AQUATIC PLANT IDENTIFICATION AND HERBICIDE USE GUIDE

AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RESEARCH PROGRAM % TECHNICAL REPORT A-88-9 AQUATIC PLANT IDENTIFICATION AND HERBICIDE USE GUIDE VOLUME I: AQUATIC HERBICIDES ...
Author: Bryan Allen
0 downloads 1 Views 7MB Size
AQUATIC PLANT CONTROL RESEARCH PROGRAM

%

TECHNICAL REPORT A-88-9

AQUATIC PLANT IDENTIFICATION AND HERBICIDE USE GUIDE VOLUME I: AQUATIC HERBICIDES AND APPLICATION EQUIPMENT by

Howard E. Westerdahl and Kurt D. Getsinger, Editors Environmental Laboratory DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers PO Box 631, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180-0631

November 1988 Final Report Approved For Public Release; Distribution Unlimited

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY US Army Corps of Engineers Washington, DC 20314-1000

Prepared for

Destroy this report when no longer needed. Do not return it to the originator.

The findings in this report are not to be construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents.

The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising, publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not constitute an official endorsement or approval of the use of such commercial products.

LIBRARY ,

Urrited States Government

" Ir

U.S.A. CORPS OF ENGINEERS Unclassified SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THlS PAGE

Form Approved OM6 No. 0704-0188 Exp. Date - lun 30, 1986

REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE l a . REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION

1 b. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS

Unclassified 2a. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY

3 . DlSTRlBUTlONlAVAlLABlLlTY OF REPORT

Approved f o r p u b l i c r e l e a s e ; d i s t r i b u t i o n unlimited.

2b. DECLASSIFICATIONIDOWNGRADlNG SCHEDULE 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S)

5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S)

Technical Report A-88-9 I 6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION

USAEWES Environmental Laboratory

7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION

I

6c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIPCode)

PO Box 631 Vicksburg, MS

6b. OFFICE SYMBOL Of awlicable) ..

7b. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIPCode)

39180-0631

8a. NAME OF FUNDING /SPONSORING ORGANIZATION

8b. OFFICE SYMBOL (If applicable)

9 . PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER

US Army Corps of Engineers 8c. ADDRESS [City, State, and ZIPCode)

Washington, DC

10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM

20314-1000

1 1. TITLE (Include Securi

Aquatic P l a n t ~ r e n t i f i c a t i o nand Herbicide Use Guide; Vol I: Application Equipment

WORK UNIT ACCESSION NO.

I

I

I

I

Classification)

TASK NO.

Aquatic Herbicides and

12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S)

Westerdahl, Howard E.; Getsinger, Kurt D.; 13a. TYPE OF REPORT

Final report i n 2 vols

Editors

13b. TIME COVERED

14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day)

November 1988

TO-

16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION

-

Available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 P o r t Royal Road,- S- ~ r i n n f i e l d . VA 22161. Volume I1 i d e n t i f i e s p r i o r i t y nuisance a q u a t i c p l a n t s and r e g i s t e r e d h e r b i c i d e s .

-

17.

COSATI CODES FIELD

I

GROUP

I

I

I

18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number)

SUB-GROUP

I

See r e v e r s e .

I

19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number)

Volume I provides information on t h e u s e and f a t e of US Environmental Prmtection Agency-approved and r e g i s t e r e d h e r b i c i d e s f o r managing nuisance a q u a t i c v e g e t a t i o n i n US Arm Corps of Engineer p r o j e c t s and navigable waterways. These h e r b i c i d e s include a c r o l e i n , copper, 2,4-D, dicamba, d i c h l o b e n i l , d i q u a t , e n d o t h a l l , f l u r i d o n e , glyphosate, and simazine. Information on adjuvant c l a s s i f i c a t i o n and u s e i s provided. S i t e f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g h e r b i c i d s e l e c t i o n , such a s water body u s e s and c o n s t r a i n t s , water q u a l i t y , . a n d hydology, a r e discussed. The s e l e c t i o n and c a l i b r a t i o n of h e r b i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n equipment, f o r u s e with l i q u i d and g r a n u l a r formulations, i s examined. Volume I1 i s a p l a n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n and h e r b i c i d e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y guide f o r nuisance f l o a t i n g , emersed, and submersed a q u a t i c p l a n t s . Color p l a t e s , l i n e drawings, p l a n t and h a b i t a t d e s c r i p t i o n s , and d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r over 50 s p e c i e s a r e included. 20. DlSTRlBUTlONlAVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT UNCLASSIFIED~UNLIMITED SAME AS RPT. 22a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL

BS RACT S CU TY CLASSIFICATION

8nciasslfley

22b. TELEPHONE (Include Area Code) 22c. OFFICE SYMBOL I

I

DD FORM 1 4 7 3 . 8 4

21. DTlC USERS

MAR

83 APR edition may be used unt~lexhausted. All other editions are obsolete.

I

SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE

Unclassified

I

PREFACE The work reported herein was conducted as part of the Aquatic Plant Control Research Program (APCRP) (Appropriation No. 96x3122, Construction General).

The APCRP is sponsored by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and

is assigned to the US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) under the purview of the Environmental Laboratory (EL). for APCRP is Mr. E. Carl Brown.

The USACE Technical Monitor

The purpose of this document (presented in two volumes) is to provide guidance to Corps District and Project personnel on aquatic plant identification, herbicide susceptibility of selected aquatic plants, registered herbicide selection, herbicide use, and pertinent environmental considerations in the use of herbicides. This volume of the guide provides information on the use and fate of US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)-approved and registered herbicides for managing nuisance aquatic vegetation in USACE projects and navigable waterways.

Also discussed are site factors that affect herbicide selection,

fate processes of herbicides in aquatic environments, and adjuvant selection, including application equipment and calibration procedures. Volume I1 is a plant identification and herbicide susceptibility guide for nuisance floating, emersed, and submersed aquatic plants.

A synopsis of

each registered herbicide's label and toxicity to nontarget organisms is provided to assist in the selection process. Dr. John Rodgers, Institute of Applied Science, North Texas State University, Denton, TX, prepared the sections on site factors affecting herbicide selection and fate in aquatic environments. Mr. Ron Hoeppel (formerly of WES, now with Naval Facilities Engineering Command in Point Hueneme, CA) provided assistance to Dr. Howard E. Westerdahl, WES, in compiling the summary label information on each herbicide and the reference materials listed in the appendixes.

Dr. Kurt Getsinger, WES, prepared the adjuvant section. Mr. Richard

Cromwell, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, compiled the section on equipment selection and calibration. Appreciation is expressed for the assistance of the USEPAfs Registration Division in providing copies of Section 18 and 24c permits (Appendix D) and the US Army Engineer District, Jacksonville, for information given in Appendixes E, F, and G.

The a q u a t i c p l a n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s e c t i o n w a s p a r t i a l l y completed by D r . Robert Mohlenbrock of B i o t i c C o n s u l t a n t s , I n c .

Supplemental photographs

er and amended p l a n t d e s c r i p t i o n s were provided by D r . ~ e t s i n ~ and M r . W. Reed Green, WES, and t h e S t a t e of F l o r i d a Department of N a t u r a l Resources, T a l l a h a s s e e , F'L.

The h e r b i c i d e s u s c e p t i b i l i t y s e c t i o n was p r e p a r e d

by D r . Westerdahl. The P r i n c i p a l I n v e s t i g a t o r f o r t h i s s t u d y was D r . Westerdahl, Aquatic

I I

P r o c e s s e s and E f f e c t s Group (APEG), Ecosystem Research and S i m u l a t i o n Divis i o n (ERSD), EL, under t h e d i r e c t s u p e r v i s i o n of D r . Thomas L. H a r t , Chief, APEG, and under t h e g e n e r a l s u p e r v i s i o n of M r . Donald L. Robey, C h i e f , ERSD, and D r . John H a r r i s o n , C h i e f , EL. APCRP.

I

1

1 I

M r . J. Lewis D e c e l l w a s Program Manager o f

The r e p o r t was e d i t e d by M s . J e s s i c a S. Ruff of t h e WES Information

Technology Laboratory (ITL). Watson, ITL.

Copy l a y o u t was accomplished by M s . B e t t y

T h i s document was reviewed f o r t e c h n i c a l accuracy by t h e p a r e n t chemical companies of a q u a t i c h e r b i c i d e s d i s c u s s e d h e r e i n .

A p p r e c i a t i o n is a l s o

e x p r e s s e d t o t h e many e x p e r t s i n a q u a t i c p l a n t management o p e r a t i o n s and r e s e a r c h who reviewed and provided comments on improving t h i s guide. COL Dwayne G. Lee, CE, was t h e Commander and D i r e c t o r of WES.

D r . Robert W. Whalin was T e c h n i c a l D i r e c t o r . T h i s r e p o r t should b e c i t e d a s f o l l o w s : Westerdahl, Howard E., and G e t s i n g e r , Kurt D., eds. 1988. "Aquatic P l a n t I d e n t i f i c a t i o n and H e r b i c i d e Use Guide; Volume I: Aquatic H e r b i c i d e s and A p p l i c a t i o n Equipment," T e c h n i c a l Report A-88-9, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment S t a t i o n , Vicksburg, MS.

CONTENTS Page .

.................................................................. 1 INTRODUCTION............................................................. 5 PART I: AQUATIC HERBICIDES AND ADJUVANTS ................................ 7 REGISTERED HERBICIDES .AQUATIC PLANTS ............................. 9 AQUATIC PLANT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HERBICIDES ......................... 13 Acrolein ...................................................... 13 Copper Complexes.............................................. 15 2. 4-D ......................................................... 19 Dicamba....................................................... 22 Dichlobenil................................................... 25 Diquat ........................................................ 28 Endothall.................................................... 31 Fluridone..................................................... 36 Glyphosate.................................................. 38 Simazine...................................................... 40 SITE FACTORS AFFECTING HERBICIDE SELECTION......................... 42 Water Body Uses and Constraints............................... 42 Water use definitions.................................... 43 Water use restrictions ................................... 43 Herbicide compatibility.................................. 44 Water Quality ................................................ 45 Water temperature................................. 45 Water pH ................................................. 45 Water hardness ........................................... 46 Dissolved oxygen......................................... 46 Suspended solids and turbidity ........................... 46 Hydrology of Water Body ....................................... 47 HERBICIDE FATE..................................................... 48 Acrolein ...................................................... 53 Copper Sulfate and Complexes .................................. 53 2.4.D ......................................................... Dicamba........................................................ Dichlobenil................................................... Diquat ........................................................ Endothall..................................................... Fluridone..................................................... Glyphosate.................................................... Simazine...................................................... DJUVrnTS .......................................................... Adjuvant Classification....................................... Activators ............................................... Spray-modifiers.......................................... Labels. Regulation. and Registration .......................... Adjuvant Use .................................................. Emersed and floating vegetation .......................... Submersed vegetation ..................................... GLOSSARY ...........................................................

PREFACE

Page

.......................................... 101 INTRODUCTION.................................................. 103 EQUIPMENT SELECTION................................................ 104 Liquid Formulations........................................... 104 Granular Formulations ......................................... 116 EQUIPMENT CALIBRATION.............................................. 117 Liquid Formulations........................................... 117 Granular Formulations......................................... 127 Useful Equations .............................................. 129 Example Problems........................................... 130 REFERENCES ............................................................... 137 APPENDIX A: HERBICIDE MANUFACTURERS..................................... A1 APPENDIX B: SUMMARY OF FEDERAL INSECTICIDE. FUNGICIDE. AND RODENTICIDE ACT ........................................... B1 APPENDIX C: ADDRESSES OF US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY NATIONAL AND REGIONAL OFFICES ............................. C1 APPENDIX D: SPECIAL LOCAL NEED AND EMERGENCY EXEMPTION PERMIT REQUESTS........................................... Dl APPENDIX E: PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING A CONTROL PROGRAM ................. El APPENDIX F: ECONOMICS OF HERBICIDE SELECTION............................ F1 APPENDIX G: APPLICATOR'S DAILY SPRAY REPORT AND BIDDING SCHEDULE........ GI APPENDIX H: JOURNALS ON AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT ........................ H1

PART 11: APPLICATION EQUIPMENT

INTRODUCTION This volume was prepared t o p r o v i d e Corps of Engineers p e r s o n n e l with information on t h e use of c u r r e n t l y r e g i s t e r e d a q u a t i c h e r b i c i d e s , i n c l u d i n g s i t e f a c t o r s , environmental f a t e , a d j u v a n t s , and a p p l i c a t i o n equipment.

This

volume should be used a s a desk r e f e r e n c e and i s a companion t o Volume 11, "Aquatic P l a n t s and S u s c e p t i b i l i t y t o Herbicides." S e v e r a l o t h e r guides f o r h e r b i c i d e use a r e a v a i l a b l e which may supplement information found i n t h i s guide: a

Herbicide Manual, by Gary W. Hansen, Floyd E. O l i v e r , and N. E. Otto, 1983 ( 1 s t ed.) ( a v a i l a b l e from: US Department of t h e I n t e r i o r Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, CO 80202).

a

Herbicide Handbook, 1983 ( 5 t h ed.) ( a v a i l a b l e from: Weed Science Society of America, 309 West Clark S t r e e t , Champaign, I L 61820) (updated a t 5-year i n t e r v a l s ) .

a

Weed Control Manual, published annually ( a v a i l a b l e from: Ag Consultants, Inc., 37841 E u c l i d Avenue, Willoughby, OH 44094).

PART I: AQUATIC HERBICIDES AND ADJUVANTS

REGISTERED HERBICIDES - AQUATIC PLANTS (I)

5 B $ % n

g n w HERBICIDE

z

B

2

"

$ G

0 2 - J 4 n * z ,wYoi;

w w

w

+

J a O

Q

=

a

W

O

I-

W

0 + =

2 0 0 YNE 0 J J - I

d

3

J - J J w $

+ IaI Ia OaO zZ a W J z s H a m ~ ~ m E ~ q $ ~ + + + p ~ q ~ = a n a r ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ s 0 0 4 ~ + 0 0 0 0 , , , , a 0 ~ ~ n a a n w w w ~ O G EMERSED PLANTS G G

G G F

Alligatotweed Alternanthera philoxeroides

G

G

G

American lotus Nelumbo lutea

E

E

E

F

Bulrush Scirpus spp.

E E

G

F

E

Cattail T Y P SPP. ~ ~

G G F G G

G E G

Common reed Phragmites australis

G

Cutgrass Leersia hexandra Fragrant waterlily Nymphaea odorata

G

E G G E

G

F

G

G E

Giant cutgrass Zizaniopsis miliacea

G

Giant foxtail Setaria magna

F

Maidencane Panicum hernitomon

F

E

G E

Paragrass Panicum purpurascens Pickerelweeds Pontederia spp.

E

G G G

F

G

Sawgrass Cledium jamaicense

NOTE: F = Fair. G = Good. and E = Excellent

9

V)

5

= n5 3 g n u 0 z

HERBICIDE

a s o s

E g

z a n 4 o 2 z 4 G j a o m z 4

z

n m w t

2

e

FLOATING PLANTS (Cont.) Salvinia Salvinia rotundifolia

E

Slender duckweed WoMfiella floridana

G E

Waterhyacinth Eichhornia crassipes

E

E

F

Waterlettuce Pistle stratiotes

E

F

G

E

F

F

F

F

E E G

G

G

F

G G

G

Watermeal Wolffia columbiana

G

G

G

SUBMERSED PLANTS G

Bladdemorts Utricularia spp.

F

E

E

E

E

E

E

G

Coontail Ceratophyllum demersum

G

Egeria Egeria densa

G

G G E E E E G

Elodea Elodea canadensis

G

E

E

E

G

E

E

F

Eurasian watermilfoil Myriophyllum spicatum

E

E

Fanwort Cabomba caroliniana

F

F

F

F

Horned pondweed Zannichellia palustris

G

Hydrilla Hydrilla verticillata

F G

NOTE: F = Fair. G = Good. and

E=

Excellent

E

G

F G G G

G

G E E E E G

G

E

E

E

E

E

E

F

F G E G G G G

F

AQUATIC PLANT SUSCEPTIBILITY TO HERBICIDES Acrolein A.

Chemical Name and Formulation: Chemical name: 2-propenal Formulation: MAGNACIDE HERBICIDE

B.

Mode of Action: A c r o l e i n i s a c o n t a c t h e r b i c i d e . It c a u s e s p l a n t c e l l d i s r u p t i o n through d e s t r u c t i o n of v i t a l enzyme systems i n t h e p l a n t cells.

C.

A p p l i c a t i o n : Dosage r a t e s should b e from 0.6 t o 11 Rlcu mlsec (0.16 t o 3 g a l l c u f t l s e c ) . A p p l i c a t i o n t i m e range i s 0.5 t o 48 h r . Repeated a p p l i c a t i o n s may be n e c e s s a r y a t 2- t o 3-week i n t e r v a l s . The a c r o l e i n must be i n j e c t e d b e n e a t h t h e w a t e r s u r f a c e , u s i n g p o l y e t h y l e n e tubing, t o m a i n t a i n i t i n a l i q u i d s t a t e . Only n i t r o g e n g a s completely f r e e of oxygen should be used. NOTE: A p p l i c a t i o n equipment may be purchased from t h e h e r b i c i d e manufacturer.*

D.

