Assistive Technology LIFESAVERS. For AAC Strategies. Created by Marcia Sterner OCPS Assistive Technology Team

Assistive Technology LIFESAVERS For AAC Strategies Created by Marcia Sterner OCPS Assistive Technology Team [email protected] Assistive Techno...
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Assistive Technology

LIFESAVERS For AAC Strategies Created by Marcia Sterner OCPS Assistive Technology Team [email protected]

Assistive Technology

LIFESAVERS For AAC Strategies Created by Marcia Sterner OCPS Assistive Technology Team [email protected]

Aided Language One of the easiest and most important strategies communication partners can use to help AAC users be more successful is aided language or modeling. This simple technique involves partners using their students’ communication systems by pointing to pictures on a display or device while they verbally interact with the student. Typically developing children are exposed to hundreds of people who, by just talking, provide natural models for their speech development. Our students who use AAC have few if any models in their environment communicating as they do. Because of this we can’t just talk to our students and then expect them to communicate with us using their AAC system. It would be like talking to them in English and expecting them to speak to us in Spanish – which we would never do. But when we don’t model use of their system that’s exactly what we are doing. Then we scratch our heads and wonder why our students aren’t using their devices effectively. Our students need to see frequent models of someone “speaking their language”. What does it look like? • Device must be available at all times or aided language is not possible • Communication partner points to symbols on the student’s device or display as they speak using a finger or a light cue – it doesn’t have to be every symbol, it can be just the key words • Partner can also model on their own display • Choose the rate and complexity of language according to student need • Consider teaching peers to use this strategy when they interact with the student • Used throughout the day Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2013

Aided Language One of the easiest and most important strategies communication partners can use to help AAC users be more successful is aided language or modeling. This simple technique involves partners using their students’ communication systems by pointing to pictures on a display or device while they verbally interact with the student. Typically developing children are exposed to hundreds of people who, by just talking, provide natural models for their speech development. Our students who use AAC have few if any models in their environment communicating as they do. Because of this we can’t just talk to our students and then expect them to communicate with us using their AAC system. It would be like talking to them in English and expecting them to speak to us in Spanish – which we would never do. But when we don’t model use of their system that’s exactly what we are doing. Then we scratch our heads and wonder why our students aren’t using their devices effectively. Our students need to see frequent models of someone “speaking their language”. What does it look like? • Device must be available at all times or aided language is not possible • Communication partner points to symbols on the student’s device or display as they speak using a finger or a light cue – it doesn’t have to be every symbol, it can be just the key words • Partner can also model on their own display • Choose the rate and complexity of language according to student need • Consider teaching peers to use this strategy when they interact with the student • Used throughout the day Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2013

Aided Language Stimulation

(cont.)

What are the benefits? • Communication partners get familiar with the vocabulary on the device • It validates the use of the system for the AAC user • Students learn how aided symbols are used to communicate • When communication partner models more complex language it exposes student to additional vocabulary • AAC users who communicate more effectively and efficiently • Students get to see and learn new language on their communication systems in the context of natural communication situations.

“The attitudes and expectations of people in the environment may to some extent influence all children’s language development, but they may be critical for children who use alternative forms because these children depend on the means and opportunities provided by professionals.” von Tetzchner & Grove Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2013

Aided Language Stimulation

(cont.)

What are the benefits? • Communication partners get familiar with the vocabulary on the device • It validates the use of the system for the AAC user • Students learn how aided symbols are used to communicate • When communication partner models more complex language it exposes student to additional vocabulary • AAC users who communicate more effectively and efficiently • Students get to see and learn new language on their communication systems in the context of natural communication situations.

“The attitudes and expectations of people in the environment may to some extent influence all children’s language development, but they may be critical for children who use alternative forms because these children depend on the means and opportunities provided by professionals.” von Tetzchner & Grove Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2013

Choosing Routines for AAC Use A student’s success using AAC can often depend on the activity or routine chosen for implementation. Therefore: 1. Choose routines that occur frequently. This allows for lots of “natural practice”. 2. Choose routines in which the student already attempts to communicate (vocalizations, gestures, eye pointing). 3. Choose routines in which the student and the communication partner(s) have time for communicative interaction. 4. Choose routines that are feasible for using the communication aid. Examples on back...

