimuli that has the response (food). This type of learning is known as classical conditioning (Seligman, 2006).  John B. Watson (1878 – 1958) Watson has been described as the “father” of behaviourism (McLeod). He used Pavlov’s principles of classical conditioning as well as emphasizing that all behaviour could be understood as a result of learning. Watson’s research involved the study of a young child called “Albert”. “Albert” was initially not scared of rats. However, Watson paired the rat with a loud noise and this frightened “Albert”.After this was repeated numerous times, “Albert” developed a fear of rats. He also developed a fear of things similar to a rat such as men with beards, dogs, and fur coats. This fear was extinguished after a month of not repeating the experiment .  B.F.Skinner(1904–1958) Skinner developed the theory of operant reinforcement theory which is the notion that how often a behaviour is executed depends on the events that follow the behaviour (Seligman, 2006). For example, if the behaviour is reinforced, the behaviour is more likely to be repeated. He emphasised observable behaviour and rejected the notion of “inner causes” for behaviour (McLeod, n.d.a) COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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 JohnDollard(1900–1980)&NealMiller(1909–2002) Dollard and Miller provided more understanding to behavioural theory. They believed that when a stimulus and response are frequently paired together and rewarded, the more likely it is for an individual to repeat the behaviour (Seligman, 2006). They identified this as a habitual response. Dollard and Miller also identified four elements in behaviour: drive, cue, response, and reinforcement (Seligman, 2006)  JosephWolpe(1915–1977) Wolpe described a process known as reciprocal inhibition which is when “eliciting a novel response brings about a decrease in the strength of a concurrent response” (Seligman, 2006). Wolpe also developed the therapeutic tool of systematic desensitization which is used in the treatment of phobias (to be discussed further down).  AlbertBandura(1925) Bandura applied the principles of classical and operant conditioning to social learning. Basically, people learn behaviours through observation of other’s behaviour, also known as modelling (Seligman, 2006).  CurrentFocus The traditional behavioural approach is no longer used as it once was. It has moved towards a more collaborative treatment with cognitive therapy and as such this has meant a more applicable approach (Seligman, 2006). CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (IVAN PAVLOV) Several types of learning exist. The most basic form is associative learning, i.e., making a new association between events in the environment. There are two forms of associative learning: classical conditioning (made famous by Ivan Pavlov’s experiments with dogs) and operant conditioning (by Skinner). Pavlov’s Dogs In the early twentieth century, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov did Nobel prize-winning work on digestion. While studying the role of saliva in dogs’ digestive processes, he stumbled upon a phenomenon he labeled “psychic reflexes.” While an accidental discovery, he had the foresight to see the importance of it. Pavlov’s dogs, restrained in an experimental chamber, were presented with meat powder and they had their saliva collected via a surgically implanted tube in their saliva glands. Over time, he noticed that his dogs who begin salivation before the meat powder was even presented, whether it was by the presence of the handler or merely by a clicking noise produced by the device that distributed the meat powder. Fascinated by this finding, Pavlov paired the meat powder with various stimuli such as the ringing of a bell. After the meat powder and bell (auditory stimulus) were presented together several times, the bell was used alone. Pavlov’s dogs, as predicted, responded by salivating to the sound of the bell (without the food). The bell began as a neutral stimulus (i.e. the bell itself did COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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not produce the dogs’ salivation). However, by pairing the bell with the stimulus that did produce the salivation response, the bell was able to acquire the ability to trigger the salivation response. Pavlov therefore demonstrated how stimulus-response bonds (which some consider as the basic building blocks of learning) are formed. He dedicated much of the rest of his career further exploring this finding. In technical terms, the meat powder is considered an unconditioned stimulus (UCS) and the dog’s salivation is the unconditioned response (UCR). The bell is a neutral stimulus until the dog learns to associate the bell with food. Then the bell becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) which produces the conditioned response (CR) of salivation after repeated pairings between the bell and food. Stage 1: Before Conditioning: In this stage, the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) produces anunconditioned response (UCR) in an organism. In basic terms, this means that a stimulus in the environment has produced a behavior / response which is unlearned (i.e. unconditioned) and therefore is a natural response which has not been taught. In this respect no new behavior has been learned yet. This stage also involves another stimulus which has no effect on a person and is called the neutral stimulus (NS). The NS could be a person, object, place, etc. The neutral stimulus in classical conditioning does not produce a response until it is paired with the unconditioned stimulus. Stage 2: During Conditioning: During this stage a stimulus which produces no response (i.e. neutral) is associated with the unconditioned stimulus at which point it now becomes known as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Often during this stage the UCS must be associated with the CS on a number of occasions, or trials, for learning to take place. However, one trail learning can happen on certain occasions when it is not necessary for an association to be strengthened over time (such as being sick after food poisoning or drinking too much alcohol). Stage 3: After Conditioning: Now the conditioned stimulus (CS) has been associated with the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) to create a new conditioned response (CR). Other Characteristics of Classical Conditioning There are, of course, many variables that can effect the degree to which classical conditioning will or will not occur in different situations.  The time difference between the conditioned stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus is referred to as latency. First of all, note that the conditioned stimulus must come first. For example, if Pavlov always sounded the tone after the dog got meat powder, the tone, in the absence of the meat powder, would signal was that the dog somehow missed getting COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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it’s meet powder so, in fact, it might as well not salivate. Given that the conditioned stimulus does precede the unconditioned stimulus, the general rule of thumb is that the shorter the latency the more likely it is that the conditioning will occur.  Another interesting phenomenon that Pavlov identified was a phenomenon that’s come to be known as "spontaneous recovery". This is the re-occurrence of a classically conditioned response after extinction has occurred.  Extinction refers to the fact, that, if the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are not paired for a given number of trials an organism will stop exhibiting the conditioned response. For example, the student mentioned above will, perhaps, some day come to really like Hawaiian shirts again. However, after the student has officially gotten over the fear of Hawaiian shirts, the fear may suddenly reappear. This would be spontaneous recovery.  A final important characteristic of classical conditioning is referred to as generalization. This is the case where stimuli that are like the conditioned stimulus come to elicit the same response. A classic example is that Little Albert allegedly became fearful of other animals and even his Mother’s fur coat. SKINNER - OPERANT CONDITIONING The work of Skinner was rooted in a view that classical conditioning was far too simplistic to be a complete explanation of complex human behavior. He believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He called this approach operant conditioning. Operant Conditioning deals with operants - intentional actions that have an effect on the surrounding environment. Skinner set out to identify the processes which made certain operant behaviours more or less likely to occur.Skinner's theory of operant conditioning was based on the work of Thorndike (1905). Edward Thorndike studied learning in animals using a puzzle box to propose the theory known as the 'Law of Effect'. Skinner is regarded as the father of Operant Conditioning, but his work was based on Thorndike’s law of effect. Skinner introduced a new term into the Law of Effect Reinforcement. Behavior which is reinforced tends to be repeated (i.e. strengthened); behavior which is not reinforced tends to die out-or be extinguished (i.e. weakened).Skinner (1948) studied operant conditioning by conducting experiments using animals which he placed in a 'Skinner Box' which was similar to Thorndike’s puzzle box. B.F. Skinner (1938) coined the term operant conditioning; it means roughly changing of behavior by the use of reinforcement which is given after the desired response. Skinner identified three types of responses or operant that can follow behavior. • Neutral operants: responses from the environment that neither increase nor decrease the probability of a behavior being repeated. • Reinforcers: Responses from the environment that increase the probability of a behavior being repeated. Reinforcers can be either positive or negative. • Punishers: Responses from the environment that decrease the likelihood of a behavior being repeated. Punishment weakens behavior.