Timing of A p p l i c a t i o n : Apply when t h e t a r g e t p l a n t s a r e no more than 15 cm (6 i n . ) long and t h e w a t e r t e m p e r a t u r e i s g r e a t e r t h a n 20" C (68" F). A p p l i c a t i o n may be made a t lower t e m p e r a t u r e s ; however, r e a c t i o n time may b e l o n g e r .

E.

A p p l i c a t i o n Rates: A c r o l e i n s h o u l d be a p p l i e d a t f u l l s t r e n g t h , i . e . , a c r o l e i n , 0.78 kg a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t l g (6.5 l b a i l g a l ) .

F.

Maximum Water Concentration: No t o l e r a n c e h a s been e s t a b l i s h e d f o r acrol e i n i n p o t a b l e water. T r e a t e d i r r i g a t i o n w a t e r r e a c h i n g c r o p s must n o t exceed 15 mg/R (ppm)

92%

.

G.

Use R e s t r i c t i o n s : A c r o l e i n must n o t be u s e d where t r e a t e d w a t e r flows o r t r a n s f e r s t o s u s p e c t e d s o u r c e s of d r i n k i n g water.

H.

Waiting P e r i o d : T r e a t e d water s h o u l d n o t b e r e l e a s e d t o any f i s h - b e a r i n g w a t e r s , o r where i t w i l l d r a i n i n t o them u n t i l 6 d a y s a f t e r a p p l i c a t i o n .

I.

T o x i c o l o g i c a l Data: F i s h a r e k i l l e d when exposed t o a c r o l e i n concentrat i o n s g r e a t e r t h a n 1 mglR (ppm).

J.

Precautions: A c r o l e i n must n o t b e used where a f i s h k i l l cannot b e t o l e r a t e d . a A c r o l e i n v o l a t i l i z a t i o n c a u s e s eye i r r i t a t i o n and t e a r i n g ; t h e r e f o r e , c a r e must be e x e r c i s e d t o e n s u r e i t s r e l e a s e below t h e w a t e r surf ace. e Swimming should n o t b e allowed i n t r e a t e d water u n t i l a c r o l e i n r e s i dues a r e n o n d e t e c t a b l e .

K.

Field Instructions: A p r e v e n t i v e maintenance program i s recommended, c o n s i s t i n g of a s e r i e s of a c r o l e i n a p p l i c a t i o n s throughout t h e growing s e a s o n s o t h a t a q u a t i c p l a n t s a r e n e v e r allowed t o exceed 15 cm (6 i n . ) i n length.

*

A l i s t i n g of h e r b i c i d e m a n u f a c t u r e r s i s provided a s Appendix A.

L. Adjuvant Use: Use of adjuvants is not specified. M.

Application Techniques: Subsurface, uniform injection of acrolein into quiescent water throughout the infested area or an irrigation/drainage canal is required, following instructions provided by Magna Corporation. Subsequent retreatment should occur based upon rate of plant regrowth.

N.

Antidote Information: CALL A PHYSICIAN IMMEDIATELY! Internal: If the material has been swallowed, give two glasses of water and induce vomiting immediately by introducing finger into the throat. If inhaled, get victim into fresh air immediately and give artificial respiration if breathing has stopped. a External: If spilled on the skin, remove all contaminated clothing and wash skin with soap and running water. If material gets into eyes, wash immediately with water for 15 minutes.

Copper Complexes Chemical Name and Formulations: Chemical name: Copper chelates Formulations: CUTRINE-PLUS (9% Cu, ethanolamine complex, liquid) Also, CUTRINE-PLUS granular (3.7% Cu) KOMEEN (8% Cu, ethylenediamine complex, liquid) KOPLEX Same as above K-TEA (8% Cu, triethanolamine complex,. liquid) Mode of Action: Copper complexes act as cell toxicants and are not subject to photolysis or volatilization. Application: Liquid formulations are applied using a hand or power sprayer and a drip system. From a boat, liquids are injected below the water surface or through weighted hoses dragging along the bottom. Invert emulsions of KOMEEN should be injected below the water surface. Granular formulations are applied using a hand-operated or boat-mounted Gandy-type broadcast spreader. Timing of Application: To obtain most effective results, apply before plants reach the water surface, preferably on a sunny day when the water temperature is above 15" C (60" F). Application Rates: CUTRINE-PLUS should be applied at 0.4 to 1.0 mg/!L Cu (1.2-3.0 gallacre-ft) (ppm) to control HydriZZa (3-hr contact time is KOMEEN, KOPLEX, and K-TEA are applied required in lotic envirbiments) at 57 to 150 &/ha (6 to 16 gallacre) to control HydriZZa. (Recommended dose is based on site-specific water volume, not surface area.)

.

Maximum Water Concentration: Copper concentration should not exceed 1 mg/R (potable water) by weight copper. Use Restrictions: Do not apply when water temperature is below 15" C (60" F); (Copper ions form insoluble copper hydroxides, phosphates, and carbonates in water with pH > 7.) (This does not apply when using chelated copper. ) Currently, there are no restrictions on the use of treated water immediately following treatment. Some states require a permit when CUTRINE-PLUS is used in public water. This would apply to any copper product or herbicide. Waiting Period:' Effect on target species can be observed in 7 to 10 days after treatment (CUTRINE-PLUS); 3 to 6 days, with full effects manifested in 4 to 6 weeks (KOMEENIKOPLEX).

I. Toxicological Data: Hardness* (mg/R as Species

Chemical

Cutthroat trout

Copper chloride

Rainbow trout

Copper chloride

White perch

Copper nitrate

Striped bass

Copper nitrate

Bluegill sunfish

Copper chloride

Largemouth bass

Copper nitrate

*

Exposure Period hr

Acute-Toxicity mgIg

96

-

In soft or acid water, trout and certain other species of fish may be killed at recommended treatment rates.

J.

Precautions: Water hardness must be considered prior to treatments. Should not be used where pH of water or spray environment is below 6, because of copper ion formation and subsequent toxicity to fish. Contact with skin and eyes may be irritating.

K.

Field Instructions: Effect of treatment will be observed within 4 to 6 weeks. In heavily infested areas, a second application after 12 weeks may be necessary.

L. Adjuvant Use: For spraying HydriZZa, Nalquatic polymer is a recommended adjuvant with KOMEEN.- (Both KOMEEN and KOPLEX can be inverted with-an adjuvant or used in combination with diquat.) When KOMEEN is applied as an invert emulsion, xylene and an emulsifying agent are normally used. M. Application Techniques: Apply chemical uniformly over the surface area of infested area. Treat from shoreline outward toward the center of the water body, preventing entrapment of fish within the treated area. In heavily infested, smaller water bodies, treat only one third to one half of the area at a time; allow 1 to 2 weeks between successive treatments.

Apply with hand or power sprayer, drip system, or any other method to provide even distribution over the treatment area. (See label recommendations.) 8

, I

.

.

N.

Antidote Information: Thoroughly wash contaminated skin and eyes. If swallowed, call a doctor. Since KOMEEN, K-TEA, and CUTRINE-PLUS have no appreciable vapor pressure, there is no hazard from inhalation.

A.

Chemical Name and Formulations: Chemical name: (2,4-dichlorophenoxy) acetic acid Formulations: AQUA-KLEEN

(19% acid equivalent (ae), butoxethyl ester of 2,4-D , granular)

WEEDAR 64

(38.9% ae, dimethylamine or n-alkylamine salt of 2,4-D, liquid)

WEED-RHAP A-6D

(57.4% ae, dimethylamine or n-alkylamine salt of 2,4-D liquid)

VISKO-RHAP A-3D

(33.92% ae, dimethylamine or n-alkylamine salt of 2,4-D, liquid)

WEEDTRINE I1

(18.8% ae, isooctyl or 2-ethylhexyl ester of 2,4-D , liquid)

WEED-RHAP LV-4D

(46.3% 2,4-D, (62.5% 2,4-D,

VEGATROL LV-6D

~

ae, isooctyl or 2-ethylhexyl ester of liquid) ae, isooctyl or 2-ethylhexyl ester of liquid)

ESTERON 99

(43.4% ae, isooctyl or 2-ethylhexyl ester of 2,4-D, liquid)

SEE 2,4D

(40.9% ae, isooctyl or 2-ethylhexyl ester of 2,4-D, liquid)

B.

Mode of Action: Somewhat selective, systemic growth regulator with hormonelike activity; readily translocated throughout plant, especially from foliage to roots; inhibits cell division of new tissue and stimulates cell division of some mature plant tissues, resulting in growth inhibition, necrosis of apical growth, and eventually, total cell disruption and plant death; low concentrations may stimulate growth.

C.

Application: Liquid formulations: Surface or aerial applications; subsurface application for submersed vegetation. Surface applications with dilute or concentrated product, using conventional spray equipment from boat or shore. Aerial spraying with dilute product; do not exceed 40 psi at the nozzles. Subsurface applications using weighted trailing hoses from boat. Granular formulations: Surface or aerial applications using conventional mechanical spreaders or comparable equipment for large areas or a portable spreader for spot treatments. Ester formulations are volatile, and care should be exercised when considering their use, particularly in aerial applications.

D.

Timing of Application: For best results, apply in spring or early summer when young vegetation is actively growing.

E.

Application Rates: Follow herbicide label directions for specific rates. Liquid formulation: Waterhyacinth and emersed vegetation control: 2 to 4 kg ae per hectare (2 to 4 lb aelacre) (2 to 3.8 R of 38.9% ae formulation per hectare) (2 to 4 pintslacre). Canal bank vegetation control: 1 to 2 kg ae per hectare (1 to 2 lb aelacre) Watermilfoil control (TVA system): 9.5 to 38 kg ae per hectare (10 to 40 lb aelacre); 23 to 93 R of WEEDAR 64 per hectare) (2.5 to 10 gallacre); use concentrate for more dilute formulations (e.g., 38.9% ae) or diluted mixture for more concentrated formulations; use higher rate for areas with heavier infestations. Granular formulation: Submersed vegetation control: 20 to 40 kg ae per hectare (20 to 40 lb aelacre); use higher rate for areas with heavier infestations.

F. Maximum Water Concentration: Should not exceed 0.1 mg/R (pprn); delay use of treated water for irrigation for 3 weeks posttreatment unless an approved assay shows water does not contain more than 0.1 mg/R (ppm) 2,4-D acid. Low persistence in water, with half-life less than 2 weeks. G.

Use Restrictions: -

Liquid formulations registered for use solely for floating (e.g., waterhyacinth) and emergent vegetation control; AQUA-KLEEN and WEEDAR 64 allowed for Eurasian watermilfoil control in TVA lake systems only. Special Local Needs (Section 24c) and Emergency Exemption (Section 18) lables may exist in some states. Do not use treated water for irrigation, agricultural sprays, livestock watering, or domestic water supplies for 3 weeks after application or unless-approvedassay shows water does not contain more than 0.1 mg/R (pprn) 2,4-D acid. Amine formulations may be tested at concentrations as low as 0.001 mg/R (ppm). Do not spray liquid during high wind conditions, to minimize spray drift to nontarget vegetation. Can be used in slow-moving water bodies and turbid water. Liquid formulations registered for treating canal and ditchbank emergent vegetation in 17 Western States (see label). Contact state or local fish and game agency for specific restrictions on fishing, swimming, or domestic use.

H.

Waiting Period: Approximately 2 weeks for control of most vegetation; tissue damage evident within 2 to 4 days with liquid and a week with granular formulations. Regrowth evident within 4 to 5 weeks if roots are not killed.

I. Toxicological Data: 2$4-D Species 2,4-D Lake trout Bluegill sunfish 2,4-D

*

Formulation* (% ae) acid (100%) BEE (65.2%)

BEE = butoxyethyl ester; DMA

=

Exposure Conditions Period, hr Static Static

96 96

dimethylamine salt; IOE

Acute Toxicity LC5O, mg/R 35-56 1.1-1.3

=

isooctyl ester.

Species Fathead minnow Rainbow t r o u t Bluegill sunfish Fathead minnow Amphipod (Gurrunarus fasciatus) Cladoceran (Daphnia

2,4-D Formulation (% a e ) 234-D 2,4-D 2,4-D 2,4-D 2,4-D

BEE DMA DMA DMA BEE

Conditions

(65.2%) (49%) (49%) (49%) (62.5%)

Static Static Static Static Static

2,4-D BEE (62.5%)

Static

294-D I O E (67%)

Static

2,4-D DMA (49%)

Static

Exposure Period, hr

Acute T o x i c i t y mg/R

96 96 96 96 96

magna Amphipod (G. f a s c i a t u s ) Amphipod (G. f a s c i a t u s )

E s t e r f o r m u l a t i o n s of 2,4-D a r e 50 t o 200 t i m e s more t o x i c t o f i s h t h a n amine f o r m u l a t i o n s , b u t t o x i c e f f e c t s a r e r a r e l y observed under f i e l d c o n d i t i o n s . E s t e r and amine f o r m u l a t i o n s of 2,4-D appear more t o x i c a t low pH (e.g., 6.5) v e r s u s h i g h e r pH. J.

Precautions: To p r e v e n t low d i s s o l v e d oxygen, do n o t r e t r e a t w a t e r u n t i l k i l l e d v e g e t a t i o n decomposes, abbut 4 t o 5 weeks a f t e r i n i t i a l applicat i o n . Do n o t t r e a t e n t i r e water body a t one time; treat i n s t r i p s s e p a r a t e d by b u f f e r zones. Avoid spray d r i f t o u t s i d e t r e a t m e n t a r e a ; do n o t conduct a e r i a l s p r a y i n g i f wind speed i s above 8 km p e r hour (5 mph); u s e d r i f t c o n t r o l agents. Do n o t t r e a t a r e a s of w a t e r l a c k i n g a q u a t i c v e g e t a t i o n . Follow d i r e c t i o n s c a r e f u l l y i f u s i n g o i l - s o l u b l e amine f o r m u l a t i o n s , r e q u i r i n g a two-fluid s p r a y system. Avoid a p p l i c a t i o n of l i q u i d f o r m u l a t i o n s d u r i n g h i g h wind o r flow conditions.

K.

Field Instructions: Use s p r a y d r i f t - c o n t r o l a g e n t s (e.g., t h i c k e n e r s , i n v e r t emulsions) w i t h l i q u i d f o r m u l a t i o n s ; u s e c o a r s e sprays. Apply l i q u i d and g r a n u l a r f o r m u l a t i o n s i n s t r i p s s e p a r a t e d by b u f f e r zones. Delay follow-up t r e a t m e n t f o r 4 t o 5 weeks a f t e r i n i t i a l a p p l i c a t i o n t o a l l o w f o r v e g e t a t i o n decomposition. Use h i g h e r t r e a t m e n t r a t e f o r h e a v i l y i n f e s t e d a r e a s o r i f water i s u n u s u a l l y h i g h i n pH and a l k a l i n i t y . Use p r o p e r equipment and recommended m i x t u r e s when a p p l y i n g o i l s o l u b l e amine f o r m u l a t i o n s . Do n o t e n t e r t r e a t e d a r e a without p r o t e c t i v e c l o t h i n g u n t , i l spray h a s dried.

L. Adjuvant Use: Polymeric thickeners or invert emulsions are recommended with liquid formulations, especially when sprayed on floating or emersed vegetation. Oil-soluble mine formulations (e.g., VISKO-RHAP A-3D) require premixing with kerosene or related oil-soluble solvent; use required mixing equipment M. Application Techniques: When applying by boat, divide formulation so as to provide material for application in a crisscross pattern; apply back and forth, with sharp turns, followed by an equivalent application at right angles to the first set. Recommend placing markers at corners of treatment area to use as directional guides and to avoid excessive overlap of treatments. Recommend use of 15- to 30-m (50- to 100-ft) treatment lanes separated by equivalent-sized buffer zones; treatment immediately adjacent to shore is not recommended or needed.

.

N.

Antidote Information: Internal: If swallowed, induce vomiting by touching back of throat or give strong salt water to drink; repeat until vomit is clear. Call a physician immediately and the following emergency number, collect (24 hr a day): (304) 744-3487 (~h6ne-Poulenc). External: Wash skin with soap and water. Flush eyes with water for at least 15 minutes and get medical attention.