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2000

Choosing Routines for AAC Use A student’s success using AAC can often depend on the activity or routine chosen for implementation. Therefore: 1. Choose routines that occur frequently. This allows for lots of “natural practice”. 2. Choose routines in which the student already attempts to communicate (vocalizations, gestures, eye pointing). 3. Choose routines in which the student and the communication partner(s) have time for communicative interaction. 4. Choose routines that are feasible for using the communication aid. Examples on back...

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2000

Choosing Routines for AAC Use

pg. 2

Examples: Social: greeting students in the hall; telling the joke or riddle of the day Classroom: assigning jobs to students; participating during morning circle; choosing centers or leisure time activities; taking the attendance to the office; snack time; story time; cooking and art activities. Pre-Voc/Vocational: asking for supplies needed for task; asking to take a break; requesting assistance; asking for more work to do.

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2000

Choosing Routines for AAC Use

pg. 2

Examples: Social: greeting students in the hall; telling the joke or riddle of the day Classroom: assigning jobs to students; participating during morning circle; choosing centers or leisure time activities; taking the attendance to the office; snack time; story time; cooking and art activities. Pre-Voc/Vocational: asking for supplies needed for task; asking to take a break; requesting assistance; asking for more work to do.

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2000

Communication Interaction Strategies Use these strategies to create more opportunities for your students to communicate. ♦







ENVIRONMENTAL ARRANGEMENT - Have desired items in view but out of reach in order to create the need for the student to ask for them. NOVEL ELEMENT - During a familiar routine introduce something novel. For example, produce a paper spoon during a Kool Aid making activity. SABOTAGE - Create a situation where the student must ask for help. For example, remove the chair from the computer station so the student must ask for for one, or give the student an item in a container that he/she can not open so that the student must ask for help. OVERSIGHT - Leave something out of a familiar routine. For example pretend you are about to pour the juice with no cup on the table. Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2000

Communication Interaction Strategies Use these strategies to create more opportunities for your students to communicate. ♦







ENVIRONMENTAL ARRANGEMENT - Have desired items in view but out of reach in order to create the need for the student to ask for them. NOVEL ELEMENT - During a familiar routine introduce something novel. For example, produce a paper spoon during a Kool Aid making activity. SABOTAGE - Create a situation where the student must ask for help. For example, remove the chair from the computer station so the student must ask for for one, or give the student an item in a container that he/she can not open so that the student must ask for help. OVERSIGHT - Leave something out of a familiar routine. For example pretend you are about to pour the juice with no cup on the table. Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2000

ECT Prompt Hierarchy This hierarchy moves from the least direct cue to the most direct. 1. Pause - Following a question, statement, or step in an activity focus attention on student and...PAUSE. If there is no response go to step 2. 2. Open Question - Ask a wh question such as “What do you need?”, “Where does it go?”, or “Who gets the next turn?” and then...PAUSE 3. Partial Prompt - Ask a question that contains a choice such as ”Do you want the car or the blocks?” and then ...PAUSE 4. Full Model - Provide a full model for the student to imitate and...PAUSE

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2000

ECT Prompt Hierarchy This hierarchy moves from the least direct cue to the most direct. 1. Pause - Following a question, statement, or step in an activity focus attention on student and...PAUSE. If there is no response go to step 2. 2. Open Question - Ask a wh question such as “What do you need?”, “Where does it go?”, or “Who gets the next turn?” and then...PAUSE 3. Partial Prompt - Ask a question that contains a choice such as ”Do you want the car or the blocks?” and then ...PAUSE 4. Full Model - Provide a full model for the student to imitate and...PAUSE

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2000

Shadow Light Cuing Shadow light cuing is a way to use a visual cue, that of a small flashlight beam (a laser pointer, available at most office supply stores, works even better), to help a student access picture symbols on a manual communication board or device display. These cues are listed in order, from least direct to most direct. Search Light Cue Move the flashlight back and forth across the entire overlay to help the student focus his/her attention on the display. Momentary Light Cue Turn the flashlight on and off while keeping the light focused on the target you want the student to access. Constant Light Cue Maintain the beam of the flashlight on the target.

