Beaufort Herald B e a u fo r t C o m p a n y e N e w s l e t te r Inside this issue:
Volume 3, Issue 4
Happy Easter Easter— — The season is upon us!
Don’t try this at home!
could be the only time of year they got a new item of clothing.
For many, the main thing to look forward to was that Easter Sunday was one of the few days in the year when no one had to work. It was traditional for servants to present their lord with a small gift, perhaps a dish of food or a new-born animal, and in return, the lord would provide a feast for his servants and their families.
Valmont Raid 1416
Good book guide
Thoughts on Authenticity
The dawning of Easter Day was special and
memorable for medieval people, with many
gathering before dawn to watch the sun rise.
Beaufort Battle Honours
JAYNE E ..
Members of each parish would stand near the parish church and sing hymns as the sun slowly rose and church bells rang out. After greeting the first rays, they would be led to
In the next issuer:
church by the parish priest, singing hymns of joy as they went. As well as the church’s cele-
Needle points bodkins
who could afford it, would wear a new set of
The battle of Knockdoe
clothes on Easter Sunday. For many, this
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brations, Easter Day was a day for pleasure and fun after six weeks of fasting. Anyone
Is this the way to Amarillo?
It’s here again the season is starting with three events in a short space of time.
2: Warwick Castle, four days at a premier site, plus a birthday and stage do!
Saturday nights in York are good
3: 19th April, Morley Leeds— more chances to sharpen your skills and have a good time. Oh my poor liver!
Next Issue— 1: Palm Sunday at Towton—if May you haven’t been on the bat2009 tlefield tour it’s a must. Also
Personalities of the Wars of the Roses Late HYW Personalities—Janico Dartasso
B ea u f o r t C o m p a n y e N ew s l et t er
Born in Navarre of Basque descent, Dartasso served in the AngloNavarrese garrison of Cherbourg where, in 1379, he captured Olivier du Guesclin. Dartasso's pursuit of du Guesclin's ransom, set at 40,000 gold francs, led him to transfer to English service and by December 1380 he was serving in the garrison of Guînes. By 1384 he was retained by Henry (Hotspur) Percy and was present at the English defeat at Otterburn in 1388. In 1390 he participated in the jousts of St Inglevert, Calais and then joined the crusade of Louis, Duc de Bourbon, against the Hafsid city of Mahdiyya . When mounting casualties obliged Bourbon to lift his siege, Dartasso journeyed to Prussia to join the Earl of Derby in his campaign against the Teutonic Knights in Lithuanians. Such exploits resulted in him being retained by the King and he was subsequently sent on a series of confidential missions to Italy in 1393; Paris in 1396 and to the Rhineland in 1397 to consult with regards Richard's potential election as Holy Roman Emperor. In between he distinguished himself during the King's expeditions to Ireland in 1394 and 1399. The latter campaign was cut short by the news of Henry of Lancaster's invasion and Dartasso accompanied the King back to Wales and remained with him while the rest of his household dissolved. His defiant conduct at Richard's surrender and refusal to take off the King's livery badge caused him to be confined in Chester Castle . Dartasso soon made his peace with the new regime and he swiftly established himself in the Royal Household. By 1401 he had become a permanent resident in Ireland following his marriage to an Anglo-Irish heiress and as Constable of Dublin and Steward of Ulster he defeated a Scottish raiding party in 1405 and launched a successful campaign into Ulster in 1409. The resumption of Anglo-French hostilities saw Dartasso return to France where he was contracted to serve with a company of ten men-at-arms and thirty mounted archers. By January 1416 he was part of the garrison at Harfleur and played a significant role in assisting Thomas Beaufort, Earl of Dorset to defeat superior French forces that confronted them at Valmont. He was later was present at the siege of Rouen and took out letters of protection for the King's third and final French campaign in 1421. On his eventual return to Ireland he resumed his role as Steward of Ulster until his death in 1426. I Brandt