Dicamba Chemical Name and Formulation: Chemical name: 3,6-dichloro-o-anisic acid Formulation: BANVEL 720 (10.6% dicamba 20.4% 2,4-D, dicamba dimethylamine, l i q u i d )

+

Mode of Action: S e l e c t i v e h e r b i c i d e absorbed and t r a n s l o c a t e d from b o t h l e a v e s and r o o t s w i t h major accumulation i n a p i c a l meristems and o t h e r a r e a s w i t h h i g h m e t a b o l i c a c t i v i t y ; growth hormonelike p r o p e r t i e s ; c a u s e s e p i n a s t y , d e f o l i a t i o n , s w e l l i n g of stems, and d e s t r u c t i o n of cond u c t i v e t i s s u e s , d e a t h of growing p o i n t s , l o s s of a p i c a l dominance, a n d ultimately, necrosis. A p p l i c a t i o n : Water-soluble l i q u i d i s a p p l i e d a s a s u r f a c e s p r a y from s h o r e l i n e , b o a t , o r h e l i c o p t e r ; mixed w i t h w a t e r , p l u s e m u l s i f i e r s , s u r f a c t a n t s , o r d r i f t c o n t r o l a g e n t s . Completely wet- emergent f o l i a g e t o runoff w i t h d i l u t e s p r a y mix. Timing of A p p l i c a t i o n : Do n o t a p p l y p r i o r t o emergence of v e g e t a t i o n above o r t o s u r f a c e of water. P l a n t s a r e most s e n s i t i v e d u r i n g- t h e i r a c t i v e growing s t a g e . A p p l i c a t i o n Rates: Ground o r b o a t a p p l i c a t i o n : u s e 2 t o 6 kg a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t ( a i ) ( 2 t o 6 q t l i q u i d / s u r f a c e a c r e ) i n 5 0 t o 100 g a l s p r a y mix, a s d i r e c t e d on l a b e l . A e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n : u s e 1.5 t o 5 kg a i per h e c t a r e (1.5 t o 5 q t l i q u i d / s u r f a c e a c r e ) i n 8 t o 20 g a l spray mix, a s d i r e c t e d on l a b e l . C a t t a i l t r e a t m e n t r e q u i r e s 4 t o 6 kg a i p e r h e c t a r e (4 t o 6 l b l s u r f a c e a c r e ) p l u s 6 kg dalapon 85% p e r h e c t a r e (6 l b dalapon 85% p e r s u r f a c e a c r e ) . Maximum Water Concentration: Not s p e c i f i e d ; not f o r d i r e c t a p p l i c a t i o n t o water b o d i e s . H a l f - l i f e i s 2 t o 6 weeks i n most w a t e r b o d i e s . Use R e s t r i c t i o n s : T r e a t e d water s h o u l d n o t b e used f o r i r r i g a t i o n purposes w i t h i n 14 days of a p p l i c a t i o n . Do n o t g r a z e d a i r y animals on t r e a t e d a r e a f o r 7 days a f t e r treatment. Direct a p p l i c a t i o n t o water i s not permitted. Do n o t contaminate water used f o r domestic purposes. R e g i s t r a t i o n f o r a q u a t i c u s e i s p r e s e n t l y l i m i t e d t o 10 S t a t e s (Alabama, F l o r i d a , Georgia, I n d i a n a , L o u i s i a n a , M i s s i s s i p p i , South C a r o l i n a , Tennessee, Texas, and V i r g i n i a ) . Waiting P e r i o d :

None s p e c i f i e d .

I.

Toxicoloeical Data:* Acute To~xicity

Condition

Exposure Period hr

Rainbow trout

Static, 12" C (54" F)

96

28

Bluegill sunfish

Static, 12" C

96

>50

Amphipod ( G m a r u s fasciatus)

Static, 15" C (59" F)

96

> 100

Cladoceran (Daphnia magna)

Static, 21" C (70" F)

48

>loo**

Species

I

7 "

L L ~ mg/a ~ ,

I

I

i

* **

Data are for 88% technical dicamba; the dimethylamine salt formulations may show slightly greater toxicity. EC-50 was evaluated. Herbicide formulation shows low order of toxicity to fish, other aquatic organisms, and wildlife. Precautions: Harmful if swallowed; shows extreme irritation to eyes and mild irritation to skin; not readily absorbed through skin. Avoid excess spraying of soil as herbicide is readily leached from soil. Do not use aerial application if sensitive crops or nontarget plants are growing in immediate vicinity. Do not apply during periods of gusty wind or if wind exceeds 24 km per hour (15 mph) Do not spray submersed vegetation in water, only emergent growth. Field Instructions: Avoid heavy application to soil or excessive runoff from vegetation; wet vegetation thoroughly, however. Avoid spray drift; use drift-reducing additives. Do not use aerial equipment in areas adjacent to sensitive crops or desirable vegetation. Follow label instructions for proper cleaning of equipment.

.

K.

L.

Adjuvant Use: Recommend use of oil-water emulsions, including invert systems, or other spray drift-reducing agent.

M.

Application Techniques: Use coarse-spray nozzles and spray drift retardants (foams or invert system) to avoid drift to nontarget vegetation. Avoid spraying across areas of water lacking emergent vegetation. Avoid application during high or gusty wind conditions. Prior to large-scale mixing, perform a compatibility test, using all spray mix components in small quantities; if herbicide does not form a gel, precipitate, or stratification, the spray mix is compatible.

N.

Antidote Information: Internal: If swallowed, drink 1 to 2 glasses of water and induce vomiting by sticking finger down back of throat (or other means). Do not induce vomiting if victim is unconscious. Call a physician. External: Flush eyes with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes and get medical attention. Wash exposed skin thoroughly with soap and water; wash contaminated clothing before reuse.

Dichlobenil A.

Chemical Name and Formulations: Chemical name: 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile Formulations: a CASORON 10G (10% ai, dichlobenil, granular) a NOROSAC 10G (10% ai, dichlobenil, granular) a CASORON G-SR (20% ai, dichlobenil, slow-release, granular) a CASORON G Forte (20% ai, granular)

B.

Mode of Action: Nonselective herbicide that is absorbed mainly by roots but also by submersed leaves and stems upon being released from granules in water column; causes disruption of plant cell division, resulting in plant deterioration. Major route of action seems to be through the soil to the roots.

C.

Application: a Granular formulations can be applied from boat or shoreline to water surface. a Uniform distribution is essential since each granule is active only in its immediate surroundings. a Applied to nonflowing waters and to dry bottoms and shorelines of ponds, reservoirs, and lakes. a Dichlobenil can be applied to flowing water at 1.5 times the recommended dosage rate for slow-moving water.

D.

Timing of Application: Application immediately before initiation of new growth provides the best results, such as in early spring.

E.

Application Rates: Water surface: Water Depth m (ft)

Granules 10G

Exposed bottom: Evenly spread 70 to 100 kglha (lblacre); use the lower rate if the soil is wet at time of application or if the water is 100

6.4

-

>lo0

16.0 90

-

110*

> 100

0.56

-

2.2**

---

Wettable powder, 80%. EC50 v a l u e s .

J.

Precautions: a Do n o t t r e a t ponds w i t h bordering t r e e s having r o o t s t h a t extend i n t o water; do n o t s p r a y o r s p i l l h e r b i c i d e on d e s i r a b l e v e g e t a t i o n . a Avoid c o n t a c t w i t h s k i n , e y e s , o r c l o t h i n g ; wear gloves and long-sleeved s h i r t s and p a n t s . Wash thoroughly a f t e r handling and b e f o r e e a t i n g . Use d u s t a s p i r a t o r and goggles i f i n h a l a t i o n and eye c o n t a c t w i t h powder i s l i k e l y . a Clean equipment w i t h water and d i s c a r d i n t o t r e a t e d water; do not u s e w a t e r f o r i r r i g a t i o n o r domestic u s e w i t h i n a 12-month p e r i o d . a Avoid s t o r a g e of h e r b i c i d e a t high temperature o r i n m o i s t a r e a s ; normal s h e l f l i f e i s more than 5 y e a r s .

K.

Field Instructions: a Approved f o r farm and r e c r e a t i o n a l ponds, i n c l u d i n g t h o s e c o n t a i n i n g edible fish. a Do n o t u s e h e r b i c i d e f o r s p o t t r e a t m e n t s , due t o i t s slow r a t e of action. a Although f o r m u l a t i o n can be a p p l i e d a s a powder, i t i s b e s t t o use as a s l u r r y o r s p r a y by mixing w i t h w a t e r over t h e water s u r f a c e .

L.

Adjuvant Use:

M.

A p p l i c a t i o n Techniques: Mix convenient q u a n t i t y of w e t t a b l e powder (e.g., 2.26 t o 4.5 kg (5 t o 10 l b ) ) w i t h water t o form t h i n p a s t e o r s l u r r y . P a s t e s can be a p p l i e d t o s e v e r a l evenly spaced l o c a t i o n s a l o n g pond s h o r e l i n e , o r uniformly a p p l i e d a s a d i l u t e s l u r r y over pond s u r f a c e w i t h s p r a y equipment.

N.

Antidote Information: I n t e r n a l : I f l a r g e dose i s i n g e s t e d , induce vomiting by p l a c i n g f i n g e r a t back of t h r o a t ; due t o i t s low o r a l t o x i c i t y , s p e c i a l a c t i o n i s not r e q u i r e d i f i n s i g n i f i c a n t q u a n t i t i e s a r e i n g e s t e d . C a l l a p h y s i c i a n immediately i f a l a r g e dose i s i n g e s t e d . External : a Flush eyes w i t h p l e n t y of w a t e r f o r a t l e a s t 15 minutes; g e t medical attention i f i r r i t a t i o n persists. a Wash exposed s k i n s u r f a c e s v i g o r o u s l y w i t h soap and water. a I f i n h a l e d , move t o f r e s h a i r ; give a r t i f i c i a l r e s p i r a t i o n i f needed. a Wash contaminated c l o t h i n g b e f o r e r e u s e .

None.

SITE FACTORS AFFECTING HERBICIDE SELECTION The purpose of t h i s s e c t i o n i s t o examine f a c t o r s t h a t a r e s p e c i f i c t o a p a r t i c u l a r s i t e and may a f f e c t h e r b i c i d e s e l e c t i o n .

The m a t e r i a l presented i s

organized i n t o t h r e e p a r t s a s o u t l i n e d below:

-a . -b.

Water q u a l i t y .

c. -

Hydrology.

Water body u s e s and c o n s t r a i n t s .

Water body uses may g r e a t l y a f f e c t t h e c h o i c e of a h e r b i c i d e f o r a particular situation.

For example, t h e l i s t of candidate h e r b i c i d e s i s g r e a t l y

reduced when a body of water i s used a s a p o t a b l e ( d r i n k i n g ) water supply. Water q u a l i t y may i n f l u e n c e t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of c e r t a i n h e r b i c i d e s .

The

hydrology of t h e water body a l s o must be considered i n t h e process of herbicide selection.

I n many c a s e s , p o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w i l l i n f l u e n c e o r

l i m i t t h e l i s t of candidate h e r b i c i d e s .

The l a s t s e c t i o n , a review of t h e

f a t e and p e r s i s t e n c e of a q u a t i c h e r b i c i d e s , p r o v i d e s a d e t a i l e d summary of t h e expected d u r a t i o n of a h e r b i c i d e i n a n a q u a t i c system and t h e p a r t i t i o n i n g of t h a t h e r b i c i d e t o water, sediments, p l a n t s , and animals.

This information i s

very u s e f u l because t a r g e t p l a n t s p e c i e s respond t o t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of h e r b i c i d e t o which they a r e exposed, t h e d u r a t i o n of exposure, and t h e amount and l o c a t i o n of h e r b i c i d e accumulated i n t h e p l a n t t i s s u e s .

An a q u a t i c p l a n t

manager can use h e r b i c i d e biodegradation and d i l u t i o n r a t e s t o e s t i m a t e the d u r a t i o n of exposure.

The i n i t i a l h e r b i c i d e c o n c e n t r a t i o n can t h e n be

s e l e c t e d based on t h e expected p e r s i s t e n c e .

Water Body Uses and Constraints The v a r i o u s demands t h a t a r e placed on w a t e r bodies o r r e s o u r c e s o f t e n i n f l u e n c e choices of h e r b i c i d e s f o r a q u a t i c p l a n t c o n t r o l .

It i s f r e q u e n t l y

necessary t o consider t h e u s e s t h a t a r e made of an a q u a t i c system d u r i n g t h e planning s t a g e s of a c o n t r o l program s o t h a t a p p r o p r i a t e d e c i s i o n s regarding some of t h e u s e s can be implemented p r i o r t o a c t u a l t r e a t m e n t .

I n some c a s e s ,

uses can be s h i f t e d t o a l t e r n a t i v e water bodies w i t h p r i o r planning. Whether a h e r b i c i d e i s a p p r o p r i a t e f o r a water body o r a q u a t i c system, w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r water u s e , i s c l e a r l y s p e c i f i e d on t h e product l a b e l .

Most

importantly, instructions on the current product label must be followed. For convenience and information, a listing of water uses is provided below.

Water Use Definitions Consumptive uses. a. Municipal water supply. Municipal water supply includes water diverted to water treatment plants for general public distribution. Part of this use may go to industrial users, but so long as a municipal treatment and distribution system is the medium, this is usually considered a municipal water supply. b. Domestic water supply. Domestic uses are defined as those by individuals for domestic-home use, including ingestion, plumbing, smallscale landscape and gardens, pet-recreational animals (e.g., the family riding horse), and fire control. c. Industrial water supply. Commercial uses in this category are restricted to partial or complete consumptive use and to those supply media outside the municipal supply system. Examples include power generation evaporation towers, mining dust-control and flushing systems, and chemical manufacturing industries. d. Irrigation/agriculture. Included in irrigation supply use is all -

agricultural watering, such as spraying, irrigation, and pesticide (e.g., herbicide) dilution for application. Not included are livestock-related uses as described below.

e. Livestock. Besides ingestion by all livestock (poultry, hogs, goats, sheep, cattle, horses, and other farm or ranch animals), this water use category includes other livestock-related consumptive uses such as washing and cleaning of enclosures, dips and sprays, and coolingwallowing areas.

Recreation uses. a. Fishing. Recreational fishing use refers to sport fishing, including public or commercial "pay-for-fishing" barges, as well as water bodies managed for fish spawning and nursery areas necessary for the sport fishery. Not included are commercial fisheries, commercial aquaculture, or hatcheries.

-b.

Hunting. Included is all sport hunting for water- or wetlandassociated game birds and animals. Also included in the recreational hunting category are hunting and trapping solely for domestic use.

c. Swimming. Swimming use includes swimming areas, as well as scuba and skin diving and waterskiing.

Water Use Restrictions Herbicides registered for aquatic use in the United States are reviewed and regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) under the

135 et seq., Public Laws 92-516, 94-140, and 95-356) and recent amendments (see Appendix B). The instructions on the label associated with a herbicide are Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA 1974; 7 U.S.C.

c o n s i d e r e d a p a r t of compliance w i t h FIFRA and o t h e r F e d e r a l r e g u l a t i o n s , and f a i l u r e t o comply w i t h h e r b i c i d e l a b e l r e s t r i c t i o n s c a n l e a d t o s e v e r e p e n a l ties.

An important p a r t of h e r b i c i d e l a b e l r e s t r i c t i o n s i s c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f

w a t e r u s e o r u s e s i n s e l e c t i o n of a n a p p r o p r i a t e h e r b i c i d e .

T h i s considera-

t i o n of t h e i r u s e i n a n a q u a t i c system p r o v i d e s f o r a b a l a n c e between the r i s k s involved i n u s e of t h e h e r b i c i d e and t h e b e n e f i t s t h a t may b e r e a l i z e d from i t s use.

R e s t r i c t i o n s a r e l i s t e d when t h e r e may b e u n n e c e s s a r y r i s k t o

n o n t a r g e t s p e c i e s such as people, l i v e s t o c k , o r w i l d l i f e .

Herbicide Compatibility This s e c t i o n i d e n t i f i e s those herbicides t h a t a r e n o t compatible w i t h s p e c i f i c w a t e r body u s e s .

You a r e c a u t i o n e d t h a t t h e l a b e l s from which t h i s

i n f o r m a t i o n was a b s t r a c t e d a r e c o n s t a n t l y changing, and you s h o u l d review t h e most c u r r e n t l a b e l f o r t h e most r e c e n t c o n d i t i o n s o r r e s t r i c t i o n s .

Some o f

t h e u s e r e s t r i c t i o n s may be o n l y temporary, r a n g i n g from 24 h r t o a year.

If

your water body i s used f o r t h e n o t e d purpose, t h e n due t o l a b e l r e s t r i c t i o n s , t h e h e r b i c i d e ( s ) noted cannot be used.

The o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e s a r e t o (a) a l t e r

t h e u s e s of t h e water body e i t h e r t e m p o r a r i l y o r long term o r (b) t o apply t o t h e USEPA f o r a v a r i a n c e o r s p e c i a l p e r m i s s i o n t o u s e t h e h e r b i c i d e f o r your p a r t i c u l a r problem ( s e e Appendix C f o r n a t i o n a l and r e g i o n a l USEPA o f f i c e addresses).

The l a t t e r i s an i n v o l v e d p r o c e s s t h a t r e q u i r e s c o n s i d e r a b l e t i m e

and economic r e s o u r c e s w i t h no a s s u r a n c e t h a t t h e v a r i a n c e w i l l b e g r a n t e d ; however, t h i s may be t h e o n l y a l t e r n a t i v e a v a i l a b l e t o you.

You w i l l need t o

resolve these r e s t r i c t i o n s p r i o r t o accepting a herbicide f o r a desired use. H e r b i c i d e t a n k mixes a r e r e g u l a t e d based on t h e most r e s t r i c t i v e h e r b i c i d e i n t h e mixture. The h e r b i c i d e s l i s t e d below a r e n o t compatible w i t h t h e l i s t e d water body u s e s ; however, s e v e r a l s t a t e s have i n c l u d e d some of t h e s e chemicals under a S p e c i a l Local Need p e r m i t ( S e c t , 24c, FIFRA, s e e Appendix D) i s s u e d by t h e USEPA.