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Positive Reinforcement Skinner showed how positive reinforcement worked by placing a hungry rat in his Skinner box. The box contained a lever on the side and as the rat moved about the box it would accidentally knock the lever. Immediately it did so a food pellet would drop into a container next to the lever.The rats quickly learned to go straight to the lever after a few times of being put in the box. The consequence of receiving food if they pressed the lever ensured that they would repeat the action again and again.Positive reinforcement strengthens a behavior by providing a consequence an individual finds rewarding. For example, if your teacher gives you £5 each time you complete your homework (i.e. a reward) you will be more likely to repeat this behavior in the future, thus strengthening the behavior of completing your homework. Negative Reinforcement The removal of an unpleasant reinforcer can also strengthen behavior. This is known as negative reinforcement because it is the removal of an adverse stimulus which is ‘rewarding’ to the animal or person. Negative reinforcement strengthens behavior because it stops or removes an unpleasant experience. For example, if you do not complete your homework, you give your teacher rupee 5. You will complete your homework to avoid paying rupee 5, thus strengthening the behavior of completing your homework. Skinner showed how negative reinforcement worked by placing a rat in his Skinner box and then subjecting it to an unpleasant electric current which caused it some discomfort. As the rat moved about the box it would accidentally knock the lever. Immediately it did so the electric current would be switched off. The rats quickly learned to go straight to the lever after a few times of being put in the box. The consequence of escaping the electric current ensured that they would repeat the action again and again. In fact Skinner even taught the rats to avoid the electric current by turning on a light just before the electric current came on. The rats soon learned to press the lever when the light came on because they knew that this would stop the electric current being switched on. These two learned responses are known as Escape Learning and Avoidance Learning. Punishment (weakens behavior) Punishment is defined as the opposite of reinforcement since it is designed to weaken or eliminate a response rather than increase it. It is an aversive event that decreases the behavior that it follows. Like reinforcement, punishment can work either by directly applying an unpleasant stimulus like a shock after a response or by removing a potentially rewarding stimulus, for instance, deducting someone’s pocket money to punish undesirable behavior. Note: It is not always easy to distinguish between punishment and negative reinforcement. There are many problems with using punishment, such as:  Punished behavior is not forgotten, it's suppressed - behavior returns when punishment is no longer present.  Causes increased aggression - shows that aggression is a way to cope with problems.  Creates fear that can generalize to undesirable behaviors, e.g., fear of school.  Does not necessarily guide toward desired behavior - reinforcement tells you what to do, punishment only tells you what not to do.

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SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT Imagine a rat in a “Skinner box”. In operant conditioning if no food pellet is delivered immediately after the lever is pressed then after several attempts the rat stops pressing the lever (how long would someone continue to go to work if their employer stopped paying them?). The behavior has been extinguished. Behaviorists discovered that different patterns (or schedules) of reinforcement had different effects on the speed of learning and on extinction. Ferster and Skinner (1957) devised different ways of delivering reinforcement, and found that this had effects on 1. The Response Rate - The rate at which the rat pressed the lever (i.e. how hard the rat worked). 2. The Extinction Rate - The rate at which lever pressing dies out (i.e. how soon the rat gave up).