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2000

Shadow Light Cuing Shadow light cuing is a way to use a visual cue, that of a small flashlight beam (a laser pointer, available at most office supply stores, works even better), to help a student access picture symbols on a manual communication board or device display. These cues are listed in order, from least direct to most direct. Search Light Cue Move the flashlight back and forth across the entire overlay to help the student focus his/her attention on the display. Momentary Light Cue Turn the flashlight on and off while keeping the light focused on the target you want the student to access. Constant Light Cue Maintain the beam of the flashlight on the target. Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2000

Descriptive Feedback Use descriptive feedback instead of form-related reinforcement (“good talking”, “nice sitting”) and non-specific praise (“good job”). If you wouldn’t say it to a peer its probably not appropriate to say it to a student. Descriptive feedback serves three functions: ♦ It immediately acknowledges that the listener “heard” the student. ♦ It confirms that the message sent by the student was the one understood by the listener. ♦ It can be used to model an expansion of the message expressed by the student. Examples of descriptive feedback are: ♦ “Great, you asked for more juice, and here it is.” ♦ “You said you feel angry, why are you angry?” ♦ “You asked for scissors, what do you need them for?”

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2006

Descriptive Feedback Use descriptive feedback instead of form-related reinforcement (“good talking”, “nice sitting”) and non-specific praise (“good job”). If you wouldn’t say it to a peer its probably not appropriate to say it to a student. Descriptive feedback serves three functions: ♦ It immediately acknowledges that the listener “heard” the student. ♦ It confirms that the message sent by the student was the one understood by the listener. ♦ It can be used to model an expansion of the message expressed by the student. Examples of descriptive feedback are: ♦ “Great, you asked for more juice, and here it is.” ♦ “You said you feel angry, why are you angry?” ♦ “You asked for scissors, what do you need them for?” Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2006

Ten Tips for Becoming a Better Communication Partner These tips are adapted from the book Solving Behavior Problems in Autism by Linda Hodgdon (available at her website www.usevisualstrategies.com) but are appropriate to use with all students. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Get down on the students level. Often students are sitting and the adults are standing. Do what ever is needed to get at eye level with the student. Establish attention. Move to an appropriate proximity to the child and assure that you have their attention before speaking. Prepare the student for what you are going to communicate. It may be helpful to have a visual to support what you are about to say. Use gestures and body language meaningfully. Make sure they support your message and are not a distraction. It may be helpful to exaggerate them slightly or do them slowly. Support your communication visually. Use any visual support available: objects, pictures, schedules, written messages, etc. Speak slowly and clearly. Students need time to process the information. Communicate your message with a minimum of words. Limit your verbalization. Speak your message and wait. Don’t keep repeating yourself. Include wait time. Give the student time to process and respond but stay engaged with the student with an expectant look on your face. Guide or prompt only when needed. After waiting for a response provide a minimal cue such as an open question or a choice. Providing too much support makes students prompt dependent. Stay with the interaction until you reach a desired response. Give the student time to respond, prompt only when necessary, and use visual supports to help your students respond appropriately. Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2008

Ten Tips for Becoming a Better Communication Partner These tips are adapted from the book Solving Behavior Problems in Autism by Linda Hodgdon (available at her website www.usevisualstrategies.com) but are appropriate to use with all students. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Get down on the students level. Often students are sitting and the adults are standing. Do what ever is needed to get at eye level with the student. Establish attention. Move to an appropriate proximity to the child and assure that you have their attention before speaking. Prepare the student for what you are going to communicate. It may be helpful to have a visual to support what you are about to say. Use gestures and body language meaningfully. Make sure they support your message and are not a distraction. It may be helpful to exaggerate them slightly or do them slowly. Support your communication visually. Use any visual support available: objects, pictures, schedules, written messages, etc. Speak slowly and clearly. Students need time to process the information. Communicate your message with a minimum of words. Limit your verbalization. Speak your message and wait. Don’t keep repeating yourself. Include wait time. Give the student time to process and respond but stay engaged with the student with an expectant look on your face. Guide or prompt only when needed. After waiting for a response provide a minimal cue such as an open question or a choice. Providing too much support makes students prompt dependent. Stay with the interaction until you reach a desired response. Give the student time to respond, prompt only when necessary, and use visual supports to help your students respond appropriately. Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2008

Single Message Device Ideas School • Make choices (I want a puzzle, please.) • Make requests (I want that one.) • Request additional items (more, please.) • Request more time (5 more minutes.) • Reading (turn the page) • Make comments (I like this.) • Request to stop (I need a break.) • Comfort (Rub my back, please.) • Pledge of Allegiance • Greetings (How’s it going?) • Jokes /Riddles • Morning circle (Today is…) • Request assistance (I need help.) • Sharing time (I went to the beach.) • Simple songs • Repetitive story lines (But he was still hungry!)