V e r i f i c a t i o n should be o b t a i n e d from t h e a p p r o p r i a t e s t a t e agency.

a. -

Municipal/domestic water supply. Dicamba + 2,4-D, d i c h l o b e n i l , 2,4-D, d i q u a t dibromide, e n d o t h a l l , g l y p h o s a t e ( c a n be u s e d i f g r e a t e r t h a n 1 m i l e from w a t e r supply i n t a k e ) , and s i m a z i n e . Curr e n t l y , only copper may be widely u s e d i n m u n i c i p a l w a t e r s u p p l i e s .

b. -

I n d u s t r i a l w a t e r supply. and simazine

.

Dicamba

+

2,4-D,

d i c h l o b e n i l , glyphosate,

-c .

I r r i g a t i o n / a g r i c u l t u r e . Dicamba + 2,4-D, d i c h l o b e n i l , d i q u a t dibromide (temporary w a t e r u s e l o s s ) , e n d o t h a l l (temporary water u s e l o s s ) , f l u r i d o n e , and simazine.

-d.

Livestock. D i c h l o b e n i l , d i q u a t dibromide (temporary w a t e r u s e l o s s ) , e n d o t h a l l (temporary w a t e r u s e l o s s ) , and simazine.

-e .

Fishing.

D i c h l o b e n i l and e n d o t h a l l (temporary w a t e r u s e l o s s ) .

Water Quality S e l e c t i o n of a n a q u a t i c h e r b i c i d e may be s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by water quality.

Chemical and p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of an a q u a t i c system may not

be compatible w i t h some h e r b i c i d e s .

The d e c i s i o n t o u s e a h e r b i c i d e i n a

p a r t i c u l a r s i t u a t i o n may r e q u i r e some p r i o r i n f o r m a t i o n on water q u a l i t y a s w e l l as some r o u t i n e m o n i t o r i n g immediately p r i o r t o t r e a t m e n t and d u r i n g t h e treatment period.

The f o l l o w i n g w a t e r q u a l i t y d e f i n i t i o n s a r e p r o v i d e d f o r

your i n f o r m a t i o n and a r e w a t e r q u a l i t y p a r a m e t e r s t h a t u s u a l l y a f f e c t herbicide selection. Some water q u a l i t y r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e d on t h e l a b e l t h a t accompanies each r e g i s t e r e d a q u a t i c h e r b i c i d e .

Other w a t e r q u a l i t y c h a r a c t e r -

i s t i c s may s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e t h e p e r s i s t e n c e and f a t e of a h e r b i c i d e i n an a q u a t i c system.

The f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l guidance on w a t e r q u a l i t y r e s t r i c t i o n s

i s a b s t r a c t e d p r i n c i p a l l y from l a b e l o r m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s i n f o r m a t i o n .

Water Temperature Some h e r b i c i d e s a r e i n e f f e c t i v e a t low t e m p e r a t u r e s .

For o t h e r s , concen-

t r a t i o n s must be s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n c r e a s e d t o a c h i e v e c o n t r o l of a q u a t i c p l a n t s a t low water temperatures.

A t some l a t i t u d e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , water tem-

p e r a t u r e s may r a r e l y be i n t h e o p t i m a l range f o r a c t i v i t y of some h e r b i c i d e s . I n o t h e r c a s e s , you may need t o w a i t f o r s e a s o n a l changes i n water t e m p e r a t u r e t o achieve herbicide efficacy.

For example, t h e l a b e l s f o r copper complexes

and e n d o t h a l l recommend t h a t water t e m p e r a t u r e s b e g r e a t e r t h a n 16' t o 18' C (60° t o 65" F) b e f o r e a p p l y i n g t h e h e r b i c i d e .

Water pH The hydrogen i o n c o n t e n t , o r t h e water pH, may impact t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of some a q u a t i c h e r b i c i d e s .

For example, t h e 2,4-D h e r b i c i d e s e x h i b i t

i n c r e a s e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s a t pH l e s s t h a n 6.0 and d e c r e a s e d e f f e c t i v e n e s s a t pH g r e a t e r t h a n 8.0.

A t h i g h pH (>8.0), t h e h i g h e s t a l l o w a b l e 2,4-D h e r b i c i d e

c o n c e n t r a t i o n may be r e q u i r e d t o a c h i e v e c o n t r o l of t h e u n d e s i r a b l e a q u a t i c plants. ,i

..

You may wish t o c o n s i d e r t h i s f a c t o r i n c o s t c a l c u l a t i o n s .

Water Hardness I n some s i t u a t i o n s , w a t e r h a r d n e s s may r e s t r i c t s e l e c t i o n of a n a q u a t i c

I

herbicide.

For example, copper-based h e r b i c i d e s must n o t be used (according

t o t h e l a b e l ) i n water c o n t a i n i n g t r o u t , i f t h e c a r b o n a t e h a r d n e s s of the I I

w a t e r does n o t exceed 50 mg/R ( a s CaCO3 ). I f your a q u a t i c system c o n t a i n s t r o u t and t h e c a r b o n a t e h a r d n e s s i s l e s s t h a n 50 mg/k ( a s CaCO ) , you s h o u l d 3 n o t c o n s i d e r u s i n g copper-containing h e r b i c i d e s because some f i s h m o r t a l i t y may occur.

T r o u t and o t h e r a q u a t i c organisms a r e more s e n s i t i v e t o copper i n

s o f t (low-hardness) w a t e r .

Labels o f copper h e r b i c i d e s c a r r y t h i s

recommendation.

Dissolved Oxygen For a q u a t i c systems t h a t have important f i s h e r i e s , d i s s o l v e d oxygen may be a concern i n a p p l i c a t i o n of h e r b i c i d e s o r o t h e r approaches t h a t allow vege t a t i o n t o decay (consume oxygen) i n t h e a q u a t i c system.

The d i s s o l v e d oxygen

c o n t e n t of a n a q u a t i c system may v a r y c o n s i d e r a b l y a s a f u n c t i o n of time o f day, cloud c o v e r , and w a t e r temperature.

Cooler water c o n t a i n s more d i s s o l v e d

oxygen when a l l o t h e r f a c t o r s a r e c o n s t a n t .

I f d i s s o l v e d oxygen concentra-

t i o n s approaching 2 mg/R o r l e s s are a n t i c i p a t e d i n y o u r a q u a t i c system, t r e a t s m a l l s e c t i o n s over a l o n g p e r i o d o f time ( s e v e r a l weeks) o r u s e c o n t r o l methods i n v o l v i n g removal of v e g e t a t i o n .

T h i s w i l l d i m i n i s h t h e ' r i s k of

oxygen d e p l e t i o n , by r e d u c i n g t h e amount of decaying o r g a n i c m a t e r i a l , w h i l e a l l o w i n g f i s h t o move t o u n t r e a t e d a r e a s .

Below c o n c e n t r a t i o n s o f 2 mg/& d i s -

s o l v e d oxygen, t h e r e i s some r i s k of a f i s h k i l l t h a t may be an i n d i r e c t consequence of h e r b i c i d e a p p l i c a t i o n .

Suspended Solids and Turbidity According t o m a n u f a c t u r e r ' s recommendations and l a b e l i n f o r m a t i o n , d i q u a t dibromide must n o t be used i n "muddy" w a t e r , because t h e h e r b i c i d e w i l l be inactivated.

Muddy w a t e r c o u l d b e measured as suspended s o l i d s i n excess o f

approximately 250 mglk, and s e c o n d a r i l y by t u r b i d i t y i n e x c e s s o f 50 NTU (nephelometric t u r b i d i t y u n i t s ) . used.

S u b j e c t i v e e s t i m a t e s c a n a l s o be

I f you t h i n k you have muddy w a t e r , d e l e t e d i q u a t dibromide from consid-

e r a t i o n o r a t t e m p t t o g e t f u r t h e r i n f o r m a t i o n o r advice.

Hydrology of Water Body The hydrology and t y p e of a q u a t i c system must be c o n s i d e r e d w h e n - s e l e c t ing a herbicide f o r aquatic plants.

Some h e r b i c i d e s a r e a p p r o p r i a t e f o r c e r -

t a i n w a t e r b o d i e s and i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r o t h e r s .

For example, l o t i c (flowing

w a t e r ) systems may r e q u i r e c o n s i d e r a t i o n of a d i f f e r e n t h e r b i c i d e t h a n l e n t i c ( q u i e s c e n t w a t e r ) systems.

F a c t o r s s u c h a s f l o w r a t e o r r e t e n t i o n time may

prevent s u f f i c i e n t p l a n t l h e r b i c i d e contact t i m e t o achieve the d e s i r e d l e v e l of c o n t r o l .

Aquatic h e r b i c i d e l a b e l r e s t r i c t i o n s may s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o h i b i t

u s e of a h e r b i c i d e i n flowing w a t e r s . flowing and s t a t i c w a t e r s . u n i t s (i.e.,

Some a q u a t i c systems may encompass b o t h

For t h e s e systems, t h e s p e c i f i c water management

a q u a t i c environment c o n t a i n i n g t h e n u i s a n c e p l a n t s ) must be con-

s i d e r e d , and a p p r o p r i a t e h e r b i c i d e s s e l e c t e d .

HERBICIDE FATE H e r b i c i d e s c a n c o n t r o l t h e m a j o r i t y of a q u a t i c and d i t c h b a n k v e g e t a t i o n and a r e t h e most e f f e c t i v e c h o i c e i n a q u a t i c p l a n t c o n t r o l ( B o t t r e l l 1979). However, h e r b i c i d e e f f e c t i v e n e s s c a n be o f f s e t by c o n c e r n s r e l a t i n g t o potent i a l r i s k s due t o t h e t o x i c i t y o r p e r s i s t e n c e of t h e h e r b i c i d e and t h e i n c i d e n t a l o r secondary e f f e c t s i t produces (e.g., macrophyte decomposition).

lowered d i s s o l v e d oxygen due t o

Consequently, t h e number of chemicals r e g i s t e r e d

by t h e USEPA f o r a q u a t i c u s e is l i m i t e d and, when they are r e g i s t e r e d , r e s t r i c t i o n s a r e u s u a l l y imposed (Way and Chancellor 1976) t o minimize a d v e r s e environmental impact. Once a h e r b i c i d e h a s been a p p l i e d t o an a q u a t i c environment, i t becomes d i s t r i b u t e d among v a r i o u s compartments of t h a t environment, e.g., ment, p l a n t s , and o t h e r b i o t a .

water, sedi-

T h i s d i s t r i b u t i o n , when coupled w i t h t h e per-

s i s t e n c e o r r e l a t i v e r e s i d e n c e time of t h e h e r b i c i d e i n e a c h p a r t i c u l a r compartment, produces t h e environmental exposure c o n c e n t r a t i o n .

It i s t h e

exposure c o n c e n t r a t i o n of t h e h e r b i c i d e i n a n a q u a t i c environment t h a t produces e f f e c t s on t h e t a r g e t p l a n t s p e c i e s (primary e f f e c t s ) , t h e n o n t a r g e t p l a n t s p e c i e s , and o v e r a l l w a t e r q u a l i t y (secondary e f f e c t s ) (Brooker and Edwards 1975).

T h i s s e c t i o n examines t h e a q u a t i c f a t e and p e r s i s t e n c e of

a q u a t i c h e r b i c i d e s r e g i s t e r e d i n t h e United S t a t e s . Various f a t e p r o c e s s e s a r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e e v e n t u a l removal of a h e r b i c i d e from a q u a t i c environments.

The f a t e o r u l t i m a t e r e s i d e n c e (where t h e

h e r b i c i d e and i t s d e g r a d a t i o n p r o d u c t s w i l l b e found) and t h e time r e q u i r e d f o r t h e h e r b i c i d e removal a r e i n t i m a t e l y t i e d w i t h t h e s e p r o c e s s e s ( M i l l e t a l . 1980; Dickson, Rodgers, and S a l e h 1981).

The magnitude, and conse-

q u e n t l y t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e , o f each p r o c e s s i n o v e r a l l h e r b i c i d e d e g r a d a t i o n a n d p e r s i s t e n c e i s determined by t h e r a t e c o e f f i c i e n t ,

K

, with

a magnitude

d i r e c t l y p r o p o r t i o n a l t o t h e importance of t h e p r o c e s s i n t h e o v e r a l l herbic i d e d e g r a d a t i o n ( M i l l e t a l . 1980).

Rate c o e f f i c i e n t

K

i s expressed i n

u n i t s of t i m e . Water s o l u b i l i t y of a h e r b i c i d e i s one of t h e most important chemical properties.

Environmental f a t e and p e r s i s t e n c e of a h e r b i c i d e a r e s t r o n g l y

i n f l u e n c e d by w a t e r s o l u b i l i t y and t h e tendency t o p a r t i t i o n between t h e vari o u s environmental compartments s u c h as w a t e r , sediment, and f i s h (Mackay 1980).

I n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h t h e h e r b i c i d e w a t e r s o l u b i l i t y , octanol-water

partition coefficients (K ) are very useful in predicting the tendency of the OW

herbicide to concentrate in liquids present in aquatic organisms (Mackay 1980) , 8

.

.

or the capacity to sorb on sediments. Variable Kow is defined by the equa-

Kow

=

Herbicide concentration in octanol Herbicide concentration in water

and is inversely proportional to the water solubility of the herbicide (Mackay 1980).

Numerous correlations between

Kow and bioconcentration factors (BCF) in aquatic organisms have been observed (Chiou et al. 1977, Mackay 1980, Briggs 1981).

The larger the Kow

, the

greater the tendency of the herbicide

to concentrate in living tissue (bioconcentration). Bioconcentration is a partitioning process, and the potential of a compound to bioconcentrate within an organism is defined as follows:

BCF =

Concentration in living tissue Concentration in water

The higher the BCF, the greater the potential for bioconcentration and longterm harm to aquatic organisms and aquatic environments (Neely, Branson, and Blau 1974).

BCF values may either be determined experimentally, by measuring

the concentration of the chemical in water and the organisms, or by employing empirically-derived linear regression equations (Neely, Branson, and Blau 1974; Chiou et al. 1977; Briggs 1981). Sorption of the herbicide onto the sediment and suspended solids removes the herbicide from aqueous environments (Dickson, Rodgers, and Saleh 1981). Sorption is a dynamic process in which the herbicide is physically and/or chemically bound to and released from sediment particles (Mill et al. 1980). Two types of sorption coefficients are observed in the literature, K and P The sorption,partition coefficient (K ) is defined by the equation Koc P

.

Kp

=

Concentration in sediment Concentration in water

The adsorption coefficient, KO, , is defined as the K normalized or P corrected for the organic content of the sediment (Mill et al. 1980) where

.

= (K / p e r c e n t organic carbon) x 100 Both K and Koc can be deterKoc P P mined experimentally o r d e r i v e d e m p i r i c a l l y u s i n g l i n e a r r e g r e s s i o n e q u a t i o n s

developed from o b s e r v a t i o n s of s o r p t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o w a t e r s o l u b i l i t y (Karickhoff, Brown, and S c o t t 1979) and

.

(and P ) , t h e g r e a t e r t h e r o l e s o r p t i o n w i l l assume i n t h e removal o f t h e h e r b i Kow

The h i g h e r t h e

Koc c i d e from water (Dickson, Rodgers, and Saleh 1981).

K

The sorbed h e r b i c i d e may

be r e l e a s e d t o t h e water (desorbed) w i t h changing environmental c o n d i t i o n s , providing an a d d i t i o n a l source of t h e h e r b i c i d e a f t e r system treatment. A h e r b i c i d e may move from t h e w a t e r t o t h e atmosphere v i a v o l a t i l i z a t i o n .

V o l a t i l i z a t i o n , t h e gaseous t r a n s f e r of a compound, is a f u n c t i o n of t h e s o l u b i l i t y i n water and t h e vapor p r e s s u r e of t h e compound (Mackay 1980, M i l l e t a l . 1980).

The tendency f o r a compound t o v o l a t i l i z e i s measured by

H

,

t h e Henry's Law C o e f f i c i e n t , which i s c a l c u l a t e d by t h e equation

H =

The

H

Compound vapor p r e s s u r e Compound w a t e r s o l u b i l i t y

i s r e p o r t e d f o r a few h e r b i c i d e s ; however, t h e vapor p r e s s u r e o r a

v o l a t i l e , not v o l a t i l e ) i s r e p o r t e d i n many

q u a l i t a t i v e d e s c r i p t i o n (e.g., cases.

The l a r g e r t h e

H

, the

greater the potential f o r volatilization, b u t

a d i r e c t p r o p o r t i o n between v o l a t i l i z a t i o n and vapor p r e s s u r e does n o t e x i s t due t o t h e s o l u b i l i t y f a c t o r involved i n t h i s t r a n s f e r p r o c e s s (Mackay 1980). For example, a h e r b i c i d e w i t h a h i g h vapor p r e s s u r e and h i g h s o l u b i l i t y would tend t o v o l a t i l i z e l e s s t h a n a h e r b i c i d e with a high vapor p r e s s u r e and r e l a t i v e l y low water s o l u b i l i t y .

Therefore, one should use c a u t i o n when ranking

h e r b i c i d e v o l a t i l i t y on t h e b a s i s of vapor p r e s s u r e alone. Sunlight a f f e c t s t h e p h y s i c a l , chemical, and b i o l o g i c a l components of t h e a q u a t i c ecosystem.