Ian “Sir Evil” Brandt
“Student hurled to his death in medieval siege catapult stunt Riazat Butt, Tuesday November 01 2005, The Guardian An Oxford University student died when he was flung 30 metres through the air by a catapult as a stunt, but instead of landing on a safety net he only clipped it before striking the ground, an inquest heard yesterday. Kostydin Yankov, 19, a member of the Oxford Stunt Factory, had paid £40 to be launched from a trebuchet, a copy of a medieval siege weapon adapted to throw people rather than stone missiles. He broke his legs and spine on hitting the ground after falling from the near edge of the 10 metre by 20 metre (about 30ft by 60ft) safety net, and later died at Frenchay hospital in Bristol. Mr Yankov, visited the Middlemoor water park in near Bridgwater, Somerset, in November 2002 together with four other members of the stunt club. A jury at the inquest in Taunton, Somerset, heard how the four who went before Mr Yankov had landed at the near end of the safety net, rather than in the middle, and some of them became concerned about the safety of the trebuchet stunt. Oliver Nelkin, had felt anxious seeing people land so close to the edge. In a written statement read to the inquest, he said: I saw MR Yankov coming down. He was in a ball and clipped the edge of the net. Then I heard a thump and he landed on the ground below. I knew immediately something had gone wrong." The machine was designed and built by David Aitkenhead and Richard Wicks in April 2000. Last year the two men stood trial for manslaughter at Bristol crown court over Mr Yankov's death, but they were cleared because of a lack of evidence. The inquest is expected to finish tomorrow.” As Marks colleague said it beggars belief that anyone would be so daft
B ea u f o r t C o m p a n y e N ew s l et t er
Thomas Beaufort, Earl of Dorset and the Valmont Raid, March 1416 Thomas Beaufort as Admiral of England was responsible for commanding the fleet which sailed from Southampton on 12 August 1415 in support of Henry V’s invasion of France. When Harfleur capitulated on 22 September 1415 it was delivered into Dorset’s authority with instruction to repair the defences and hold it for the King. On 9 March 1416 Dorset set out with a force of 1000 mounted men on a three day raid to the north east and having burned Cany on the 11 March 1416 he turned for home. However as the English column passed through Ouainville it was spotted by a French patrol and by the time Dorset reached Valmont he found the road blocked by a 5000 strong French mounted forces led by the Count d’Armagnac. Dorset quickly dismounted his men and, having sent his horses to the rear, formed a single thin line. The French launched one mounted charge after another and before long gaps began to appear in the English formation but at the height of the fighting French knights broke through but, instead of wheeling around to finish of their opponents, they fell upon the baggage train and fell to looting. Dorset, though wounded, used the lull in the fighting to reform his line and leading them into the gardens and orchards of the town he took up a strong defensive position behind a tall hedge and ditch.
De Loigny’s men quickly dismounted and charged down the steep hill using a number of goat tracks but as a consequence of the terrain they soon lost all semblance of order and, having allowed the English to form line, were utterly routed losing a large number of men. As the English began stripping the dead a second French column under D’Armagnac arrived but, before they could attack, the English picked up their arms and charged up the hill and astonishingly put the French to rout. As the French survivors fled toward Rouen, the Harfleur garrison, having been alerted by the sound of the fighting on the cliff top, sallied forth on horseback and engaged them in hot pursuit for several miles, capturing many prisoners in the process. Within a short period of time the two victorious bands of Englishmen, one mounted and the other footsore and bedraggled, entered Harfleur laden with the spoils of war and amid a tumultuous reception. As a reward for his tenacity and firm discipline Devon was elevated to Duke of Exeter and made a Knight of the Garter.