• • • • • • •

Start races (On your marks, get set, go!) Announcing the lunch menu Sharing info between home and school Recite lines in a play Give the weather report (Today’s weather is…) Tattle tale (Billy’s out of his seat.) Games (My turn.)

Home & Community • Make requests (Dad, bring home a video.) • Cheer at sporting events (Go Titans) • Greeting others (Hi! How are you?)

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2001

Single Message Device Ideas School • Make choices (I want a puzzle, please.) • Make requests (I want that one.) • Request additional items (more, please.) • Request more time (5 more minutes.) • Reading (turn the page) • Make comments (I like this.) • Request to stop (I need a break.) • Comfort (Rub my back, please.) • Pledge of Allegiance • Greetings (How’s it going?) • Jokes /Riddles • Morning circle (Today is…) • Request assistance (I need help.) • Sharing time (I went to the beach.) • Simple songs • Repetitive story lines (But he was still hungry!)

(ex. BIG/LITTLEmack)

• • • • • • •

(ex. BIG/LITTLEmack)

Start races (On your marks, get set, go!) Announcing the lunch menu Sharing info between home and school Recite lines in a play Give the weather report (Today’s weather is…) Tattle tale (Billy’s out of his seat.) Games (My turn.)

Home & Community • Make requests (Dad, bring home a video.) • Cheer at sporting events (Go Titans) • Greeting others (Hi! How are you?)

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2001

Sequential Message Device Ideas (ex. BIG/LITTLE Step-by-step Communicator) School • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Reciting nursery rhymes and poems Reciting days of the week, months Announcing the lunch menu Reading lines in a story Reciting the Pledge of Allegiance Give spelling quiz to class Take attendance Give the weather report Sing lines of a song Tell about your weekend, vacation, etc Give a book report Show and Tell Sharing info between home & school Reciting lines in a play Telling a joke Complaining (Am I done yet? Stop that!) Playing Duck, Duck, Goose

• • • • • • •

Give announcements Daily schedule Reciting numbers or the alphabet Checking out a library book Starting a race (On your marks, get set, go!) Directions for completing a task Getting attention (come here, please)

Home & Community • • • • • • • • •

Ordering in a restaurant Telling personal information (name, address, etc) Grocery list Steps for personal care activities Greeter at church Feeding a pet Direct setting the table Give recipe instructions Cheering at sporting events Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2001

Sequential Message Device Ideas (ex. BIG/LITTLE Step-by-step Communicator) School • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Reciting nursery rhymes and poems Reciting days of the week, months Announcing the lunch menu Reading lines in a story Reciting the Pledge of Allegiance Give spelling quiz to class Take attendance Give the weather report Sing lines of a song Tell about your weekend, vacation, etc Give a book report Show and Tell Sharing info between home & school Reciting lines in a play Telling a joke Complaining (Am I done yet? Stop that!) Playing Duck, Duck, Goose

• • • • • • •

Give announcements Daily schedule Reciting numbers or the alphabet Checking out a library book Starting a race (On your marks, get set, go!) Directions for completing a task Getting attention (come here, please)

Home & Community • • • • • • • • •

Ordering in a restaurant Telling personal information (name, address, etc) Grocery list Steps for personal care activities Greeter at church Feeding a pet Direct setting the table Give recipe instructions Cheering at sporting events Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2001

Vocabulary Selection Vocabulary selection is a critical key to the success of an augmentative communication system. When selecting vocabulary it is important to make sure that the vocabulary takes into account the individual’s: • Age • Sex • Ethnic background • Interests • Communicative Style Vocabulary must also include all parts of speech: nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, etc Vocabulary must allow a person to: ask and answer questions, comment, accept/reject, greet/part 4 Social Purposes of Communication (Janice Light) • Basic Needs—communicating basic wants and needs • Information Exchange—asking and answering questions, sharing information • Social Closeness—”connecting” with others, developing personal relationships • Social Routines—Social conventions of politeness such as “please”, “thank you” Ways to select vocabulary include: • role playing the activity • observing speaking kids doing the same activity • audio or videotaping the activity and writing the vocabulary later • brainstorming Once a list is formulated prioritize the vocabulary and choose the initial vocabulary to start with. It will be necessary to continually review and revise the vocabulary as it is implemented with the student. Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2006