P h o t o l y s i s , t h e light-mediated degradation o r transforma-

, or ph This d e g r a d a t i o n c a n be due

t i o n of a h e r b i c i d e , i s u s u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d a s a r a t e c o e f f i c i e n t , a s t h e percent l o s s of h e r b i c i d e p e r u n i t t i m e .

K

t o d i r e c t s u n l i g h t i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h t h e h e r b i c i d e , o r i n d i r e c t , wherein the s u n l i g h t s e n s i t i z e s another compound r e s u l t i n g i n h e r b i c i d e d e g r a d a t i o n through energy t r a n s f e r .

However, w i t h most h e r b i c i d e s , h e r b i c i d e p h o t o l y s i s

r a t e s a r e not determined o r a r e i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Oxidation of a h e r b i c i d e i n an a q u a t i c ecosystem may a l s o occur wherein an oxidant (e.g.,

02, -OH,

m4) introduces

oxygen o r o x i d i z e s t h e h e r b i c i d e ,

causing degradation and loss of the phytotoxic properties of the herbicide However, herbicide oxidation has rarely been reported.

(Mill et al. 1980).

Very few aquatic herbicides are reported to undergo hydrolysis, wherein water is inserted into sensitive regions of the herbicide structure; this causes the sensitive herbicide molecules to become unstable and fragment. Hydrolysis may occur at acidic, basic, and/or neutral pH values. rates are reported as KA 3 KB 9 and KN The overall hydrolysis rate constant, KH

where

[H+] and

, respectively

The specific

(Mill et al. 1980).

, is calculated by the equation

[OH-] are the concentrations of hydrogen and hydroxide

ions, respectively (Mill et al. 1980). Biotransformation and biodegradation are two of the most important fate processes affecting chemicals once they enter aquatic environments (Mill. et al. 1980, Scow 1982).

Biotransformation occurs when the original compound

is changed by microorganisms to a different compound, whereas biodegradation is the microbially mediated change in the parent compound producing carbon dioxide and water (Scow 1982).

Although biotransformation may have occurred,

the resulting compound may be only slightly less toxic or even more toxic than the parent compound.

Biotransformation data are usually presented as a

pseudo-first-order rate coefficient, K1

(Mill et al. 1980).

Also, biode-

gradation or ultimate degradation rates are usually not determined.

An overall or total decay rate coefficient, KT

, can

be calculated for

each herbicide by adding the individual first-order fate process decay rate coefficients or K values (Mill et al. 1980).

The half-life (tlI2), or the

time required for the loss of one half of the herbicide concentration, is another method used to represent the overall persistence of a herbicide. This is the method employed in this review to represent each fate process. t

112

The

is derived from the equation

is given in time units. Herbicides with small % values 112 ) than herbicides will persist longer in the aquatic environment (large t 1/2

where the t

with a larger

Also, t h e r e l a t i v e importance of e a c h f a t e p r o c e s s f o r a K~ p a r t i c u l a r h e r b i c i d e may b e observed u s i n g h a l f - l i v e s . I n many c a s e s , i n f o r m a t i o n on s p e c i f i c h e r b i c i d e p r o p e r t i e s a n d - r a t e p r o c e s s e s i s n o t o r cannot b e determined.

In these instances, Structure Activity

R e l a t i o n s h i p s (SAR) o r chemical p r o p e r t y e s t i m a t i o n methods a r e employed t o obtain estimates.

Such methods a r e commonly used when d a t a gaps i n p h y s i c a l ,

chemical, and b i o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s a r e observed (Lyman, Reehl, and R o s e n b l a t t 1982; K a i s e r 1984).

The Q u a n t i t a t i v e S t r u c t u r e A c t i v i t y R e l a t i o n s h i p s (QSAR)

System, developed by Hunter e t a l .

(1984) a t Montana S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , was

employed i n t h i s review f o r SAR e s t i m a t i o n s . T h i s system i s a s t r u c t u r e a c t i v i t y - b a s e d chemical modeling a n d informat i o n system.

The QSAR s e r v e s a s a computer-based

i n t e r a c t i v e chemical d a t a

base and environmental f a t e and e f f e c t s assessment s y s t e m d e s i g n e d t o p r o v i d e i n f o r m a t i o n concerning t h e f a t e and e f f e c t s o f chemicals i n v a r i o u s environments.

It c o n s i s t s of

a s e r i e s of d a t a b a s e s c o n t a i n i n g measured p r o p e r t y a n d

p r o c e s s v a l u e s o b t a i n e d from l i t e r a t u r e s o u r c e s and a s t a t e - o f - t h e - a r t model l i b r a r y .

QSAR

T h i s model i s c a p a b l e of e s t i m a t i n g c h e m i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , e n v i -

ronmental b e h a v i o r , and t o x i c i t y from chemical s t r u c t u r e when measured v a l u e s are not available.

Throughout t h i s review, i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d from QSAR i s

so indicated. Each h e r b i c i d e f o r m u l a t i o n i s d i s c u s s e d below i n a l p h a b e t i c a l o r d e r . Each d i s c u s s i o n i n c l u d e s a t a b l e t h a t summarizes t h e s t r u c t u r e , f a t e proc e s s e s , and concomitant h a l f - l i v e s of t h e h e r b i c i d e .

T a b l e 1 compares t h e

p e r s i s t e n c e of h e r b i c i d e s i n t h e a q u a t i c environment. Table 1 H e r b i c i d e P e r s i s t e n c e i n Aquatic Environments* S1 Month

3-12 Months

>12 Months

Acrolein

Dicamba

Copper

2,4-D

Dichlobenil

Diquat

Fluridone

Endo t h a l l

Simaz i n e

Glyphosate

*

Adapted from Audus (1976) w i t h s e v e r a l a d d i t i o n s .

Acrolein Acrolein (2-propenal) is an aquatic herbicide that controls many submersed weeds (Klingman, Aston, and Noordhoff 1975).

Acrolein causes eye

irritation and tearing and is extremely volatile, flammable, and explosive. Acrolein is primarily used in irrigation canals and drainage ditches (Klingman, Aston, and Noordhoff 1975; Bowmer and Higgins 1976).

This herbi-

cide will kill fish and other aquatic wildlife at treatment concentrations (Crafts 1975); therefore, acrolein should be used only in aquatic systems where such resources are not considered important. Acrolein is soluble in water to 280 g/R at 20' C and has a low octanol water partition coefficient of 0.81 (Callahan et al. 1979) (Table 2). Acrolein is relatively nonpersistent in aquatic environments, with half-lives ranging from less than 1 day (Hiltibran 1962, Callahan et al. 1979) to approximately 2 days (Bowmer and Higgins 1976).

The primary fate process,

hydration, produces B-hydroxypropionaldehyde, which is then easily biotransformed. A pseudo-first-order rate coefficient for acrolein hydration of 0.032/day, coupled with a biotransformation-decay rate coefficient of 7.8

x

10-)/day

( L

d

1 7 MAY 1985

hgistrardcl Division

Mr. Douglas Campt Registration Division (TS-766C) Enviromiental Protection Agency 401 M Street, Southwest Washington, tX: 20460

The enclosed application is suhnitted in compliance with 40 CFR Part 166 and Section 18 of the Federal Insecticide E'unsicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended bv the Federal ~nvirotm-tental Pesticide Controi Act of 1972 for from certain provisions of the Act.

We request asroval of the Seattle District plans to trmt Eurasian watennilfoil with the aquatic herbicide 2,4-D in Osoyoos Lake, Okanogan County, Washington and the Pend Oreille River, Pend Oreille County, Washington. We are aware of your agency's concerns over the use of anergency exanptions to circuwent the registration process. 'Ihe situation for the use of 2,4-D against Eurasian watennilfoil, ho~ver,is entirely different. The Corps Waterways Experiment Station and the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation have done extensive field work and laboratory analysis under an Experimental Use Permit. The results of our research have been suhnitted to your agency in support of our request for an expansion of the 2,4-D label. Until your agency acts on this request, an anergency exenption is our only option. Chenical treatment is the only option in Lake Osoyoos and the Pend Oreille River because of the lack of biological controls and the unacceptable downstream spreading of the plant which would result fran mechanical control. 2,4-D is the chemical of choice because it is selective for milfoil, thus protecting valuable native species, and it is a systemic herbicide which will cause some degree of root kill. Diquat, the only other approved chemical for flowing water, would not be effective against milfoil in these areas because of the turbidity, cold water tanperatures, and water hardness. Public safety will be ensured by the contrqct requirements of extensive chemical monitoring, buffer zones around drinking water intakes, property owner notification, and posting of treatment areas.

m-m

Failure to treat these areas would result in significant revenue loss to local businesses dependent upon the recreation industry and would result in worse plant problems nsxt year. For further information concerning this request, please contact Mr. Robert Rawson, Seattle District, at telephone (206) 764-3440, FTS 8-399-3440, or Mr. Carl Brown in this office at telephone number (202) 272-0247.

v

Ronald-G. K

Assistant Enclosure

&

-

~

~

I

I

I

I

[Via electronic mail] EPA 9045 /Z IP Regional Director HFR-01 Food and Drug Administration 909 1st Avenue - Room 5009 Seattle WA 98174, /ZIP Director HFF-314 Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition Food and Drug Administration 200 C Street SW Washington DC 20204, /ZIP WA Department of 4griculture 406 General Adm. Bu1d.- AX-41 Olympia Washington 98504, /Z IP Department of the Army Office of the Chief of Engineers Washington DC 20314+ Attn:

LTC Ronald G. Kelsey Assistant Director of Civil Works Environmental Programs

The Environmental Protection Agenpy hereby grants a specific exemption under the provisions of section 18 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, as amended, to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers for the use of the dimethylamine (DMA) salt of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid to control Eurasian watermilfoil (MYRIOPHYLLUM SPICATUM) on Osoyoos Lake, Okanogan County, Washington, and the Pend Oreille River, Pend Oreille County, Washington. This specific exemption is subject to the following conditions and restrictions: 1.

The Corps of Engineers is responsible for ensuring that all provisions of this specific exemption are met. It is also responsible for providing information in accordance with 40 CFR.166.5. This information must be submitted to EPA Headquarters through the EPA Regional office.

2.

The use of the product Weedar 64, EPA Registration No. 264-2, manufactured by Amchem Products, Inc. is authorized. All applicable directions, restrictions, and precautions on the EPA-registered product label must be followed.

3.

A maximum of two applications, 4 to 10 days apart, at a maximum rate of 20 lbs. acid equivalent of 2,4-D may be applied per acre. A maximum of 40 lbs. acid equivalent of 2,4-D may be applied to an acre per year.

4.

Treatments will be made by certified applicators licensed by the State of Washington using a trailing hose-with inverting oil or polymer.

5.

Liaison should be established with the Washington State Departments of Fish and Game and/or the Fish and WiJdlife Service, USDI, in order to reduce any posssible adverse effects on non-target aquatic life.

6.

A maximum of 2,400 pounds acid equivalent (600 gallons of product) may be applied to 60 acres of Osoyoos Lake. A maximum of 4,000 pounds acid equivalent (1,000 gallons of product) may be applied to 100 acres of the Pend Oreille River.

7.

The Corps of Engineers and/or the State of Washington will monitor the residue levels of 2,4-D and prohibit fishing, swimming and any downstream irrigation or intake of potable water until residues of 2,4-D are less than 0.1 ppm. No applications are to be made within 2,000 feet of potable or irrigation water intakes.

8.

The Corps of Engineers and/or the State of Washington will notify the general public of the timing and areas to be treated via the most appropriate means of communication for announcements.

9.

Residues of 2,4-D in potable water, fish, and secondary residues in various raw agricultural commodities from the proposed use should not exceed the established tolerances under Section 193.100 of Title 21 and Section 180.142 of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations. Analytical methodologies are available in PAM I and PAM 11.

10.

The EPA shall be immediately informed of any adverse effects resulting from the use of 2,4-D in connection with this exemption.

11.

A report summarizing the results of this program must be submitted by March 1, 1986.

12.

This specific exemption expires on November 1, 1985.

Any future correspondence in connection with this exemption should refer to file symbol 85-DO-01. The Agency does not anticipate currently expanding the use of 2,4-D beyond this limited use or authorizing further use of 2,4-D under section 18. The aquatic herbicide fluridone (Sonar) is expected to be registered for control of Eurasian milfoil in freshwater lakes, reservoirs, and rivers in the near future.

&even ~dhatzow,Director Office of Pesticfde Programs Date:

L-/ / P / ~ Y

APPENDIX E: PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTING A CONTROL PROGRAM

INTRODUCTION

A g r e a t number of f a c t o r s should be taken i n t o consideration before

applying a h e r b i c i d e f o r a q u a t i c p l a n t c o n t r o l . of a systematic plan t h a t includes:

A l l o p e r a t i o n s should be p a r t

monitoring of p l a n t l e v e l s , i n i t i a t i o n of

a c t i o n a t a predetermined l e v e l , and review and e v a l u a t i o n of r e s u l t s of t h e work.

The review can then be used t o evaluate t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e opera-

t i o n f o r f u t u r e program modification o r new program design.

The p l a n should

be s e n s i t i v e t o t h e intended use of t h e water body and t h e end u s e r ' s needs. It should a l s o be a dynamic plan t h a t c o n t i n u a l l y r e e v a l u a t e s the e n t i r e pro-

gram and incorporates v a r i o u s methods and l e v e l s of c o n t r o l .

Presented h e r e

i s t h e framework of a decision-making process t h a t may b e used i n t h e i n i t i a l development of an a q u a t i c p l a n t management program or f o r t h e continuing evaluation of an e s t a b l i s h e d program. bersome a t f i r s t reading.

It may appear t o b e involved and cum-

However, once it i s put i n t o p r a c t i c e , t h e process

i s q u i t e simple, and i t works.

PLANNING Paramount t o t h e whole process i s t h e underlying o b j e c t i v e of f u l f i l l i n g t h e majority of t h e water body u s e r s ' needs.

Whether t h i s i s a new program o r

t h e beginning of a new d i r e c t i o n f o r an old one, t h e planner or manager should not be ashamed t o ask f o r opinions and help.

I f d e c i s i o n s on how t o manage a

water body a r e made on assumptions of t h e v a r i o u s u s e r s ' needs, i n a vacuum, then most o f t e n they w i l l be i n c o r r e c t .

This r e s u l t s i n d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n and

f r u s t r a t i o n f o r a l l persons involved and, u s u a l l y , c o s t l y remedial treatments. The process s t a r t s with a perceived problem.

Information i s then gathered

from u s e r s and e x p e r t s i n t h e v a r i o u s f i e l d s , and a t e n t a t i v e plan i s established.

Additional coordination of t h e proposed plan t e s t s t h e concept

a g a i n s t t h e u s e r s and e x p e r t s .

A f i n a l plan i s then developed and

implemented. I d e n t i f i c a t i o n of Need The f i r s t s t e p i n t h e process i s t o i d e n t i f y and e v a l u a t e t h e need f o r control.

I n most cases, t h e using p u b l i c w i l l provide n o t i f i c a t i o n of the

need f o r h e l p w i t h a new problem.

When they have problems w i t h p l a n t s , t h e y

w i l l f i n d o u t who h a s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r c o n t r o l of t h e o f f e n d i n g vegetat i o n and i n s i s t t h a t something be done.

An ongoing program should have a mon-

i t o r i n g p o r t i o n t h a t w i l l n o t i f y t h e d e c i s i o n makers of a d e v e l o p i n g need f o r Other managers w i t h similar water b o d i e s and p l a n t management

control.

r e s p o n s i b i l i t y can be invaluable i n helping t o d i r e c t e f f o r t i n t o productive areas.

They can s h a r e t h e m i s t a k e s t h e y have made and k e e p you from making

t h e same ones.

The v a r i o u s u s e r s of t h e a r e a should b e c o n t a c t e d f o r t h e i r

o p i n i o n s of t h e problem and p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s . Care should b e e x e r c i s e d t h a t one p a r t i c u l a r segment of t h e u s i n g p u b l i c does n o t have a n i n a p p r o p r i a t e s h a r e of t h e i n p u t .

For i n s t a n c e , i f only t h e

w a t e r - s k i e r community i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n a d e c i s i o n , it may appear from t h e i r view t h a t no v e g e t a t i o n should b e p r e s e n t i n t h e water body.

However, duck

h u n t e r s w i l l want most o r a l l of t h e water body covered w i t h p l a n t s t o a t t r a c t waterfowl.

Fishermen w i l l u s u a l l y choose s c a t t e r e d p a t c h e s of p l a n t s .

The

b u s i n e s s community w i l l most l i k e l y s u p p o r t t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e i r c l i e n t s ' views.

I n p u t from a l l u s e r s i s e s s e n t i a l t o developing a f u l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g

of t h e p l a n t problem, t h e need f o r c o n t r o l , and t h e d e g r e e of c o n t r o l t h a t

w i l l b e s t s e r v e t h e m a j o r i t y of t h e u s e r s . Problem D e f i n i t i o n

Next, a d e f i n i t i o n of t h e problem i s i n o r d e r . of t h e p l a n t s ? f i s h near?

Is t h e problem t h e growth

Is i t t h a t t h e s e p l a n t s a r e d i f f e r e n t and they a r e n o t easy t o

Is t h e only problem t h a t M r . Jones i s not a b l e t o g e t h i s boat i n

and o u t of h i s p r i v a t e c a n a l ?