Skinner found that the type of reinforcement which produces the slowest rate of extinction (i.e. people will go on repeating the behavior for the longest time without reinforcement) is variableratio reinforcement. The type of reinforcement which has the quickest rate of extinction is continuous reinforcement. (A) Continuous Reinforcement An animal/human is positively reinforced every time a specific behaviour occurs, e.g. every time a lever is pressed a pellet is delivered and then food delivery is shut off.  Response rate is SLOW  Extinction rate is FAST COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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(B) Fixed Ratio Reinforcement Behavior is reinforced only after the behavior occurs a specified number of times. E.g. one reinforcement is given after every so many correct responses, e.g. after every 5th response. For example a child receives a star for every five words spelt correctly.  Response rate is FAST  Extinction rate is MEDIUM (C) Fixed Interval Reinforcement One reinforcement is given after a fixed time interval providing at least one correct response has been made. An example is being paid by the hour. Another example would be every 15 minutes (half hour, hour, etc.) a pellet is delivered (providing at least one lever press has been made) then food delivery is shut off.  Response rate is MEDIUM  Extinction rate is MEDIUM (D) Variable Ratio Reinforcement Behavior is reinforced after an unpredictable number of times. For examples gambling or fishing.  Response rate is FAST  Extinction rate is SLOW (very hard to extinguish because of unpredictability ) (E) Variable Interval Reinforcement Providing one correct response has been made, reinforcement is given after an unpredictable amount of time has passed, e.g. on average every 5 minutes. An example is a self-employed person being paid at unpredictable times.  Response rate is FAST  Extinction rate is SLOW Behavior Shaping A further important contribution made by Skinner (1951) is the notion of behaviour shaping through successive approximation. Skinner argues that the principles of operant conditioning can be used to produce extremely complex behaviour if rewards and punishments are delivered in such a way as to encourage move an organism closer and closer to the desired behaviour each time.In order to do this, the conditions (or contingencies) required to receive the reward should shift each time the organism moves a step closer to the desired behaviour. According to Skinner, most animal and human behaviour (including language) can be explained as a product of this type of successive approximation. Behavior Modification Behavior modification is a set of therapies / techniques based on operant conditioning (Skinner, 1938, 1953). The main principle comprises changing environmental events that are related to a person's behavior. For example, the reinforcement of desired behaviors and ignoring or punishing undesired ones.This is not as simple as it sounds — always reinforcing desired behavior, for example, is basically bribery. There are different types of positive reinforcements. Primary reinforcement is when a reward strengths a behavior by itself. Secondary reinforcement is when something strengthens a behavior because it leads to a primary reinforcer. Examples of behavior modification therapy include token economy and behavior shaping COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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 Token Economy Token economy is a system in which targeted behaviors are reinforced with tokens (secondary reinforcers) and later exchanged for rewards (primary reinforcers).Tokens can be in the form of fake money, buttons, poker chips, stickers, etc. while the rewards can range anywhere from snacks to privileges or activities.Token economy has been found to be very effective in managing psychiatric patients. However, the patients can become over reliant on the tokens, making it difficult for them to adjust to society once they leave prisons, hospital etc.Teachers also use token economy at primary school by giving young children stickers to reward good behavior. BEHAVIORALTHERAPIES Behavioral therapies are based on the theory of classical conditioning. The premise is that all behavior is learned; faulty learning (i.e. conditioning) is the cause of abnormal behavior. Therefore the individual has to learn the correct or acceptable behavior. An important feature of behavioral therapy is its focus on current problems and behavior, and on attempts to remove behavior the patient finds troublesome.This contrasts greatly with psychodynamic therapy (re: Freud), where the focus is much more on trying to uncover unresolved conflicts from childhood (i.e. the cause of abnormal behavior). Examples of behavior therapy include: Classical Conditioning: Systematic Desensitization  Aversion Therapy  Flooding Operant conditioning: Token economies  Contingency management  Modeling  Extinction The theory of classical conditioning suggests a response is learned and repeated through immediate association. Behavioral therapies based on classical conditioning aim to break the association between stimulus and undesired response (e.g. phobia, additional etc.). Systematic desensitization This technique works on a similar premise to flooding, however it is more gradual. The therapist would begin by asking the individual to write a list of fears they have. Once this list is written, the therapist will teach relaxation techniques for the individual to use while thinking about the list of fears. Working their way up from the least fear-inducing item to the most fearinducing item - the therapist will help the individual confront their fears in a relaxed state. An example of this would be a person who is afraid of small spaces. They may start by thinking about a small space or looking at an image of a small space while utilising relaxation techniques, and work their way up to being in a small space. This pairing of the fear-inducing item and newly learned relaxation behaviour aims to eliminate the phobia or anxiety.

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Aversion Therapy Aversion therapy is used when there are stimulus situations and associated behavior patterns that are attractive to the client, but which the therapist and the client both regard as undesirable. For example, alcoholics enjoy going to pubs and consuming large amounts of alcohol. Aversion therapy involves associating such stimuli and behavior with a very unpleasant unconditioned stimulus, such as an electric shock. The client thus learns to associate the undesirable behavior with the electric shock, and a link is formed between the undesirable behavior and the reflex response to an electric shock. In the case of alcoholism, what is often done is to require the client to take a sip of alcohol while under the effect of a nausea-inducing drug. Sipping the drink is followed almost at once by vomiting. In future the smell of alcohol produces a memory of vomiting and should stop the patient wanting a drink. More controversially, aversion therapy has been used to "cure" homosexuals by electrocuting them if they become aroused to specific stimuli. Flooding Flooding (also known as implosion therapy) works by exposing the patient directly to their worst fears. (S)he is thrown in at the deep end. For example a claustrophobic will be locked in a closet for 4 hours or an individual with a fear of flying will be sent up in a light aircraft. What flooding aims to do is expose the sufferer to the phobic object or situation for an extended period of time in a safe and controlled environment. Unlike systematic desensitisation which might use in vitro or virtual exposure, flooding generally involves vivo exposure. Fear is a time limited response. At first the person is in a state of extreme anxiety, perhaps even panic, but eventually exhaustion sets in and the anxiety level begins to go down. Of course normally the person would do everything they can to avoid such a situation. Now they have no choice but confront their fears and when the panic subsides and they find they have come to no harm. The fear (which to a large degree was anticipatory) is extinguished. Prolonged intense exposure eventually creates a new association between the feared object and something positive (e.g. a sense of calm and lack of anxiety). It also prevents reinforcement of phobia through escape or avoidance behaviours. Token economies This strategy relies on positive reinforcement - offering individuals 'tokens' that can be exchanged for privileges or desired items when positive behaviour is exhibited. This is a common tactic used by parents and teachers to help improve the behaviour of children. Contingency management A more formal approach, contingency management involves a written contract between the therapist and individual that outlines goals, rewards and penalties. For some, having this kind of clear agreement helps to change behaviour and add a sense of accountability. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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Modelling Modelling involves learning through observation and imitation of others. Having a positive role model can give individuals something to aim for, allowing them to change their behaviour to match their role model’s. This role model may be the therapist or someone the individual already knows. Extinction Extinction works by removing any type of reinforcement to behaviour. An example of this would be a disruptive child who is given a time-out or told to sit on the 'naughty step'. By removing them from the situation (and associated attention) the behaviour should stop. This premise can be carried across to adults too - however the 'naughty step' will probably be given a different name. BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY FOR MENTAL HEALTH ISSUES There are three basic underlying assumptions to BT: Human behavior is governed by basic learning principles. Humans are neither good nor evil; they are shaped by their environment. All people are capable of modifying behaviors under the right circumstance. Behavioural therapy works best for mental health conditions that cause unwanted behaviour. Examples of this would be addiction, anxiety, phobias and OCD. In some cases behavioural therapy works well alone, however many find integrative therapies (like cognitive behavioural therapy) to be more appropriate.