Vocabulary Selection Vocabulary selection is a critical key to the success of an augmentative communication system. When selecting vocabulary it is important to make sure that the vocabulary takes into account the individual’s: • Age • Sex • Ethnic background • Interests • Communicative Style Vocabulary must also include all parts of speech: nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, etc Vocabulary must allow a person to: ask and answer questions, comment, accept/reject, greet/part 4 Social Purposes of Communication (Janice Light) • Basic Needs—communicating basic wants and needs • Information Exchange—asking and answering questions, sharing information • Social Closeness—”connecting” with others, developing personal relationships • Social Routines—Social conventions of politeness such as “please”, “thank you” Ways to select vocabulary include: • role playing the activity • observing speaking kids doing the same activity • audio or videotaping the activity and writing the vocabulary later • brainstorming Once a list is formulated prioritize the vocabulary and choose the initial vocabulary to start with. It will be necessary to continually review and revise the vocabulary as it is implemented with the student. Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2006

Vocabulary Organization Once vocabulary is selected for an activity it can be organized onto displays in various formats depending on the needs of the user and the situation. The primary goal is effective and efficient communication. •







Activity based: vocabulary is organized by situation; provides memory or contextual cues; how children first classify their world. Examples: puzzle activity, snack, morning circle Category Based: vocabulary organized by category; requires knowledge of classification & categorization; difficult to use appropriate syntax and express complete thoughts. Example: topic board Semantic-Syntactic: vocabulary organized by semantics or syntax; facilitates language and literacy skills; allows generation of complex thoughts. Example: Fitzgerald Key Alphanumeric: Vocabulary organized alphabetically; requires literacy skills; allows generation of complex thoughts and novel messages. Examples: letter boards, word boards Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2005

Vocabulary Organization Once vocabulary is selected for an activity it can be organized onto displays in various formats depending on the needs of the user and the situation. The primary goal is effective and efficient communication. •







Activity based: vocabulary is organized by situation; provides memory or contextual cues; how children first classify their world. Examples: puzzle activity, snack, morning circle Category Based: vocabulary organized by category; requires knowledge of classification & categorization; difficult to use appropriate syntax and express complete thoughts. Example: topic board Semantic-Syntactic: vocabulary organized by semantics or syntax; facilitates language and literacy skills; allows generation of complex thoughts. Example: Fitzgerald Key Alphanumeric: Vocabulary organized alphabetically; requires literacy skills; allows generation of complex thoughts and novel messages. Examples: letter boards, word boards

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2005

Display Organization After you have chosen how you are going to organize your vocabulary on your manual communication board/overlay there are some additional items to consider: •

• • •







Hand Use and ROM—take into consideration when determining the size of the display as well as the size and location of targets Position—what positions will the student be in throughout the day (sidelying, stander, etc.) Vision—will determine type and size of symbols used Message creation—whole message within a single cell vs. sequencing cells to create a message Language Structure - structure symbols to support creating complete sentences such as having nouns/pronouns first, then verbs, then objects (modified Fitzgerald key) Frequency of Use—have frequently used vocabulary where it can be accessed the most quickly Repeated vocabulary across displays/pages should be in the same location

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2005

Display Organization After you have chosen how you are going to organize your vocabulary on your manual communication board/overlay there are some additional items to consider: •

• • •







Hand Use and ROM—take into consideration when determining the size of the display as well as the size and location of targets Position—what positions will the student be in throughout the day (sidelying, stander, etc.) Vision—will determine type and size of symbols used Message creation—whole message within a single cell vs. sequencing cells to create a message Language Structure - structure symbols to support creating complete sentences such as having nouns/pronouns first, then verbs, then objects (modified Fitzgerald key) Frequency of Use—have frequently used vocabulary where it can be accessed the most quickly Repeated vocabulary across displays/pages should be in the same location

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2005

Color Coding Color-coding is used to facilitate locating symbols more easily on a display. The backgrounds or borders of pictures are highlighted according to grammatical categories. Highlighting the background adds emphasis to the shape of the object which can allow it to be located more easily. Any color coding system is acceptable, just keep it consistent across displays and environments. One color coding system is described below: Grammar

Examples

Color

Verbs

go, drink, like

Green

Descriptors

funny, pretty, cold

Blue

People/Pronouns

Mom, dad, he, she

Yellow

Nouns

school, car, park

Orange

Social/Interjections

Hello, guess what?