D’Armagnac, not relishing the idea of launching an attack against such a strong defense, attempted to negotiate the English surrender and dispatched a herald to Ian Brandt negotiate the English surrender. Dorset however was in no mood to discuss terms and retorted
“Tell your masters that Englishmen do not surrender”. As evening approached the French army withdrew to obtain food and water and Dorset took the opportunity to escape toward the west. At Fecamp Dorset turned south-west toward Harfleur and by dawn the English had reached the dense woods surrounding Les Loges some 14 miles from Valmont where they halted and took cover. As darkness fell on the 12 March 1416 the English broke camp and headed toward the coast. At Etretat they turned toward Harfleur which still lay some 30 miles to the west but as dawn broke on the 13 March they were within ten miles of safety. There luck was soon to run out as they approached the foot of the cliffs of St.Andress they were discovered by a mounted column under the Marshal de Loigny. 3
Recommended Books _ By Mark Hinsley
B ea u f o r t C o m p a n y e N ew s l et t er .Civilian
The Wars of the Roses The Wars of the Roses – Osprey - Men at Arms series – Terence Wise (author), Gerry Embleton (illustrator) A clear and concise (80 pages) guide to the wars which is well illustrated with photographs, diagrams, and colour plates illustrating soldiers of the period. A good first book to get a simple understanding of what happened in the wars. It normally retails in bookshops for £12 so this is a bargain. The Wars of the Roses – Seen through the lives of 5 mean and women. - Desmond Seward An alternative view on the period to the above account which focuses purely on the Military History. This focuses on the personal, following the lives of five influential men and women who lived through the period; The Earl of Oxford – a firm Lancastrian, Margaret Beaufort (mother of Henry Tudor), Jane Shore (a mistress of Edward IV) , Lord Hastings – Edward IV’s friend and drinking companion, and Bishop Morton and how the wars affected their lives.
The Yorkist Age – Paul Murray Kendall A highly readable book which focuses on the times, rather than the wars themselves, it has a particularly good section on life in the towns and cities and the role of the mayor and alderman. It makes the case that economically the period was a good one for many people and that the lot of the poorer classes was in many ways better than under the Tudors, the Wars of the Roses were not the national calamity that later Tudor historian suggested, though lawlessness was a problem. As with all Kendall’s books it is highly readable.
Warwick the Kingmaker – Paul Murray Kendall. A highly readable account of the adventurous life of Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick, aka as the “Kingmaker” and owner of Warwick Castle. Propelled into the role of statesman in his early 20’s Warwick was the mainstay of the early Yorkist cause and his control of the Calais garrison in the late 1450’s was a constant problem to the Lancastrian government. He went on to place Edward IV on the throne and was effectively ruler of the country in the early 1460’s. However as Edward IV asserted control he and Warwick fell out. Warwick rose in rebellion in concert with the kings brother George, Duke of Clarence and briefly imprisoned Edward, before making common cause with the exiled Lancastrians and restoring Henry VI to the throne, before his defeat and death at the battle of Barnet. Kendall is much criticised by other historians, because he pads his books and fills the gaps in places, with a bit of imaginative writing – making it more akin to a historical novel rather than a biography. However I would say that this does make his books infinitely more readable than the drier tomes of some of his detractors. Good as a starter on the subject and if your after pinpoint accuracy you may wish to read more widely later. Naturally as Warwick is killed in 1471 at the Battle of Barnet, the book only covers the first two phases of the Wars.
The Pastons and their England. Canto, This is a book that goes much further than the title suggests it really covers all aspects of civilian life of the period drawing on considerably more sources on the paston letters alone including the marriage hunt, travelling, communication, law and lawlessness, medieval women's role in the family and society.