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MODULE 3: THE COGNITIVE APPROACH The Cognitive Approach in psychology is a relatively modern approach to human behaviour that focuses on how we think, with the belief that such thought processes affect the way in which we behave (other approaches take other factors into account, such as the biological approach, which acknowledges the influences of genetics and chemical imbalances on our behaviour). Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be used to treat people with a wide range of mental health problems.CBT is based on the idea that how we think (cognition), how we feel (emotion) and how we act (behavior) all interact together. Specifically, our thoughts determine our feelings and our behavior.

Therefore, negative and unrealistic thoughts can cause us distress and result in problems. When a person suffers with psychological distress, the way in which they interpret situations becomes skewed, which in turn has a negative impact on the actions they take. CBT aims to help people become aware of when they make negative interpretations, and of behavioral patterns which reinforce the distorted thinking. Cognitive therapy helps people to develop alternative ways of thinking and behaving which aims to reduce their psychological distress. Cognitive behavioral therapy is, in fact, an umbrella term for many different therapies that share some common elements. Two of the earliest forms of Cognitive behavioral Therapy were Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), developed by Albert Ellis in the 1950s, and Cognitive Therapy, developed by Aaron T. Beck in the 1960s.

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General CBT Assumptions: The cognitive approach believes that abnormality stems from faulty cognitions about others, our world and us. This faulty thinking may be through cognitive deficiencies (lack of planning) or cognitive distortions (processing information inaccurately).These cognitions cause distortions in the way we see things; Ellis suggested it is through irrational thinking, while Beck proposed the cognitive triad. We interact with the world through our mental representation of it. If our mental representations are inaccurate or our ways of reasoning are inadequate then our emotions and behavior may become disordered. The cognitive therapist teaches clients how to identify distorted cognitions through a process of evaluation. The clients learn to discriminate between their own thoughts and reality. They learn the influence that cognition has on their feelings, and they are taught to recognize observe and monitor their own thoughts. The behavior part of the therapy involves setting homework for the clientto do (e.g. keeping a diary of thoughts). The therapist gives the client tasks that will help them challenge their own irrational beliefs. The idea is that the client identifies their own unhelpful beliefs and them proves them wrong. As a result, their beliefs begin to change. For example, someone who is anxious in social situations may be set a homework assignment to meet a friend at the pub for a drink. Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) Albert Ellis (1957, 1962) proposes that each of us hold a unique set of assumptions about ourselves and our world that serve to guide us through life and determine our reactions to the various situations we encounter. Unfortunately, some people’s assumptions are largely irrational, guiding them to act and react in ways that are inappropriate and that prejudice their chances of happiness and success. Albert Ellis calls these basic irrational assumptions. Some people irrationally assume that they are failures if they are not loved by everyone they know - they constantly seek approval and repeatedly feel rejected. All their interactions are affected by this assumption, so that a great party can leave them dissatisfied because they don’t get enough compliments. According to Ellis, these are other common irrational assumptions: o The idea that one should be thoroughly competent at everything. o The idea that is it catastrophic when things are not the way you want them to be. o The idea that people have no control over their happiness. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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o The idea that you need someone stronger than yourself to be dependent on. o The idea that your past history greatly influences your present life. o The idea that there is a perfect solution to human problems, and it’s a disaster if you don’t find it. Ellis believes that people often forcefully hold on to this illogical way of thinking, and therefore employs highly emotive techniques to help them vigorously and forcefully change this irrational thinking. The ABC Model A major aid in cognitive therapy is what Albert Ellis (1957) called the ABC Technique of Irrational Beliefs. The first three steps analyze the process by which a person has developed irrational beliefs and may be recorded in a three-column table.

* A - Activating Event or objective situation: The first column records the objective situation, that is, an event that ultimately leads to some type of high emotional response or negative dysfunctional thinking. * B – Beliefs: In the second column, the client writes down the negative thoughts that occurred to them. * C –Consequences: The third column is for the negative feelings and dysfunctional behaviors that ensued. The negative thoughts of the second column are seen as a connecting bridge between the situation and the distressing feelings. The third column C is next explained by describing emotions or negative thoughts that the client thinks are caused by A. This could be anger, sorrow, anxiety, etc. Ellis believes that it is not the activating event (A) that causes negative emotional and behavioral consequences (C), but rather that a person interpret these events unrealistically and therefore has a irrational belief system (B) that helps cause the consequences (C).