C o n c u r r e n t l y w i t h t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of need

f o r c o n t r o l , much of t h e i n f o r m a t i o n needed t o d e f i n e t h e problem w i l l be Again, i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t a good c r o s s s e c t i o n of u s e r s be con-

gathered. tacted.

What some people p e r c e i v e a s a problem, o t h e r s s e e a s a marvelous

occurrence.

Duck h u n t e r s may be e x c i t e d t h a t more p l a n t s have grown i n t h e

l a k e s o t h a t more ducks w i l l be a t t r a c t e d . see the increase i n plants.

Other u s e r s may n o t b e happy t o

I n v e s t i g a t e t h e p a r t i c u l a r p l a n t i n v o l v e d and g e t

h e l p w i t h i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of t h e p l a n t and i t s p o t e n t i a l as a weed. i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e p l a n t ' s a t t r i b u t e s a s w e l l .

It could b e t h a t t h e p l a n t i s

an important p a r t of t h e f i s h e r i e s of t h e w a t e r body. f i s h e r i e s b i o l o g i s t s and a s k t h e i r opinion.

Gather

Consult w i t h game and

Seek books and s c i e n t i f i c

a r t i c l e s on t h e p l a n t and i t s a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e environment.

Read t h i s

i n f o r m a t i o n and u s e i t t o h e l p i n d e c i d i n g what t h e problem o r problem potent i a l r e a l l y is. From a l l t h e information c o l l e c t e d , a converging d i r e c t i o n s h o u l d become evident.

A s y n t h e s i z e d problem d e f i n i t i o n can t h e n be p u t t o g e t h e r .

The

problem could b e t h a t "lower than u s u a l water l e v e l s have caused n a t i v e p l a n t s t o spread beyond t h e i r u s u a l bounds, and b o a t e r s a r e having d i f f i c u l t y t r a v e l i n g t h e i r normal routes."

It could a l s o be t h a t "a new p l a n t has b e e n i n t r o -

duced i n t o t h e water body and i t i s an e x o t i c weedy s p e c i e s . "

The proposed

problem d e f i n i t i o n should t h e n be t e s t e d a g a i n s t t h e same group from which you o r i g i n a l l y r e q u e s t e d information.

Of course you w i l l n e v e r g e t everyone t o

a g r e e w i t h a problem s t a t e m e n t ; b u t , t h e s t a t e m e n t should b e modified u n t i l i t

w i l l meet w i t h t h e m a j o r i t y opinion.

Perhaps t h e f i n a l i z e d v e r s i o n of t h e

f i r s t statement above would i n c l u d e "and f a v o r i t e f i s h i n g s p o t s have become inaccessible."

This becomes t h e f i n a l statement of t h e problem and a d e f i n i -

t i o n of t h e p u z z l e t h a t must be s o l v e d .

Development of S o l u t i o n

To develop a s o l u t i o n t o t h i s problem, you must a g a i n draw on a s many sources a s possible.

C a l l on t h e u s e r s , b u s i n e s s e s , p e e r s , and agency pro-

fessionals for possible solutions.

R e s i s t t h e t e m p t a t i o n t o t e l l them why you

t h i n k t h e i d e a w i l l n o t work and encourage them t o give you a s many p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n s a s they can. t h e d e f i n e d problem.

Search your own mind and t r y t o t h i n k of ways t o s o l v e Make a l i s t of a l l t h e proposed s o l u t i o n s a s you c o l l e c t

them s o t h a t you do not f o r g e t some important ones.

Try t o cover a l l p o s s i b l e

methods of s o l v i n g t h e problem, i n c l u d i n g t h e r i d i c u l o u s .

Sometimes what

appears r i d i c u l o u s a t f i r s t can be used a s a p a r t of t h e s o l u t i o n . f l u o u s s o l u t i o n s w i l l be e l i m i n a t e d l a t e r i n t h e process. should explore each of t h e c l a s s i c a l methods: c a l , and h a b i t a t manipulation.

Super-

Of c o u r s e , you

mechanical, chemical, b i o l o g i -

Some o t h e r c a t e g o r i e s you may wish t o c o n s i d e r

a r e no a c t i o n a t a l l and c u l t u r a l changes.

A n example of c u l t u r a l change

would b e h e l p i n g fishermen t o l e a r n t o u s e t h e new v e g e t a t i o n t o i n c r e a s e t h e i r catch.

Another example would b e h e l p i n g water s k i e r s r e a l i z e t h a t a

border f r i n g e of p l a n t s w i l l n o t s e r i o u s l y a f f e c t t h e i r s p o r t w h i l e i t w i l l help fishing f o r t h e i r friends.

After developing a l a r g e l i s t of p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s , begin t h e eliminat i o n process. operate.

This i s done by working up a s e t of parameters w i t h i n which t o

These a r e t h e conditions over which one has no c o n t r o l b u t which

e x e r t some measure of c o n t r o l over t h e f e a s i b l e options.

Probably t h e most

important i s t h e a u t h o r i t i e s under which t h e work can b e performed.

For exam-

p l e , M r . Jones' p r i v a t e c a n a l i s not within t h e Corps' a u t h o r i t y f o r plant c o n t r o l ; t h e r e f o r e , M r . Jones w i l l have t o t a k e care of h i s problem.

Proposed

c o n t r o l options must a l s o be c o n s i s t e n t with l a w s and r e g u l a t i o n s , such as t h e National Environmental Policy Act and t h e Endangered Species Act.

For the

Corps and o t h e r Federal agencies, t h i s means t h a t a s p e c i a l i z e d , formal, documented decision-making process must be adhered t o a s s e t f o r t h i n t h e laws and Corps r e g u l a t i o n s .

The next l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t i s f i n a n c i a l .

Within the

Corps, a p r o j e c t must be economically j u s t i f i e d before i t can be implemented. Benefits t o be r e a l i z e d must outweigh c o s t s of t h e operations.

The amount of

funds c u r r e n t l y a v a i l a b l e o r a n t i c i p a t e d w i l l c e r t a i n l y l i m i t t h e options a v a i l a b l e and t h e i r v i a b i l i t y .

P o s s i b l e adverse e f f e c t s t h a t a c o n t r o l o p t i o n

may have on f i s h and w i l d l i f e must be considered.

Options t h a t have unaccept-

a b l e adverse e f f e c t s must be discarded. The p o t e n t i a l s o l u t i o n ' s e f f e c t i v e n e s s should be considered v e r y caref u l l y under t h e conditions which i t must be used. d e f i n i t e e f f e c t on h e r b i c i d e s t h a t can be used. s p e c i f i c types of water bodies.

Water body type has a Products a r e l a b e l e d f o r

Use of the product i n any water body not

s p e c i f i e d on t h e l a b e l i s considered a misuse and i s i l l e g a l .

Some formula-

t i o n s of h e r b i c i d e s a r e i n e f f e c t i v e i n moving water, although they may be l a b e l e d f o r t h i s use.

The season when the work can o r should be performed may

a f f e c t t h e a b i l i t y of some products t o adequately c o n t r o l t h e t a r g e t p l a n t s o r t h e i r e f f e c t s on nontarget species. Public acceptance i s an important consideration i n t h e development of possible solutions.

Public opinion can have very strong i n f l u e n c e on the

u l t i m a t e s e l e c t i o n of t h e c o n t r o l method used and j u s t how and where it w i l l be used.

A f e e l i n g f o r p u b l i c sentiment w i l l have been acquired during t h e

processes of i d e n t i f y i n g t h e needs and problems. used i n s e l e c t i n g t h e plan of a c t i o n .

This knowledge should be

This i s not t o say t h a t p u b l i c opinion

should be t h e overriding c o n s i d e r a t i o n i n planning t h e program.

However,

a r e a s where t h e plan may d e v i a t e from general opinion must be thoroughly understood.

An acceptable l o g i c f o r t h e s e l e c t i o n should be on hand f o r u s e

i n d e f e n s e of t h e plan.

T h i s d e f e n s e should b e f a c t u a l , e a s y t o u n d e r s t a n d ,

and t r u e , f o r it may have t o b e used t o e d u c a t e t h e p u b l i c . Using t h e l i s t of p o s s i b l e s o l u t i o n s and t e s t i n g them a g a i n s t t h e l i s t o f l i m i t a t i o n s should r e s u l t i n a much s h o r t e n e d v e r s i o n of t h e l i s t .

For

i n s t a n c e , you may wish t o u s e a mechanical h a r v e s t i n g system t o c u t t r a i l s f o r a p o r t i o n of t h e p l a n .

Many of t h e r e q u e s t s f o r i n p u t from o t h e r s could have

a l s o i n d i c a t e d a s t r o n g s u p p o r t f o r t h i s method.

You may f i n d t h a t t h e a r e a s

proposed f o r t r a i l s were n o t completely c l e a r e d of t r e e s when t h e p o o l was f l o o d e d , s o t h a t mechanical systems could n o t b e r e l i e d on t o e f f e c t i v e l y clear trails.

From t h e l i s t , a s i n g l e o p t i o n o r group of o p t i o n s c a n be

chosen f o r t h e t e s t s o l u t i o n .

i s used a s such. others.

A t t h i s s t a g e , t h e s o l u t i o n i s c o n c e p t u a l and

The concept i s t e s t e d w i t h p e e r s and by c o n s u l t a t i o n with

P u b l i c meetings a r e a n o t h e r e x c e l l e n t way t o t e s t t h e c o n c e p t .

It i s

t h e u s i n g p u b l i c t h a t i s t o b e s e r v e d , and t h e i r a s s i s t a n c e i n t h e d e s i g n of t h e p l a n a t t h i s s t a g e w i l l b e t t e r e n s u r e t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h t h e comp l e t e d work.

It a l s o p r o v i d e s an o p p o r t u n i t y t o e x p l a i n t h e decision-making

p r o c e s s t h a t h a s been used and t h e c o n s t r a i n t s under which t h e p r o j e c t must operate.

The p l a n can now b e f i n a l i z e d .

Changes t h a t are j u s t i f i a b l e can b e

made t o t h e c o n c e p t u a l p l a n , and t h e d e t a i l s of implementation can b e worked out. OPERATIONS

General The d e t a i l s of t h e work p l a n w i l l i n c l u d e who w i l l perform t h e work, how i t w i l l b e done', and g e n e r a l l y who i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r what.

I f t h e work i s t o

be performed by in-house l a b o r , a s c h e d u l e of when t h e chemical w i l l b e o r d e r e d and d e l i v e r e d , when t h e work w i l l be performed, and s p e c i f i c a l l y which p l a n t s w i l l b e t r e a t e d s h o u l d b e a minimum p l a n n i n g e f f o r t .

After repeated

a p p l i c a t i o n s , t h e p l a n s h o u l d have evolved i n t o a s t r e a m l i n e d s t a t e m e n t of a n e f f i c i e n t operation.

Moreover, t h e work crews w i l l have developed a knowledge

and s k i l l l e v e l t h a t w i l l a l l o w them t o know t h e c r i t e r i a f o r t h e e f f e c t i v e and e f f i c i e n t t r e a t m e n t of p l a n t s . about through r e p e t i t i v e o p e r a t i o n s .

A s always, a f i n e - t u n i n g p r o c e s s comes

The method of a p p l i c a t i o n i s u s u a l l y d i c t a t e d by t h e s i z e of t h e a r e a t o be t r e a t e d and t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of equipment and s k i l l e d personnel.

Small

a r e a s can e a s i l y b e t r e a t e d from a s m a l l boat w i t h p e l l e t s o r g r a n u l a r products.

There i s no mixing of chemicals involved, and t h e a p p l i c a t i o n does n o t

r e q u i r e s p e c i a l i z e d equipment.

A compressed a i r s p r a y e r w i t h a c a p a c i t y of

1 o r 2 g a l can a l s o be used t o t r e a t small p a t c h e s of emergent o r f l o a t i n g plants. A s t h e s i z e of t h e a r e a o r a r e a s t o be t r e a t e d i n c r e a s e s , t h e complexity

and demands on equipment and p e r s o n n e l i n c r e a s e .

Treatment of l a r g e masses of

submersed o r f l o a t i n g p l a n t s u s u a l l j r e q u i r e s t h e use of an a i r b o a t .

The

u s u a l problem of weeds f o u l i n g t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l underwater p r o p e l l e r i s e l i m i n a t e d by t h e a i r b o a t .

A s p e c i a l i z e d a p p l i c a t i o n system t h a t i n c l u d e s modified

a g r i c u l t u r a l spraying equipment i s t h e n i n s t a l l e d i n t h e a i r b o a t t o apply l i q u i d f o r m u l a t i o n s of h e r b i c i d e s .

S p e c i a l w a t e r w e l l s mounted t o t h e h u l l of

t h e boat a r e used t o draw water d i r e c t l y from t h e water body and, i n many i n s t a n c e s , t h e chemical i s a u t o m a t i c a l l y i n j e c t e d i n t o t h e system.

After s u c h

a system i s s e t up, t h e a p p l i c a t o r must only make s u r e t h a t t h e chemical cont a i n e r i s n o t empty and can make continuous t r e a t m e n t w i t h o u t s t o p p i n g t o mix chemicals. For very l a r g e a r e a s of t r e a t m e n t , a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n i s u s u a l l y most cost effective. expensive.

The equipment and s p e c i a l i z e d o p e r a t o r s would seem t o be v e r y

However, an a i r p l a n e o r h e l i c o p t e r t h a t i s equipped t o t r e a t vege-

t a t i o n w i t h h e r b i c i d e s can e a s i l y t r e a t hundreds of a c r e s a day.

This a l l o w s

t h e a e r i a l a p p l i c a t o r t o d i s t r i b u t e o p e r a t i n g c o s t s over g r e a t e r a c r e a g e and r e s u l t s i n an o v e r a l l c o s t savings.

Several v e r y important t h i n g s must be

considered i n t h e s e l e c t i o n of a e r i a l t r e a t m e n t . be l a r g e , connected a r e a s . of s m a l l p a t c h e s of p l a n t s .

The a r e a s t o b e t r e a t e d must

It i s i n e f f i c i e n t t o a e r i a l l y t r e a t a l a r g e number

The c r a f t i s moving so f a s t t h a t i t i s almost

impossible t o t u r n t h e s p r a y system on and o f f t o cover t h e p a t c h e s of p l a n t s . It i s a l s o d i f f i c u l t t o t r e a t s m a l l f r i n g e s of p l a n t s a l o n g s h o r e l i n e s when

t h e r e a r e t r e e s , docks, and o t h e r o b s t r u c t i o n s o r f r e q u e n t i r r e g u l a r i t i e s along t h e s h o r e l i n e s . Airplanes can t r e a t g r e a t e r amounts of p l a n t s i n a s h o r t e r t i m e than a h e l i c o p t e r under c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s .

However, they u s u a l l y t r e a t a t a g r e a t e r

speed and cannot maneuver a s e a s i l y over i r r e g u l a r l y shaped a r e a s of p l a n t s . More i m p o r t a n t l y , p l a n e s need a long runway t o t a k e o f f and land f o r f i l l i n g

the spray tanks, whereas helicopters can operate from a relatively small open area.

Planes will spend a lot of time traveling back and forth to the air-

strip unless there is a serviceable airfield near the treatment site.- Helicopters are able to use much smaller areas to land and take off, so they can usually operate much closer to the actual treatment site.

Time loss for the

helicopter ferrying to the loading site is, therefore, much less.

Be careful

in the selection of locations for a helicopter to operate. Most helicopters cannot take off straight up with a load and require an open area or short runway for takeoff.

This area does not have to be paved or even smooth-surfaced,

but it should be clear of trees, power poles, and other obstructions. Contracts Aerial application is beyond the ability of most organizations to support, and is usually contracted. Of course, contracting is the best choice when the job exceeds in-house capability and does not warrant "gearing up" for a continuing program.

Your organization's contracting element will usually

handle the administrative burden of advertising and awarding the contract. However, as the element responsible for the operations, you must decide what work will be contracted and write up the specifications or technical provisions of the contract.

The actual equipment required and method of treatment

should have already been decided in the conceptual plan.

These will be the

equipment and method specified in the contract technical provisions.

Herbi-

cides and adjuvants to be used can be included in the contract as to be provided by the contractor, or they can be purchased separately and provided to the contractor.

If it is uncertain exactly which products will be used or if

it appears more economical to provide the materials from existing stores, the contract should be written with the Government providing the chemicals. Otherwise, the contractor should provide the chemicals. Several other things should be included in the plan for contracting. There are always delays built into the contracting process.

Certain steps

must always be followed by the procurement personnel to advertise and award the contract.

Time must be allowed for the prospective contractors to prepare

their bids and for processing of the award.

Talk with the procurement person-

nel and get a good estimate of the time between when they get your request for contract and when you can expect to have a contractor on the job.

Use t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t o p l a n when your r e q u e s t must be s u b m i t t e d t o procurement.

Also, send i n a r e q u e s t f o r wage r a t e d e t e r m i n a t i o n , s i n c e t h i s may

r e q u i r e up t o 6 months. The measure of t h e work t o be performed and payment u n i t s must b e d e c i d e d upon and e s t i m a t e d .

The j o b may be p a i d f o r i n a lump sum upon completion.

T h i s may b e a convenient payment method f o r a s m a l l job. e s t i m a t e d and p a i d f o r on a l e a s e p l a n . by t h e hour of o p e r a t i n g time.