The End of the House of Lancaster – R.L. Storey A superb book reA drier read than the Yorkist Age, but fills constructed from documents in the Public Records office. Excellent at illustrating the causes of the wars, how the collapse of law and order caused by Henry VI’s ineffectual rule, resulted in unrestrained local feuds (including the Neville-Percy feud), which ultimately fed into the wider disputes, between the great magnates which were to make the Wars of the Roses possible. Consequently it tends to concentrate mainly on the first phase the period 1450-1461 and the Lancastrian re-adeption of 1470-1471. Filled with juicy vendetta’s and violence, it is highly readable. A must for any enthusiast of the Wars of the Roses and great material for event scenario’s 4
B ea u f o r t C o m p a n y e N ew s l et t er Armour, Equipment and Costumes The English Longbowman 1330 -1530, Clive Bartlett (author), Gerry Embleton (illustrator) – Osprey Warrior Series It includes details on the history, recruitment, equipmen,t costume and training of English Longbowmen, with superb illustrations by Gerry Embleton. Although covering a larger time period than the one we are immediately interested in the majority of the book is relevant. It includes a useful ‘spreadsheet’ illustrating an archers basic equipment - what all our members should aspire to. It is written and illustrated by Re-enactors of the period, Clive (Saint) Bartlett who founded the White Company (the original 15th Century umbrella group from which most of the existing 15th Century groups sprang – Matt & I were members many moons ago) and Gerry Embleton (Saint Gerald) who now runs with John Howe (qv) an ultra authentic group called the Company of St George formed mainly of English ex-patriates in Switzerland. Medieval Military costume recreated in Colour Photographs , Europa Militaria Series, Gerry Embleton Based around superb photographs of the Company of St George mentioned above, this focuses on the whole medieval period but the majority of the book covers the 15th Century, albeit covering western Europe as a whole. It is literally crammed with good photographs and colour drawings. Despite the title book does have a number of illustrations, of the clothing of Medieval women and house/camp fire scenes. An excellent guide to the look we are trying to achieve.
Authenticity and ReRe-enactment
B ea u f o r t C o m p a n y e N ew s l et t er
This article is designed to be thought provoking and to help people consider what they are doing and why? I hope that future articles can be published, following on from this. With members expressing their views:
Authenticity What is it about this word that provokes fear, anger, and self-righteous indignation simultaneously? Most of us are attracted to this hobby out of a love for history and a fascination with the lives of those who have gone on before us. Don't we owe those very same people the minimum respect of not lying about them, visually or verbally? How does one go about portraying the past in an authentic way? The first item to discuss is patience. Rushing in to anything is the best way to do it poorly. The impulse to charge ahead and buy or make things for a historical impression leaves many, when confronted about authenticity, scrambling to somehow justify the form of an object or even its very existence. Rule #1: Get the documentation first, buy, commission, or make last. Acceptable documentation can be derived from period accounts, period illustrations, surviving period objects, and or from archeological evidence. Rule #2: Acceptable documentation should be derived solely from primary sources. What we want to document is a "pattern" of use, not the unique exception. Rule #3: Document for commonality. Dare to be average! The final stage is documenting for appropriateness. This essentially means asking yourself, "is this object something my character would reasonably have had access to physically or financially?” At this point, remember that although almost anything is possible, what you want to represent is what is probable. Rule #4: Document for appropriateness. Documentation that cannot be produced is hearsay. Hearsay, regardless of the source, is not generally admissible as evidence. Rule #5: Avoid all "phantom" documentation. The ultimate responsibility for the issue of documentation lies solely on you. Don't believe the veteran re-enactor who tells you "…….". Don't believe them, unless of course, they can produce the documentation to back up what they are saying. 6
B ea u f o r t C o m p a n y e N ew s l et t er
Rule #6: Trust no one born after 1500. Before going further, there are admittedly some items that will escape being fully documented, but still may be acceptable. There is room for speculation, but it needs to be done with logic and tact. Rule #7: Avoid speculation if you can, and where you must, minimize the effect. The next mistake often occurs you can make everything yourself, a few rare individuals can. Don't lessen the validity of an otherwise good impression with poor accessories of your own making. Rule #8: Know the limitations of your own skills and abilities For most of us it is best to find a skilled craftsman and have them produce a documented object, or purchase a documented object from a supplier. Rule #9: Whenever possible, obtain objects produced with period techniques and materials. If you are already fully decked from head to toe, maybe it's time to sit down and reevaluate your appearance. Can you document it, or are you just fooling yourself? This process of reevaluation should be an ongoing one for all of us; there is no shame in admitting errors and correcting them. New documentation comes to light continuously, and as living historians we should always be in search of it. Some of the saddest looking reenactors today are the ones, who ten years ago were on the cutting edge, but they stopped searching and learning, and today stand firmly behind research that has now been proven obsolete. Rule #10: Be willing to periodically re-evaluate your appearance and make corrections accordingly. We all benefit as the standards of the hobby rise. Rule #11: Don't hoard documentation, make it available to others. Isn't the pursuit of truth and honoring those from the past that we are trying to emulate, reasons enough to both strive for authenticity and to use all of the physical and financial resources at hand to come as close as possible to grasping it?
