Breast Cancer. Second leading cause of cancer death in women

Breast Cancer Second leading cause of cancer death in women Risk factors Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Early first menstruation Late onset of menopause F...
Author: Joella Griffith
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Breast Cancer Second leading cause of cancer death in women

Risk factors Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø  Ø 

Early first menstruation Late onset of menopause Family history Older age Higher socioeconomic class Women with no children or having children after 30 Ø  Obesity after menopause Ø  Hormone replacement therapy use Ø  Drinking more than two alcoholic beverages a day

Prevention Ø  Diet, exercise Ø  Maintaining healthy body weight Ø  Pregnancy and breastfeeding decisions Detection Ø  Breast self-exam Ø  Mammography Treatment Ø  Lumpectomy Ø  Mastectomy Ø  Radiation and/or chemotherapy treatments

Prostate Cancer Second most common cause of cancer death in men Most commonly diagnosed cancer for men

Risk factors Ø  Age, family history Ø  Race Ø  High-fat diet Symptoms during the advanced stage Ø  Difficulty urinating Ø  Pain in the pelvic region Early detection Ø  Pain with urination Ø  Digital rectal exam Ø  Blood in the urine Ø  Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screenings Treatment Ø  Surgery Ø  Radiation, sometimes in combination with chemotherapy Ø  Hormonal medications

Cancers of the Female Reproductive System Cervical Cancer Ovarian Cancer Uterine Cancer (Endometrial Cancer)

Cervical Cancer Risk factors Ø HPV infection (cervical dysplasia), tobacco use, immunosuppression, multiple births, early sexual activity, multiple sex partners, socioeconomic status, and nutritional status Early detection through Pap test has significantly reduced the rates of cervical cancer and mortality Treatment Ø  removal or destruction of precursor cells Ø Invasive cervical cancer treated with combination of surgery, local radiation, and chemotherapy

Uterine Cancer (Endometrial Cancer) Risk factors Ø  Exposure to estrogen: Obesity, estrogen replacement therapy without progesterone Ø  Early menarche, late-onset menopause, irregular ovulation, infrequent periods Prevention Ø  Minimize high levels of estrogen and have regular physician care Treatment Ø  Hysterectomy, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment

Ovarian Cancer The leading gynecological cause of cancer death and the fifth overall cause of cancer death in women Risk factors Family history, personal history of breast, colon, or endometrial cancer Prevention Ø  Using oral contraception Ø  Pregnancy, breastfeeding Ø  Avoiding postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy Treatment: surgery, chemotherapy, drug therapy

Skin Cancer Three forms of skin cancer: Ø  Basal cell carcinoma: lesions and sores Ø  Squamous cell carcinoma: raised bumps and sores Ø  Melanoma: spreads quickly Risk factors Ø  Cumulative sun exposure Ø  Large number of moles Ø  Family history Prevention: reduce exposure to sun Treatment: surgery, local removal, radiation

The ABCDE Evaluation of Moles for Melanoma

Testicular Cancer Most common cancer for men aged 20–35 Risk factors Ø  Family history, personal history of testicular cancer in other testicle, abnormal development of the testes, and infertility or abnormal sperm Detection Ø  Self-exams Ø  Medical exams Treatment Ø  Surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation

Oral Cancer Cancers that develop in the mouth or the pharynx Risk factors Ø  Use of cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and/or smokeless tobacco Ø  High levels of alcohol consumption Ø  HPV Early signs include Ø  Persistent sore in the mouth Ø  Lump or bump that won’t heal Ø  Patch of white or red along the gums or cheeks Treatment: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation

Leukemia Group of cancers that originate in the bone marrow or other parts of the body where white blood cells form Involves the overproduction of one type of white blood cell and can lead to increased risk of infection, anemia, and bleeding Risk factors Ø  Cigarette smoking and exposure to chemicals Ø  Ionizing radiation exposure Ø  Infection with a virus Treatment: chemotherapy, possible bone marrow transplant

Lymphoma Cancers that originate in the lymph system, part of the body’s immune system Ø  Hodgkin’s lymphoma; non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Risk factors Ø  Infections, medications, or genetic change that weakens the immune system Ø  Radiation,

herbicides, insecticides, and some chemical exposures

The Lymph System Treatment Ø  Often includes a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation Ø  Can sometimes involve immunotherapy or bone marrow transplant

Cancer Screening Ø Early detection is the key to successful treatment Ø Screening tests are the key to early detection Ø No test thus far has been shown to improve detection

of some cancers, including ovarian cancers, without increasing harm

Cancer Treatments Ø  Surgery: removal of tissue Ø  Chemotherapy: drug treatment that interferes with rapid

cell division Ø  Radiation: destroy cancer cells with minimal damage to

surrounding slower-dividing tissues Ø  Biological therapies: immunotherapy medications Ø  Bone marrow transplantation Ø  Gene therapy and genetic testing Ø  Clinical trials Ø  Complementary and alternative medicine

Living with Cancer Ø  Participate

in decisions about treatment Ø  Be an informed consumer Ø  Consider how you will interact with others Ø  Consider school or work obligations Ø  Enlist support Ø  Know what physical changes are likely to occur Ø  Consider sperm or egg donation and freezing Ø  Spiritual beliefs and practices can be important Ø  Don’t think about cancer all the time

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