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REBT Example Gina is upset because she got a low mark on a math test. The Activating event, A, is that she failed her test. The Belief, B, is that she must have good grades or she is worthless. The Consequence, C, is that Gina feels depressed. After irrational beliefs have been identified, the therapist will often work with the client in challenging the negative thoughts on the basis of evidence from the client's experience by reframing it, meaning to re-interpret it in a more realistic light. This helps the client to develop more rational beliefs and healthy coping strategies. A therapist would help Gina realize that there is no evidence that she must have good grades to be worthwhile, or that getting bad grades is awful. She desires good grades, and it would be good to have them, but it hardly makes her worthless. If she realizes that getting bad grades is disappointing, but not awful, and that it means she is currently bad at math or at studying, but not as a person, she will feel sad or frustrated, but not depressed. The sadness and frustration are likely healthy negative emotions and may lead her to study harder from then on. Critical Evaluation Rational emotive behavior therapists have cited many studies in support of this approach. Most early studies were conducted on people with experimentally induced anxieties or non clinical problems such as mild fear of snakes (Kendall &Kriss, 1983). However, a number of recent studies have been done on actual clinical subjects and have also found that rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is often helpful (Lyons & Woods 1991).

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Beck's Cognitive Therapy Beck’s (1967) system of therapy is similar to Ellis’s, but has been most widely used in cases of depression. Cognitive therapists help clients to recognize the negative thoughts and errors in logic that cause them to be depressed. The therapist also guides clients to question and challenge their dysfunctional thoughts, try out new interpretations, and ultimately apply alternative ways of thinking in their daily lives. Aaron Beck believes that a person’s reaction to specific upsetting thoughts may contribute to abnormality. As we confront the many situations that arise in life, both comforting and upsetting thoughts come into our heads. Beck calls these unbidden cognition’s automatic thoughts. When a person’s stream of automatic thoughts is very negative you would expect a person to become depressed (I’m never going to get this essay finished, my girlfriend fancies my best friend, I’m getting fat, I have no money, my parents hate me - have you ever felt like this?). Quite often these negative thoughts will persist even in the face of contrary evidence. Beck (1967) identified three mechanisms that he thought were responsible for depression:  The cognitive triad of negative automatic thinking  Negative self schemas  Errors in Logic (i.e. faulty information processing) The Cognitive Triad The cognitive triad are three forms of negative (i.e helpless and critical) thinking that are typical of individuals with depression: namely negative thoughts about the self, the world and the future. These thoughts tended to be automatic in depressed people as they occurred spontaneously.

As these three components interact, they interfere with normal cognitive processing, leading to impairments in perception, memory and problem solving with the person becoming obsessed with negative thoughts.

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Negative Self-Schemas Beck believed that depression prone individuals develop a negative self-schema. They possess a set of beliefs and expectations about themselves that are essentially negative and pessimistic. Beck claimed that negative schemas may be acquired in childhood as a result of a traumatic event. Experiences that might contribute to negative schemas include:   

Death of a parent or sibling. Parental rejection, criticism, overprotection, neglect or abuse. Bullying at school or exclusion from peer group.

People with negative self schemas become prone to making logical errors in their thinking and they tend to focus selectively on certain aspects of a situation while ignoring equally relevant information. Errors in Logic Beck (1967) identifies a number of illogical thinking processes (i.e. distortions of thought processes). These illogical thought patterns are self-defeating, and can cause great anxiety or depression for the individual.

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 Arbitrary interference: Drawing conclusions on the basis of sufficient or irrelevant evidence: for example, thinking you are worthless because an open air concert you were going to see has been rained off.  Selective abstraction: Focusing on a single aspect of a situation and ignoring others: E.g., you feel responsible for your team losing a football match even though you are just one of the players on the field.  Magnification: exaggerating the importance of undesirable events. E.g., if you scrape a bit of paint work on your car and, therefore, see yourself as totally awful driver.  Minimisation: underplaying the significance of an event. E.g., you get praised by your teachers for an excellent term’s work, but you see this as trivial.  Overgeneralization: drawing broad negative conclusions on the basis of a single insignificant event. E.g., you get a D for an exam when you normally get straight As and you, therefore, think you are stupid.  Personalisation: Attributing the negative feelings of others to yourself. E.g., your teacher looks really cross when he comes into the room, so he must be cross with you. Critical Evaluation Butler and Beck (2000) reviewed 14 meta-analyses investigating the effectiveness of Beck’s cognitive therapy and concluded that about 80% of adults benefited from the therapy. It was also found that the therapy was more successful than drug therapy and had a lower relapse rate, supporting the proposition that depression has a cognitive basis.This suggests that knowledge of the cognitive explanation can improve the quality of people’s lives. Differences between REBT & Cognitive Therapy  Albert Ellis views the therapist as a teacher and does not think that a warm personal relationship with a client is essential. In contrast, Beck stresses the quality of the therapeutic relationship.  REBT is often highly directive, persuasive and confrontive. Beck places more emphasis on the client discovering misconceptions for themselves.  REBT uses different methods depending on the personality of the client, in Beck’s cognitive therapy, the method is based upon the particular disorder. Strengths of CBT 1. Model has great appeal because it focuses on human thought. Human cognitive abilities has been responsible for our many accomplishments so may also be responsible for our problems.

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2. Cognitive theories lend themselves to testing. When experimental subjects are manipulated into adopting unpleasant assumptions or thought they became more anxious and depressed (Rimm&Litvak, 1969). 3. Many people with psychological disorders, particularly depressive , anxiety , and sexual disorders have been found to display maladaptive assumptions and thoughts (Beck et al., 1983). 4. Cognitive therapy has been very effective for treating depression (Hollon& Beck, 1994), and moderately effective for anxiety problems (Beck, 1993). Limitations of CBT 1. The precise role of cognitive processes is yet to be determined. It is not clear whether faulty cognitions are a cause of the psychopathology or a consequence of it. Lewinsohn (1981) studied a group of participants before any of them became depressed, and found that those who later became depressed were no more likely to have negative thoughts than those who did not develop depression. This suggests that hopeless and negative thinking may be the result of depression, rather than the cause of it. 2. The cognitive model is narrow in scope - thinking is just one part of human functioning, broader issues need to be addressed. 3. Ethical issues: RET is a directive therapy aimed at changing cognitions sometimes quite forcefully. For some, this may be considered an unethical approach.