Larger j o b s could b e

Payment u n i t s i n t h i s c a s e would b e

An allowance f o r time d u r i n g which t h e con-

t r a c t o r h a s h i s p e r s o n n e l and equipment on t h e j o b b u t cannot perform because of a d v e r s e c o n d i t i o n s , such as w e a t h e r , should b e i n c l u d e d a s l a y time.

This

type of c o n t r a c t l e n d s i t s e l f t o o p e r a t i o n s where t h e Government w i l l be providing t h e m a t e r i a l s t o be applied.

It i s a l s o easy t o measure t h e amount of

work performed on an h o u r l y b a s i s . T h i s t y p e of c o n t r a c t can be u s e d i n a l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t form i f t h e cont r a c t o r w i l l b e p r o v i d i n g t h e chemicals.

The a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s t h a t a r e

s p e c i f i e d can b e added t o t h e u n i t p r i c e s c h e d u l e and p a i d f o r a t t h e b i d p r i c e , a s t h e y a r e used by t h e c o n t r a c t o r .

It i s not uncommon t o t r y t o

a d v e r t i s e and award a c o n t r a c t w i t h a u n i t of measure and payment of a c r e s treated.

The d i f f i c u l t p a r t of t h i s t y p e of c o n t r a c t i s t h e measurement of

t h e a r e a a f t e r t r e a t m e n t and agreement between t h e c o n t r a c t o r and Government of j u s t what work h a s been performed.

I n t h e a e r i a l a p p l i c a t i o n b u s i n e s s it

i s n o t uncommon t o b i d j o b s on a g a l l o n s - a p p l i e d b a s i s .

The u n i t of payment

would t h e n be based on t h e g a l l o n s of s p r a y mix t h a t t h e c o n t r a c t o r a p p l i e d a t t h e c o n t r a c t - s p e c i f i e d m i x t u r e and a p p l i c a t i o n r a t e .

T h i s could e a s i l y be

measured by a m e t e r between t h e mix pump and t h e a i r c r a f t ' s hopper. The c o n t r a c t o r should b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r any s t a t e and l o c a l p e r m i t requirements and n e c e s s a r y c e r t i f i c a t i o n of p e r s o n n e l . should be i n c l u d e d i n t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s .

T h i s requirement

Any o t h e r m a t t e r s of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

t h a t may be open t o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s h o u l d be s p e c i f i e d , e.g.,

responsibility

f o r t r i p l e - r i n s i n g and d i s p o s i n g of empty h e r b i c i d e c o n t a i n e r s .

I f the

Government w i l l l o c a t e and s e c u r e a p p r o v a l of landowners o r owns l a n d t h a t

w i l l be used as t h e b a s e of o p e r a t i o n s , i t s h o u l d be s o s t a t e d i n t h e c o n t r a c t specifications.

Otherwise, t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c q u i r i n g l a n d u s e should

be s t a t e d a s belonging t o t h e c o n t r a c t o r .

COORDINATION

The p u b l i c should be n o t i f i e d j u s t before c o n t r o l o p e r a t i o n s begin.

Of

course, t h e p u b l i c meetings would have given p r i o r n o t i c e t h a t operations were being planned, and perhaps t h e approximate d a t e s were discussed.

However,

t h e s e d a t e s were t e n t a t i v e , and t h e public has a tendency t o f o r g e t proposed dates.

To e l i m i n a t e t h e appearance of deception and t o promote good w i l l w i t h

t h e using p u b l i c , some a d d i t i o n a l form of n o t i f i c a t i o n should be used. The enforcement of T i t l e 40 by t h e USEPA a l s o r e q u i r e s t h e a p p l i c a t o r t,o make a reasonable attempt t o l e t people know i f t h e a p p l i c a t i o n may a f f e c t them.

The precautionary statements on t h e h e r b i c i d e l a b e l can s e r v e as a

guide f o r n o t i f i c a t i o n .

I f t h e l a b e l s t a t e s "Water i s n o t t o be used f o r

i r r i g a t i o n f o r seven days following treatment," t h e a p p l i c a t o r must ensure t h a t persons who may use t h e water f o r t h i s purpose know about t h e l i m i t a t i o n . Other precautions l i s t e d on t h e l a b e l should likewise be placed on notifications. Several methods of n o t i f i c a t i o n can be used, depending upon l o c a l conditions.

D i f f e r e n t methods of n o t i f i c a t i o n may need t o be used i n t h e same

water body a t d i f f e r e n t l o c a t i o n s . procedures.

There a r e no standards f o r n o t i f i c a t i o n

The determining f a c t o r a s t o your l e g a l s a t i s f a c t i o n of n o t i f i c a -

t i o n i s whether o r not t h e e f f o r t expended t o n o t i f y t h e p o t e n t i a l l y a f f e c t e d p u b l i c was reasonable.

Public n o t i c e s can be published i n t h e l o c a l newspaper

t o inform t h e u s e r s of precautions.

Signs can be e r e c t e d a t t h e treatment

s i t e and/or a t access p o i n t s t o t h e water body t o n o t i f y u s e r s of t h e t r e a t ments.

A system of markers o r buoys can be used where treatments w i l l be made

on a r e c u r r i n g b a s i s and t h e majority of the u s e r s a r e l o c a l .

For instance,

special-colored buoys could be placed t o o u t l i n e treatment areas.

Notices

could i n i t i a l l y be a f f i x e d t o t h e buoys a s w e l l a s a t s t r a t e g i c l o c a t i o n s around t h e water body t o d e s c r i b e t h e purposes of the buoys and t h e precautions.

Later, t h e number and d e t a i l of the n o t i c e s could be reduced.

Fre-

quent u s e r s would become f a m i l i a r with the system and t h e meaning of the buoys. Most of t h e precautions on t h e chemical l a b e l s have a s p e c i f i e d time i n t e r v a l following treatment during which water use i s r e s t r i c t e d . should be made t o i n d i c a t e t h i s time period i n t h e n o t i f i c a t i o n .

Provision Date of

treatment may be posted on s i g n s , with a statement of t h e time p e r i o d the

w a t e r usage i s r e s t r i c t e d . r e s t r i c t e d uses. ..

,,

1

Another method i s t o s t a t e t h e ending d a t e f o r t h e

Of c o u r s e , t h e s i g n s could i n d i c a t e o n l y t h e w a t e r u s e

r e s t r i c t i o n s , w i t h no t i m e s p e c i f i e d . end of t h e r e s t r i c t i o n p e r i o d .

Then t h e s i g n s c o u l d b e removed a t t h e

T h i s may n o t b e t h e b e s t method, however.

If

t h e s i g n s a r e n o t picked up on t i m e , t h e p u b l i c may b e k e p t . f r o m l e g i t i m a t e

1

u s e of p o r t i o n s of t h e water body.

The s m a l l added e f f o r t t o d a t e t h e s i g n s

would e l i m i n a t e t h i s problem.

I I

Whether t h e work i s performed by Government o r c o n t r a c t p e r s o n n e l , a p r e work b r i e f i n g should b e h e l d t o make s u r e t h a t a l l p a r t i e s u n d e r s t a n d t h e assignment of r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s .

A p p l i c a t o r s should b e a d v i s e d of t h e s a f e t y

and u s e p r e c a u t i o n s on t h e h e r b i c i d e l a b e l .

Other g e n e r a l s a f e t y p r e c a u t i o n s

b o t h i n t h e h a n d l i n g and a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e chemicals, as w e l l a s u s e of equipment, should be s t r e s s e d .

Any s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s t o b e found i n t h e

t r e a t m e n t a r e a s o r any a r e a s t o b e s p e c i f i c a l l y excluded from t r e a t m e n t s h o u l d b e d i s c u s s e d and understood by t h e a p p l i c a t o r s .

C o n s i d e r a t i o n s expected f o r

u s e r s of t h e p r o j e c t a r e a w h i l e a p p l i c a t i o n s a r e being made should a l s o be discussed.

Any q u e s t i o n s t h e a p p l i c a t o r may h a v e about t h e o p e r a t i o n should

b e c l e a r e d up d u r i n g t h e s e meetings. PROGRAM MONITORING The job i s n o t completed when t h e l a s t of t h e chemical i s a p p l i e d t o t h e lake.

I I

I

Aquatic p l a n t c o n t r o l i s s i m i l a r t o t h e maintenance of a lawn.

continuous program over t h e growing season.

A d d i t i o n a l t r e a t m e n t s may be nec-

e s s a r y i n o r d e r t o m a i n t a i n t h e p l a n t s a t an a c c e p t a b l e l e v e l .

I

There are,

however, c e r t a i n t h i n g s t h a t should b e done f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t . With any s y s t e m a t i c o p e r a t i o n a feedback l o o p i s needed.

I

It i s a

T h i s feedback

a l l o w s t h e program manager o r f i e l d foreman t o keep t r a c k of t h e s u c c e s s o r f a i l u r e of t h e program g o a l s .

It a l s o a l l o w s him t o d e t e r m i n e t h e e f f e c t s o f

o p e r a t i o n a l changes t o t h e program and t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of v a r i o u s management options. i

Feedback may come from a v a r i e t y of s o u r c e s .

manager w a i t s u n t i l h e h e a r s t h a t something h a s gone wrong. t h e d e f a u l t approach.

I

It could b e t h a t t h e

f o r feedback.

We w i l l c a l l t h i s

O r , a program of r e p o r t i n g and i n s p e c t i o n c o u l d be u s e d

L e t ' s c a l l t h i s t h e planned approach.

Default Approach Often, i n t h e h a s t e of s t a r t i n g a program, it i s easy t o accept t h e d e f a u l t approach.

There seems t o be more work than can b e accomplished.

Many ways of g e t t i n g t h e job done must be s o r t e d through, and t h e d e c i s i o n t o do i t a c e r t a i n way must be defended t o many people.

I n a l l t h i s confusion, i t i s

easy t o f o r g e t t h a t someone must monitor t h e program a s it i s being performed. This p o r t i o n of t h e plan can be a c c i d e n t a l l y omitted, which gives r i s e t o t h e d e f a u l t approach. Consider t h i s s i t u a t i o n : running smoothly.

The program begins and everything seems t o be

A few s i t u a t i o n s a r i s e t h a t r e q u i r e minor changes i n the

plan, but o v e r a l l t h e people t h a t planned t h e program a r e f e e l i n g s a t i s f i e d . No symptoms of major problems come t o l i g h t , s o t h e program manager assumes a l l i s well.

Then, one morning when he comes t o work, he i s besieged with

telephone c a l l s .

It seems t h a t t h e work crews have been t r e a t i n g an a r e a

around an i n t a k e f o r t h e lawn s p r i n k l i n g system of a subdivision. they make an a p p l i c a t i o n , t h e lawns t u r n brown.

Every t i m e

The homeowners know t h a t t h e

treatments keep t h e i r l a k e usable, but they have f i n a l l y become f e d up with t h e problems i t causes with t h e i r lawns. t h e i r congressmen, and t h e newspapers.

They have c a l l e d t h e i r a t t o r n e y s , The h e a d l i n e i n t h e morning paper

reads "Government Agency Poisons Innocent Homeownersf Lawns."

Your immediate

response i s "There i s nothing I could have done t o stop t h i s . " r e s e n t a t i v e r e s u l t of t h e d e f a u l t approach.

T h i s i s a rep-

No e f f o r t was made t o t e s t how

w e l l t h e system was working, so t h e assumption was made t h a t i t was a l r i g h t . The p u b l i c you s e r v e should l e t you know i f t h i n g s a r e n o t going r i g h t . r e a l i t y , they w i l l not, u n l e s s something i s t e r r i b l y wrong. t h e minor problems s i l e n t l y .

In

They w i l l s u f f e r

F i n a l l y , when they f e e l "fed up," they SCREAM.

Not t o you, a s you would l i k e , but t o everyone who could cause you problems. You then must spend considerable e f f o r t t o r e s o l v e the s i t u a t i o n .

Planned Approach L e t ' s look a t t h e above s i t u a t i o n through t h e eyes of t h e manager t h a t chose t o use t h e planned approach. a l l of h i s fieldwork.

He has an i n s p e c t i o n program i n f o r c e on

The f i e l d foreman looks over each of t h e treatment

s i t e s before they a r e t r e a t e d and schedules t h e work crews t o make b e s t use of

t h e resources.

Following t h e a p p l i c a t i o n , he r e t u r n s t o t h e s i t e t o evaluate

t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s of t h e treatment. t h e manager.

He works c l o s e l y w i t h t h e f i e l d crews and

He has t h e a u t h o r i t y t o make f i e l d changes t h a t have saved thou-

sands of d o l l a r s and many headaches.

The manager i s aware of what t h e e x i s t -

ing f i e l d conditions a r e because of t h e r e p o r t s t h a t a r e provided him by t h e foreman.

The manage?. understands human n a t u r e and designs h i s program t o work

i n t h e r e a l world.

He has h i s f i e l d foreman s t o p by t h e l o c a l f i s h camps and

community c e n t e r s and t a l k with t h e i r customers, the u s i n g public, on a regul a r basis.

One of t h e people t o l d him t h a t t h e i r lawn w a s dying and they

thought t h a t i t was because of t h e spraying.

The foreman i n v e s t i g a t e d the

s i t u a t i o n and found t h a t t h e developer had i n s t a l l e d a lawn watering system t h a t drew water from t h e lake.

The developer had not n o t i f i e d anyone t h a t h e

would be drawing water from t h e l a k e , and t h e i n t a k e was not v i s i b l e from t h e water. remedy.

The foreman n o t i f i e d t h e manager of t h e s i t u a t i o n and suggested a The p l a n f o r treatment of t h i s a r e a h a s been changed.

The work crew

n o t i f i e s t h e development maintenance o f f i c e b e f o r e they t r e a t t h e water.

The

maintenance o f f i c e n o t i f i e s t h e homeowners when the treatment w i l l be made. Water i s not drawn from t h e lake f o r 3 days a f t e r t h e treatment, i n accordance with t h e h e r b i c i d e l a b e l .

There has been no more t r o u b l e with t h e lawns s i n c e

t h i s procedure has been implemented. This i s an example of how c r e a t i v e methods of c o l l e c t i n g feedback can b e very h e l p f u l f o r e a r l y warning of problems t h a t a r e developing.

The effec-

t i v e n e s s of t h e treatments and customer s a t i s f a c t i o n can, likewise, be measured through frequent c o n t a c t s with t h e using public.

This s e r v e s a s

a d d i t i o n a l i n p u t t o t h e feedback system and can be used t o v e r i f y o r support input from o t h e r sources. Inspect ions It i s u n l i k e l y t h a t t h e usual feedback of r e p o r t forms or i n s p e c t i o n

r e p o r t s would have revealed t h e problem depicted above, b u t they a r e just as important.

There a r e a number of ways these i n s p e c t i o n s can be performed.

Probably t h e b e s t i n s p e c t i o n i s an o n s i t e review by t h e f i e l d foreman or program manager.

This i s a l s o t h e most c o s t l y and time consuming.

There a r e

very few organizations. t h a t can a f f o r d t o have someone t o p e r s o n a l l y review a l l operations.

There i s no replacement f o r an on-the-ground

look at where

t h e work i s b e i n g performed.

T h i s i s t h e o n l y way t o g e t a t r u e f e e l f o r t h e

q u a l i t y of t h e work t h a t h a s been performed and t h e r e s u l t i n g p l a n t c o n t r o l . A l l p l a n t c o n t r o l programs ought t o have some o n s i t e i n s p e c t i o n .

The amount,

however, w i l l u s u a l l y be determined by funding and p e r s o n n e l l i m i t a t i o n s . I f i t i s i m p o s s i b l e t o have a l l work p e r s o n a l l y i n s p e c t e d , some form of s c h e d u l i n g should be used t o g e t t h e most b e n e f i t of t h e e f f o r t expended. I n i t i a l l y , some form of pseudo-random i n s p e c t i o n could b e used.

The o b j e c t i v e

should be t o review a l l crews' work, e a c h of t h e work a r e a s , and a l l t y p e s of t r e a t m e n t w i t h i n some predetermined t i m e p e r i o d .

For i n s t a n c e , e a c h of t h e

work a r e a s should be i n s p e c t e d a minimum of once each t r e a t m e n t s e a s o n .

Like-

w i s e , each of t h e work crews' o p e r a t i o n s should be reviewed a t l e a s t once a season, and t h e s e i n s p e c t i o n s should b e scheduled t o a l l o w t h e e v a l u a t i o n of each of t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s of c o n t r o l being used.

T h i s i s an a b s o l u t e mini-

mum i n s p e c t i o n program and would c e r t a i n l y n o t b e very s e n s i t i v e .

I f symptoms

of problems a r e s e e n d u r i n g t h i s i n s p e c t i o n program, a d d i t i o n a l i n s p e c t i o n s can be performed i n t h e problem a r e a t o v e r i f y t h e i n i t i a l f i n d i n g s . A e r i a l i n s p e c t i o n s can be a v e r y important p a r t of t h e t o t a l feedback. T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e of very l a r g e programs t h a t c o v e r many w a t e r b o d i e s , A l i g h t , high-winged a i r p l a n e such as a Cesna model 172, 182, o r 210 i s prob-

a b l y b e s t f o r t h i s job. t h e w a t e r bodies.