Rule #12: Is this my Station? Military equipment, civilian clothing, tentage and accessories should be consistent and comparable to the station you wish to portray and should extend across your "family unit" - before you buy anything decide in your own mind who you are in the 15th C
Rule #A: Have some serious fun, authenticity isn’t boring! 7
B ea u f o r t C o m p a n y e N ew s l et t er KNOW YOUR BEAUFORTS
Cookery Corner, Part 8 Roast Pork with Oranges & Onions PERIOD:
NAME Phil Howell THE FACTS: Group Secretary Billman, archer, officer, sword-god & sometimes King — “Uncle Phil” is there for All of you.
English , 15thC|SOURCE: The English Huswife|Authentic
Difficulty Medium To make an excellent sauce for a roast capon, you shall take onions, and having sliced and peeled them, boile them in faire water with pepper, salt and a few bread crumbs; then pour unto it a spoonful of claret wine, the juice of an orange and three or four slices of a lemon peel; all these shred together and so pour it on the capon being broke up.
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Caption Competition:— “Oh God! They’ve started the Karaoke” Now its your turn. Replies to: [email protected]
Beaufort Battle Honours 1390 Mahdiyya, North Africa 1394 Lettow, Lithuania 1396 Nicopolis, Bulgaria 1403 Shrewsbury 1405 Siege of Calais (besieger) 1415 Harfleur (besieger) 1416 Valmont 1418 Siege of Rouen (besieger) 1421 Bauge 1436 Siege of Calais (defender) 1449 Siege of Rouen (defender) 1450 Siege of Caen (defender)
1461 St Albans 1462 Siege of Bamburgh Castle (defender) 1464 Hedgley Moor 1464 Hexham 1465 Montl'herey 1467 Liege 1471 Tewkesbury
10 6 lb. centre cut pork loins 1 lb. cooking onion, minced 1 lb. butter 2 tbs. each pepper & salt 1 litre bottle of claret wine juice of a dozen oranges 4 lemons sliced 1 cup very fine brown bread crumbs Sauté onions in butter with salt & pepper. Add orange juice and wine. Let stand. Roast pork at 350º F for 1 1/2 hours in a Dutch oven or other covered containers. Remove from racks and degrease. Add liquid mixture to pork; put back in oven and roast for three hours, or until a meat thermometer shows 170º F when inserted. Degrease liquid again; add bread crumbs until mixture thickens. Slice pork and serve with sliced lemons, with the sauce on the side or served in sippits. Originally for roasted chicken, but pork is a firm white meat similar to a capon, it goes well with leftover pork; the orangey, wine flavour was a good counterpoint to the meats.
1485 Bosworth (Charles Somerset nee Beaufort) 1487 East Stoke (Charles Wars of the Roses Somerset nee Beaufort) 1455 St Albans 1513 Siege of Ther1459 Siege of Calais (besieger) ouanne. I Brandt 1460 Siege of Guines (defender) 1460 Worksop 1460 Wakefield 1460 Towton