Pink

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2014

Color Coding Color-coding is used to facilitate locating symbols more easily on a display. The backgrounds or borders of pictures are highlighted according to grammatical categories. Highlighting the background adds emphasis to the shape of the object which can allow it to be located more easily. Any color coding system is acceptable, just keep it consistent across displays and environments. One color coding system is described below: Grammar

Examples

Color

Verbs

go, drink, like

Green

Descriptors

funny, pretty, cold

Blue

People/Pronouns

Mom, dad, he, she

Yellow

Nouns

school, car, park

Orange

Social/Interjections

Hello, guess what?

Pink

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2014

Clarification of PECS versus the Use of Pictures Sometimes there might be confusion regarding use of picture symbols versus the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). People will say or think that they are using the PECS program when in reality they are simply using picture symbols or visual supports. It is important to clarify some of these terms and strategies in order to better meet the needs of our students. PCS – stands for Picture Communication Symbols which are the symbols in the Boardmaker software program from Mayer-Johnson used to create visuals. Visual Strategies/Supports – any visuals (pictures, photographs, objects, words) used to enhance receptive communication of students. Examples include schedules, task breakdowns, first-then cards, etc. PECS – This is a commercially available program designed to develop communication skills in students. It is a multi-stage program that in the initial phases helps guide students to request desired items or actions and in the later phases students place pictures on a strip to make requests or comments. Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2007

Clarification of PECS versus the Use of Pictures Sometimes there might be confusion regarding use of picture symbols versus the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS). People will say or think that they are using the PECS program when in reality they are simply using picture symbols or visual supports. It is important to clarify some of these terms and strategies in order to better meet the needs of our students. PCS – stands for Picture Communication Symbols which are the symbols in the Boardmaker software program from Mayer-Johnson used to create visuals. Visual Strategies/Supports – any visuals (pictures, photographs, objects, words) used to enhance receptive communication of students. Examples include schedules, task breakdowns, first-then cards, etc. PECS – This is a commercially available program designed to develop communication skills in students. It is a multi-stage program that in the initial phases helps guide students to request desired items or actions and in the later phases students place pictures on a strip to make requests or comments. Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2007

Clarification of PECS versus the Use of Pictures—pg. 2 PECS (continued) The program is designed primarily for students who are not initiating communication or who do not have good imitative skills. Those students who are able to initiate or imitate can be introduced to a manual communication board or a voice output communication device to address their communication needs.

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2007

Clarification of PECS versus the Use of Pictures—pg. 2 PECS (continued) The program is designed primarily for students who are not initiating communication or who do not have good imitative skills. Those students who are able to initiate or imitate can be introduced to a manual communication board or a voice output communication device to address their communication needs.

Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2007

AAC Resources Caroline Musselwhite—practical ideas for supporting students who use AAC. aacintervention.com Implementation Tool Kit - wide variety of resources and supports for implementing AAC. www.dynavoxtech.com AAC Language Lab - teaching materials and resources for implementing AAC. www.aaclanguagelab.com Literacy Instruction for Individuals with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Down Syndrome and Other Disabilities Janice Light & David McNaughton—Penn State University—aacliteracy.psu.edu Special Education Technology—British Columbia (SET-BC) - setbc.org—print resources, visual supports, videos Linda Burkhart—www.lburkhart.com—info on PODD and other resources Gail Van Tatenhove—www.gailvantatenhove.com - info on the Pixon Project and other resources AAC Tech Connect—product and contact information for a wide variety of AAC devices. www.aactechconnect.com Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2010

AAC Resources Caroline Musselwhite—practical ideas for supporting students who use AAC. aacintervention.com Implementation Tool Kit - wide variety of resources and supports for implementing AAC. www.dynavoxtech.com AAC Language Lab - teaching materials and resources for implementing AAC. www.aaclanguagelab.com Literacy Instruction for Individuals with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Down Syndrome and Other Disabilities Janice Light & David McNaughton—Penn State University—aacliteracy.psu.edu Special Education Technology—British Columbia (SET-BC) - setbc.org—print resources, visual supports, videos Linda Burkhart—www.lburkhart.com—info on PODD and other resources Gail Van Tatenhove—www.gailvantatenhove.com - info on the Pixon Project and other resources AAC Tech Connect—product and contact information for a wide variety of AAC devices. www.aactechconnect.com Marcia Sterner Assistive Technology Specialist, 2010