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MODULE 4: THE HUMANISTIC APPROACH Humanism is a psychological perspective that emphasizes the study of the whole person. Humanistic psychologists look at human behavior not only through the eyes of the observer, but through the eyes of the person doing the behaving. Sometimes the humanistic approach is called phenomenological. This means that personality is studied from the point of view of the individual’s subjective experience. For Rogers the focus of psychology is not behaviour (Skinner), the unconscious (Freud), thinking (Wundt) or the human brain but how individuals perceive and interpret events. Rogers is therefore important because he redirected psychology towards the study of the self. The humanistic approach in psychology developed as a rebellion against what some psychologists saw as the limitations of the behaviorist and psychodynamic psychology. The humanistic approach is thus often called the “third force” in psychology after psychoanalysis and behaviorism (Maslow, 1968). Humanism rejected the assumptions of the behaviorist perspective which is characterized as deterministic, focused on reinforcement of stimulus-response behavior and heavily dependent on animal research. Humanistic psychology also rejected the psychodynamic approach because it is also deterministic, with unconscious irrational and instinctive forces determining human thought and behavior. Both behaviorism and psychoanalysis are regarded as dehumanizing by humanistic psychologists. Humanistic psychology expanded its influence throughout the 1970s and the 1980s. Its impact can be understood in terms of three major areas: 1) It offered a new set of values for approaching an understanding of human nature and the human condition. 2) It offered an expanded horizon of methods of inquiry in the study of human behavior. 3) It offered a broader range of more effective methods in the professional practice of psychotherapy. Humanistic Psychology Assumptions Humanistic psychology begins with the existential assumptions that phenomenology is central and that people have free will. Personal agency is the humanistic term for the exercise of free will. Personal agency refers to the choices we make in life, the paths we go down and their consequences. A further assumption is then added - people are basically good, and have an innate need to make themselves and the world better. The humanistic approach emphasizes the personal COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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worth of the individual, the centrality of human values, and the creative, active nature of human beings. The approach is optimistic and focuses on noble human capacity to overcome hardship, pain and despair. Both Rogers and Maslow regarded personal growth and fulfillment in life as a basic human motive. This means that each person, in different ways, seeks to grow psychologically and continuously enhance themselves. This has been captured by the term self-actualization, which is about psychological growth, fulfillment and satisfaction in life. However, Rogers and Maslow both describe different ways of how self-actualization can be achieved. Central to the humanistic theories of Rogers (1959) and Maslow (1943) are the subjective, conscious experiences of the individual. Humanistic psychologists argue that objective reality is less important than a person's subjective perception and understanding of the world. Because of this, Rogers and Maslow placed little value on scientific psychology, especially the use of the psychology laboratory to investigate both human and animal behavior. Humanism rejects scientific methodology like experiments and typically uses qualitative research methods. For example, diary accounts, open-ended questionnaires, unstructured interviews and unstructured observations. Qualitative research is useful for studies at the individual level, and to find out, in depth, the ways in which people think or feel (e.g. case studies). The way to really understand other people is to sit down and talk with them, share their experiences and be open to their feelings. Humanism rejected comparative psychology (the study of animals) because it does not tell us anything about the unique properties of human beings. Humanism views human beings as fundamentally different from other animals, mainly because humans are conscious beings capable of thought, reason and language. For humanistic psychologists’ research on animals, such as rats, pigeons, or monkeys held little value. Research on such animals can tell us, so they argued, very little about human thought, behavior and experience. Humanistic psychologists rejected a rigorous scientific approach to psychology because they saw it as dehumanizing and unable to capture the richness of conscious experience. In many ways the rejection of scientific psychology in the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s was a backlash to the dominance of the behaviorist approach in North American psychology. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs Maslow wanted to understand what motivates people. He believed that people possess a set of motivation systems unrelated to rewards orunconscious desires.Maslow (1943) stated that people are motivated to achieve certain needs. When one need is fulfilled a person seeks to fulfill the next one, and so on.The earliest and most widespread version of Maslow's (1943, 1954) hierarchy of needsincludes five motivational needs, often depicted as hierarchical levels within a pyramid. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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This five stage model can be divided into basic and psychological needs which ensure survival (e.g. physiological, safety, love, and esteem) and growth needs (self-actualization).

The deficiency or basic needs are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the need to fulfill such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example, the longer a person goes without food the more hungry they will become. One must satisfy lower level basic needs before progressing on to meet higher level growth needs. Once these needs have been reasonably satisfied, one may be able to reach the highest level called self-actualization. Every person is capable and has the desire to move up the hierarchy toward a level of self-actualization. Unfortunately, progress is often disrupted by failure to meet lower level needs. Life experiences, including divorce and loss of job may cause an individual to fluctuate between levels of the hierarchy.Maslow noted only one in a hundred people become fully self-actualized because our society rewards motivation primarily based on esteem, love and other social needs. The original hierarchy of needs five-stage model includes: 1) Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep. 2) Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, freedom from fear. 3) Love and belongingness needs - friendship, intimacy, affection and love, - from work group, family, friends, romantic relationships. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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4) Esteem needs - achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, selfrespect, and respect from others. Maslow posits esteem needs take two forms: (a) a need for strength, achievement, mastery and competence; (b) a need for reputation, status, recognition and appreciation. Fulfillment of these needs leads to a sense of self-confidence, worth, and value to the world. 5) Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. The Expanded Hierarchy of Needs:

It is important to note that Maslow's (1943, 1954) five stage model has been expanded to include cognitive and aesthetic needs (Maslow, 1970a) and later transcendence needs (Maslow, 1970b).Changes to the original five-stage model are highlighted and include a seven-stage model and an eight-stage model, both developed during the 1960's and 1970s. 1) Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc. 2) Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, etc. 3) Love and belongingness needs - friendship, intimacy, affection and love, - from work group, family, friends, romantic relationships. 4) Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

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5) Cognitive needs - knowledge and understanding, curiosity, exploration, need for meaning and predictability. 6) Aesthetic needs - appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc. 7) Self-Actualization needs - realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. 8) Transcendence needs - helping others to achieve self actualization. Self-actualization Instead of focusing on psychopathology and what goes wrong with people, Maslow (1943) formulated a more positive account of human behavior which focused on what goes right. He was interested in human potential, and how we fulfill that potential.Psychologist Abraham Maslow (1943, 1954) stated that human motivation is based on people seeking fulfillment and change through personal growth. Self-actualized people are those who were fulfilled and doing all they were capable of. The growth of self-actualization (Maslow, 1962) refers to the need for personal growth and discovery that is present throughout a person’s life. For Maslow, a person is always 'becoming' and never remains static in these terms. In self-actualization a person comes to find a meaning to life that is important to them.As each person is unique the motivation for selfactualization leads people in different directions (Kenrick et al., 2010). For some people selfactualization can be achieved through creating works of art or literature, for others through sport, in the classroom, or within a corporate setting. Maslow (1962) believed self-actualization could be measured through the concept of peak experiences. This occurs when a person experiences the world totally for what it is, and there are feelings of euphoria, joy and wonder. It is important to note that self-actualization is a continual process of becoming rather than a perfect state one reaches of a 'happy ever after' (Hoffman, 1988). Maslow (1968): Some of the characteristics of self-actualized people Although we are all, theoretically, capable of self-actualizing, most of us will not do so, or only to a limited degree. Maslow (1970) estimated that only two percent of people will reach the state of self actualization. He was particularly interested in the characteristics of people whom he considered to have achieved their potential as persons. By studying 18 people he considered to be self-actualized (including Abraham Lincoln and Albert Einstein) Maslow (1970) identified 15 characteristics of a self-actualized person. Characteristics of self-actualizers: 1) They perceive reality efficiently and can tolerate uncertainty; COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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2) Accept themselves and others for what they are; 3) Spontaneous in thought and action; 4) Problem-centered (not self-centered); 5) Unusual sense of humor; 6) Able to look at life objectively; 7) Highly creative; 8) Resistant to enculturation, but not purposely unconventional; 9) Concerned for the welfare of humanity; 10) Capable of deep appreciation of basic life-experience; 11) Establish deep satisfying interpersonal relationships with a few people; 12) Peak experiences; 13) Need for privacy; 14) Democratic attitudes; 15) Strong moral/ethical standards. Behavior leading to self-actualization: 1. Experiencing life like a child, with full absorption and concentration; 2. Trying new things instead of sticking to safe paths; 3. Listening to your own feelings in evaluating experiences instead of the voice of tradition, authority or the majority; 4. Avoiding pretense ('game playing') and being honest; 5. Being prepared to be unpopular if your views do not coincide with those of the majority; 6. Taking responsibility and working hard; 7. Trying to identify your defenses and having the courage to give them up. The characteristics of self-actualizers and the behaviors leading to self-actualization are shown in the list above. Although people achieve self-actualization in their own unique way, they tend to share certain characteristics. However, self-actualization is a matter of degree, 'There are no perfect human beings' (Maslow,1970a). It is not necessary to display all 15 characteristics to become self-actualized, and not only self-actualized people will display them. Maslow did not equate self-actualization with perfection. Self-actualization merely involves achieving ones potential. Thus, someone can be silly, wasteful, vain and impolite, and still self-actualize. Less than two percent of the populationachieve self-actualization. Carl Rogers Carl Rogers (1902-1987) was ahumanistic psychologist who agreed with the main assumptions of Abraham Maslow, but added that for a person to "grow", they need an environment that provides them with genuineness (openness and self-disclosure), acceptance (being seen with unconditional positive regard), and empathy (being listened to and understood). COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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Without these, relationships and healthy personalities will not develop as they should, much like a tree will not grow without sunlight and water. Rogers believed that every person can achieve their goals, wishes and desires in life. When, or rather if they did so, self actualization took place. This was one of Carl Rogers most important contributions to psychology and for a person to reach their potential a number of factors must be satisfied. Self Actualization "The organism has one basic tendency and striving - to actualize, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism” (Rogers, 1951). Rogers rejected the deterministic nature of both psychoanalysis and behaviorism and maintained that we behave as we do because of the way we perceive our situation. "As no one else can know how we perceive, we are the best experts on ourselves." Carl Rogers (1959) believed that humans have one basic motive, that is the tendency to self-actualize - i.e. to fulfill one's potential and achieve the highest level of ‘human-beingness’ we can. Like a flower that will grow to its full potential if the conditions are right, but which is constrained by its environment, so people will flourish and reach their potential if their environment is good enough. However, unlike a flower, the potential of the individual human is unique, and we are meant to develop in different ways according to our personality. Rogers believed that people are inherently good and creative. They become destructive only when a poor self-concept or external constraints override the valuing process. Carl Rogers believed that for a person to achieve self-actualization they must be in a state of congruence. This means that self-actualization occurs when a person’s “ideal self” (i.e. who they would like to be) is congruent with their actual behavior (self-image). Rogers describes an individual who is actualizing as a fully functioning person. The main determinant of whether we will become self-actualized is childhood experience. The Fully Functioning Person Rogers believed that every person could achieve their goals, wishes, and desires in life. When they did so self-actualization took place. For Rogers (1961) people who are able be selfactualize, and that is not all of us, are called fully functioning persons. This means that the person is in touch with the here and now, his or her subjective experiences and feelings, continually growing and changing.

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In many ways Rogers regarded the fully functioning person as an ideal and one that people do not ultimately achieve. It is wrong to think of this as an end or completion of life’s journey; rather it is a process of always becoming and changing. Rogers identified five characteristics of the fully functioning person: 1) Open to experience: both positive and negative emotions accepted. Negative feelings are not denied, but worked through (rather than resorting to ego defence mechanisms). 2) Existential living: in touch with different experiences as they occur in life, avoiding prejudging and preconceptions. Being able to live and fully appreciate the present, not always looking back to the past or forward to the future (i.e. living for the moment). 3) Trust feelings: feeling, instincts and gut-reactions are paid attention to and trusted. People’s own decisions are the right ones and we should trust ourselves to make the right choices. 4) Creativity: creative thinking and risk taking are features of a person’s life. A person does not play safe all the time. This involves the ability to adjust and change and seek new experiences. 5) Fulfilled life: person is happy and satisfied with life, and always looking for new challenges and experiences. For Rogers, fully functioning people are well adjusted, well balanced and interesting to know. Often such people are high achievers in society. Critics claim that the fully functioning person is a product of Western culture. In other cultures, such as Eastern cultures, the achievement of the group is valued more highly than the achievement of any one person. Personality Development Central to Rogers' personality theory is the notion of self or self-concept. This is defined as "the organized, consistent set of perceptions and beliefs about oneself". The self is the humanistic term for who we really are as a person. The self is our inner personality, and can be likened to the soul, or Freud's psyche. The self is influenced by the experiences a person has in their life, and out interpretations of those experiences. Two primary sources that influence our self-concept are childhood experiences and evaluation by others. According to Rogers (1959), we want to feel, experience and behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self. The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each other, the more consistent or congruent we are and the higher our sense of self-worth.

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A person is said to be in a state of incongruence if some of the totality of their experience is unacceptable to them and is denied or distorted in the self-image. The humanistic approach states that the self is composed of concepts unique to ourselves. The self-concept includes three components: 1. Self worth (or self-esteem) – what we think about ourselves. Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and were formed from the interaction of the child with the mother and father. 2. Self-image – How we see ourselves, which is important to good psychological health. Self-image includes the influence of our body image on inner personality. At a simple level, we might perceive ourselves as a good or bad person, beautiful or ugly. Self-image has an effect on how a person thinks, feels and behaves in the world. 3. Ideal self – This is the person who we would like to be. It consists of our goals and ambitions in life, and is dynamic – i.e. forever changing. The ideal self in childhood is not the ideal self in our teens or late twenties etc. Self Worth and Positive Regard Carl Rogers (1951) viewed the child as having two basic needs: positive regard from other people and self-worth.How we think about ourselves, our feelings of self-worth are of fundamental importance both to psychological health and to the likelihood that we can achieve goals and ambitions in life and achieve self-actualization. Self-worth may be seen as a continuum from very high to very low. For Carl Rogers (1959) a person who has high self-worth, that is, has confidence and positive feelings about him/herself, faces challenges in life, accepts failure and unhappiness at times, and is open with people. A person with low self-worth may avoid challenges in life, not accept that life can be painful and unhappy at times, and will be defensive and guarded with other people. Rogers believed feelings of self-worth developed in early childhood and were formed from the interaction of the child with the mother and father. As a child grows older, interactions with significant others will affect feelings of self-worth. Rogers believed that we need to be regarded positively by others; we need to feel valued, respected, treated with affection and loved. Positive regard is to do with how other people evaluate and judge us in social interaction. Rogers made a distinction between unconditional positive regard and conditional positive regard.  Unconditional positive regard is where parents, significant others (and the humanist therapist) accepts and loves the person for what he or she is. Positive regard is not withdrawn if the person does something wrong or makes a mistake. COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY I

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The consequences of unconditional positive regard are that the person feels free to try things out and make mistakes, even though this may lead to getting it worse at times. People who are able to self-actualize are more likely to have received unconditional positive regard from others, especially their parents in childhood.  Conditional positive regard is where positive regard, praise and approval, depend upon the child, for example, behaving in ways that the parents think correct. Hence the child is not loved for the person he or she is, but on condition that he or she behaves only in ways approved by the parent(s). At the extreme, a person who constantly seeks approval from other people is likely only to have experienced conditional positive regard as a child. Congruence A person’s ideal self may not be consistent with what actually happens in life and experiences of the person. Hence, a difference may exist between a person’s ideal self and actual experience. This is called incongruence. Where a person’s ideal self and actual experience are consistent or very similar, a state of congruence exists. Rarely, if ever, does a total state of congruence exist; all people experience a certain amount of incongruence.

The development of congruence is dependent on unconditional positive regard. Carl Rogers believed that for a person to achieve self-actualization they must be in a state of congruence.

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According to Rogers, we want to feel, experience and behave in ways which are consistent with our self-image and which reflect what we would like to be like, our ideal-self. The closer our self-image and ideal-self are to each other, the more consistent or congruent we are and the higher our sense of self-worth. A person is said to be in a state of incongruence if some of the totality of their experience is unacceptable to them and is denied or distorted in the self-image. Incongruence is "a discrepancy between the actual experience of the organism and the self-picture of the individual insofar as it represents that experience. As we prefer to see ourselves in ways that are consistent with our self-image, we may use defense mechanisms like denial or repression in order to feel less threatened by some of what we consider to be our undesirable feelings. A person whose self-concept is incongruent with her or his real feelings and experiences will defend because the truth hurts. Critical Evaluation The humanistic approach has been applied to relatively few areas of psychology compared to the other approaches. Therefore, its contributions are limited to areas such as therapy, abnormality, motivation and personality. A possible reasons for this lack of impact on academic psychology perhaps lies with the fact that humanism deliberately adopts a non-scientific approach to studying humans. For example their belief in free-will is in direct opposition to the deterministic laws of science. Also, the areas investigated by humanism, such as consciousness and emotion are very difficult to scientifically study. The outcome of such scientific limitations means that there is a lack of empirical evidence to support the key theories of the approach. However, the flip side to this is that humanism can gain a better insight into an individual's behavior through the use of qualitative methods, such as unstructured interviews. The approach also helped to provide a more holistic view of human behavior, in contrast to the reductionist position of science.

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