The p l a n e c a n be c h a r t e r e d t o f l y an o b s e r v e r over

The o b s e r v e r r e c o r d s t h e p r e s e n c e of p l a n t s and o t h e r

p e r t i n e n t i n f o r m a t i o n on maps. inspection i n a written report.

These a r e l a t e r used t o r e c o n s t r u c t t h e The f i e l d foreman o r t h e manager c o u l d per-

form t h e a e r i a l i n s p e c t i o n , o r they c o u l d a l t e r n a t e .

T h i s would a l l o w each o f

them t o have a n o v e r a l l p i c t u r e of t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e program w a t e r bodies. The g r e a t e s t advantage of t h e a e r i a l i n s p e c t i o n s i s t h a t a person i s a b l e t o cover a n enormous a r e a i n a s i n g l e day, scanned i n one-tenth t h e u s u a l time.

Hundreds of m i l e s of s h o r e l i n e can be

The program manager o r foreman i s a b l e

t o g e t a n i d e a of t h e c o n d i t i o n of a l l t h e w a t e r b o d i e s under h i s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n j u s t a day o r two.

The c o s t f o r t h e p l a n e c h a r t e r i s i n s i g n i f i c a n t

compared w i t h t h e b e n e f i t d e r i v e d i n t h i s s h o r t p e r i o d .

User I n p u t

There a r e o t h e r methods of c o l l e c t i n g feedback on t h e program. s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t groups a r e on t h e w a t e r c o n t i n u a l l y .

Numerous

Bass f i s h i n g c l u b s have

tournaments r e g u l a r l y , and t h e i r members a r e c o n s t a n t l y p r a c t i c i n g f o r t h e tournaments. ,1

I

~

I

.

.

F i s h i n g g u i d e s u s u a l l y know e a c h o t h e r w e l l and may even have

j o i n e d t o g e t h e r t o form t h e i r own o r g a n i z a t i o n .

Water-skiers,

hunters, bird-

w a t c h e r s , and o t h e r people t h a t have common i n t e r e s t s w i l l form c l u b s o r o t h e r organized groups t o s h a r e t h e i r i n t e r e s t s .

Each of t h e s e groups i s watching

t h e w a t e r body from a d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e , b u t they have one t h i n g i n common.

They w i l l n o t i c e when something goes wrong t h a t may a f f e c t t h e i r s p e c i a l

i n t e r e s t and w i l l do t h e i r b e s t t o keep i t from happening again.

These g r o u p s

can be a v a l u a b l e s o u r c e of i n f o r m a t i o n on t h e c o n d i t i o n of t h e w a t e r body and t h e observed e f f e c t s of t r e a t m e n t s .

Their e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r s r e p r e s e n t a

l a r g e group of people and can be an e f f e c t i v e avenue of communication.

The

manager should f i n d t h e s e groups and e s t a b l i s h a good working r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h them.

I n f o r m a t i o n t h a t they p r o v i d e c a n b e q u i t e u s e f u l , and i t i s f r e e ! I n c i d e n t a l Input

I f t h e r e a r e o t h e r elements w i t h i n your o r g a n i z a t i o n t h a t r o u t i n e l y i n s p e c t o r survey water b o d i e s , you may be a b l e t o g e t them t o l o o k f o r obvious a q u a t i c p l a n t problems a t t h e same time.

When you perform a n inspec-

t i o n o r survey of an a r e a , you c o u l d l i k e w i s e b e o b s e r v a n t f o r t h e i r a r e a o f concern.

T h i s way, each of you c o u l d b e n e f i t from t h e o t h e r ' s t i m e i n t h e

f i e l d and c o v e r g r e a t e r a r e a s w i t h fewer r e s o u r c e s . Operational Reports Some t y p e of o p e r a t i o n a l r e p o r t form ought t o be mandatory f o r a l l h e r b i cide applications. work performed.

The completed forms a r e e s s e n t i a l f o r documentation of t h e

T h i s a l l o w s t h e manager t o e v a l u a t e t h e performance of t h e

v a r i o u s o p t i o n s of c o n t r o l t h a t were used.

He can t a k e t h e work r e p o r t s i n t o

t h e f i e l d and u s e them as t h e b a s i s of determining e f f e c t i v e n e s s .

Probably

t h e most p r e s s i n g need f o r o p e r a t i o n a l r e p o r t s i s f o r d e f e n s e a g a i n s t c l a i m s . When a l e g a l c l a i m i s brought a g a i n s t your o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e o p e r a t i o n a l work r e p o r t s a r e your f i r s t l i n e of d e f e n s e .

These w i l l become your documented

evidence, sworn t o by t h e p e r s o n s performing t h e work, of e x a c t l y what was done on t h e day o r days i n q u e s t i o n .

This evidence c a r r i e s a l o t of weight

compared w i t h t h e c l a i m a n t ' s r e c o l l e c t i o n of e v e n t s .

The forms should b e designed w i t h t h i s i n mind.

Spaces ought t o be pro-

v i d e d on t h e form and l a b e l e d f o r t h e s p e c i f i c t y p e s of i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t would b e u s e f u l i n d e f e n s e of a claim.

The minimum i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t s h o u l d - b e

i n c l u d e d i s t y p e and amount of h e r b i c i d e t h a t was used; t y p e s and amounts o f any a d d i t i v e s t o t h e s p r a y m i x t u r e , i n c l u d i n g d i l u t a n t ; t h e s p e c i f i c s i t e o f a p p l i c a t i o n ; weather c o n d i t i o n s , p a r t i c u l a r l y wind speed and d i r e c t i o n ; i n f o r mation r e g a r d i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n of time over t h e v a r i o u s t a s k s i n v o l v e d i n t h e o p e r a t i o n ; and n o t a t i o n s o f any s p e c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o r u n u s u a l o c c u r r e n c e s .

If

t h e program i s l a r g e enough and t h e number of r e p o r t s g r e a t enough, a computer program may b e i n o r d e r t o compile t h e d a t a i n t o u s e f u l i n f o r m a t i o n .

HERBICIDE AND CONTAINER DISPOSAL

Other t h i n g s must be done f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t . and maintained.

Equipment must b e c l e a n e d

Empty h e r b i c i d e c o n t a i n e r s must be d i s p o s e d of p r o p e r l y .

Empty c o n t a i n e r s can be a problem i f t h e y a r e n o t handled p r o p e r l y f o r d i s posal.

A s long as t h e c o n t a i n e r s a r e being u s e d t o s t o r e t h e p r o d u c t f o r u s e ,

t h e y a r e r e g u l a t e d under t h e US Environmental P r o t e c t i o n Agency's F e d e r a l I n s e c t i c i d e , R o d e n t i c i d e , and Fungicide Act (FIFRA) a s a h e r b i c i d e c o n t a i n e r . Once a l l t h e h e r b i c i d e h a s been d r a i n e d f o r u s e , t h e c o n t a i n e r may become a hazardous waste depending on how i t i s handled.

A s a g e n e r a t o r of hazardous

w a s t e s , you w i l l have t o f o l l o w a d i f f e r e n t s e t of r e g u l a t i o n s , which i n c l u d e keeping a n i n v e n t o r y of w a s t e m a t e r i a l s and r e c o r d s of t h e i r p r o p e r d i s p o s a l . D i s p o s a l of t h i s hazardous waste becomes a v e r y involved and c o s t l y process. However, t h e r e i s no need t o g e t i n t o t h i s s i t u a t i o n . d u r e s a r e w r i t t e n on t h e l a b e l of t h e c o n t a i n e r . they a r e t r i p l e - r i n s e d ,

P r o p e r d i s p o s a l proce-

Most l i q u i d c o n t a i n e r s , o n c e

a r e no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r e d contaminated and w i l l not

have t o be handled a s a hazardous waste.

For i n s t a n c e , a 5-gal p a i l may have

t h e i n s t r u c t i o n s t o " t r i p l e r i n s e , p u n c t u r e t h e c o n t a i n e r , c r u s h and bury i n a landfill."

T h i s means t h a t t h r e e t i m e s t h i s c o n t a i n e r must be f i l l e d approxi-

m a t e l y 1/4 f u l l of d i l u t a n t , s w i r l e d o r shaken v i g o r o u s l y t o wash t h e i n t e r i o r , and d r a i n e d .

The c o n t a i n e r must t h e n b e punctured and crushed.

then be buried i n a l a n d f i l l . you may have broken t h e l a w . s i d e r e d t o be contaminated. section.

It c a n

I f any of t h e i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p s are n e g l e c t e d , The m a t e r i a l used t o r i n s e t h e c o n t a i n e r i s conD i s p o s a l of t h e r i n s a t e i s covered l a t e r i n t h i s

Bags and boxes t h a t c o n t a i n e d d r y m a t e r i a l s , s u c h a s g r a n u l e s ,

p e l l e t s , o r powders, can sometimes b e burned. instructions.

Check t h e l a b e l f o r d i s p o s a l

FOLLOWING THE INSTRUCTIONS THAT APPEAR ON THE LABEL I S YOUR

ASSURANCE THAT YOU ARE LEGALLY DISPOSING OF THE CONTAINER. Care should b e used i n t h e c l e a n i n g of equipment.

The water u s e d t o

c l e a n equipment becomes contaminated and must b e d i s p o s e d of i n t h e same mann e r as a h e r b i c i d e .

The p e s t i c i d e l a b e l h a s i n s t r u c t i o n s f o r t h e p r o p e r d i s -

p o s a l of t h e p r o d u c t .

The e a s i e s t and c h e a p e s t way t o d i s p o s e of contaminated

w a t e r i s t o u s e i t i n t h e s p r a y mix. t h e d i l u t a n t i n t h e s p r a y mix. s p e c i f i e d on t h e l a b e l .

The contaminated w a t e r may b e used a s

The product i s t h e r e b y b e i n g l e g a l l y used as

T h i s i s a l s o t h e b e s t way t o d i s p o s e of a h e r b i c i d e ;

u s e i t f o r t r e a t m e n t s a s i t was l a b e l e d . OTHER CONSIDERATIONS Residue Monitoring

I f the herbicide l a b e l has use r e s t r i c t i o n s t h a t a r e t i e d t o t h e residue l e v e l of t h e h e r b i c i d e , a r e s i d u e m o n i t o r i n g program may b e i n o r d e r .

The

l a b e l may s t a t e t h a t "water should n o t b e used f o r i r r i g a t i o n f o r s e v e n days f o l l o w i n g t r e a t m e n t o r u n t i l an approved a s s a y shows l e v e l s t o be l e s s t h a n 0.01 p a r t s p e r m i l l i o n . "

I f t h e r e i s a need f o r u s e of t h e water b e f o r e t h e

7-day l i m i t a t i o n , a sampling and a n a l y s i s program could b e used.

If this

a s s a y shows t h e w a t e r t o have l e s s t h a n t h e s p e c i f i e d r e s i d u e , i t c a n be u s e d A r e s i d u e m o n i t o r i n g program i s a v e r y expensive p r o p o s i t i o n .

sooner.

n o t uncommon f o r a s i n g l e h e r b i c i d e a n a l y s i s t o c o s t $100 o r more. n o t i n c l u d e t h e c o s t of c o l l e c t i o n , s t o r a g e , and t r a n s p o r t .

It i s

This does

There may a l s o b e

c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y i n f i n d i n g a l a b o r a t o r y t h a t i s n o t s o backlogged w i t h work t h a t t h e y can r u n your samples i n t h e u s u a l time t h a t t h e w a t e r i s restricted. Water Q u a l i t y

Water q u a l i t y m o n i t o r i n g of some s o r t may a l s o b e needed from time t o time.

Probably t h e most f r e q u e n t l y monitored parameter i s d i s s o l v e d oxy-

gen (DO).

H e r b i c i d e - t r e a t e d p l a n t s w i l l consume oxygen as they decompose.

The chemicals themselves may a l t e r oxygen l e v e l s i n t h e w a t e r .

Animals t h a t

live in the water rely on the oxygen that is dissolved in the water as their source of this gas.

If the levels drop too low, these animals will die unless they are able to move to other areas where the oxygen levels are higher. I

Sometimes the DO level in natural water bodies may dip low enough to kill fish

I

I

and other animals. Other times the oxygen level will hover dangerously low for extended periods.

j

Normally there is sufficient oxygen to handle the added

load of the decomposing plants.

Fish will most certainly be killed if treat-

ments are made when the DO level is too low. I

Field DO meters can be helpful

in determining when oxygen levels are so low that treatment could kill fish. Cleanup If signs or buoys have been used to notify water body users of water use restrictions, they should be removed soon after their expiration date. This may not be a legal requirement, but it will certainly help with your public image. No one likes to see a lake or river that is strewn with buoys, stakes, and signs. If the people are already sensitive to the use of chemicals in the water, these old markers will only serve to annoy them further. Care must also be exercised to clean up any other areas that are disturbed during the application. Courtesy exhibited by your field personnel will be repaid several-fold when some other minor problem is excused by your public. This is by no means a complete description of things that will need to be done following treatment. With each water body, each region, each group of specialized waterway users, there are special conditions that must be met by the treatment program.

There are, likewise, special monitoring and follow-up

needs that will have to be addressed.

The purpose of this discussion is to

give some ideas of how a well-coordinated program could be set up.

It is also

a challenge to those who have been in the aquatic plant control business for some time to look carefully at existing programs and consider if they need to be updated. A well-conceived program that is planned with the input of the customers, carried out with their interests in mind, and modified when it misses the mark should be the goal.

APPENDIX F: ECONOMICS OF HERBICIDE SELECTION

The c o s t of chemical c o n t r o l o p e r a t i o n s i n c l u d e s a number of separable elements:

h e r b i c i d e , l e n g t h of c o n t r o l , l a b o r , t r a v e l , equipment, and super-

v i s i o n and i n s p e c t i o n .

The s e l e c t i o n of the h e r b i c i d e t o be used may-have t h e

g r e a t e s t e f f e c t on t h e o v e r a l l c o s t of the c o n t r o l e f f o r t .

Some h e r b i c i d e s

may w e l l exceed t h e t o t a l c o s t of t h e remaining elements put t o g e t h e r .

Other

h e r b i c i d e s could be a minor c o n s t i t u e n t of t h e t o t a l c o n t r o l c o s t . The average c o s t t o apply chemicals i s i n t h e range of $36 t o $55 (1987 d o l l a r s ) f o r each a c r e of p l a n t s t r e a t e d , exclusive of the c o s t of t h e h e r b i c i d e and adjuvants.

The c o s t of chemicals c u r r e n t l y ranges from $3.50 t o

$480.00 f o r each t r e a t e d a c r e .

The f i r s t l o g i c a l choice would appear t o be

t h e l e a s t expensive product a v a i l a b l e .

However, t h e r e a r e o t h e r considera-

t i o n s i n making t h e b e s t choice f o r t h e job a t hand.

PROBABLY THE MOST

IMPORTANT PART OF SELECTING A HERBICIDE I S TO MAKE CERTAIN THAT THE PRODUCT I S EFFECTIVE ON THE TARGET PLANT UNDER THE CONDITIONS THAT I T MUST BE USED. Several h e r b i c i d e s may be a v a i l a b l e t h a t have enough d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r a c t i v i t y t o make i t worthwhile t o s e l e c t one over t h e o t h e r .

A d i f f e r e n c e of

10 t o 20 percent i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s could w e l l mean t h a t a d d i t i o n a l a p p l i c a t i o n s

may be necessary f o r season-long c o n t r o l . t h e a d d i t i o n a l h e r b i c i d e treatment.

This w i l l r e s u l t i n added cost f o r

Duration of c o n t r o l i s likewise important

i n determining t h e most economical h e r b i c i d e .

Contact h e r b i c i d e s may only

11

mow1' c e r t a i n p l a n t s back t o t h e water o r sedimentlwater i n t e r f a c e .

a r e then a b l e t o resprout from remaining, unaffected, p l a n t p a r t s . c i d e t h a t i s systemic, i . e . ,

A herbi-

t r a n s l o c a t e d through the p l a n t , w i l l l i k e l y k i l l

a l l p a r t s of t h e contacted p l a n t . control.

Plants

T h i s w i l l r e s u l t i n considerably longer

A h e r b i c i d e may appear t o e x h i b i t r e s i d u a l e f f e c t s through t h i s

systemic a c t i o n .

Slow-release h e r b i c i d e formulations w i l l r e l e a s e low l e v e l s

of t h e contained h e r b i c i d e over a p e r i o d of time.

This may allow f o r c o n t r o l

a c t i v i t y i n a r e a s where water c u r r e n t s would otherwise dispense t h e h e r b i c i d e too quickly. Ease of use should be considered i n s e l e c t i n g a h e r b i c i d e because of t h e p o s s i b l e e f f e c t s on c o s t .

Some h e r b i c i d e s r e q u i r e s p e c i a l equipment andlor

t r a i n i n g f o r t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n , and t h e s e products w i l l have the added cost of t h i s equipment o r t r a i n i n g f o r t h e personnel.

Ease of s t o r a g e and t r a n s p o r t

of t h e product can a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t t h e economics.

I f a job c a l l s

f o r only a small q u a n t i t y of h e r b i c i d e and the h e r b i c i d e i s only a v a i l a b l e i n 30- o r 55-gal c o n t a i n e r s , s p e c i a l handling and s t o r a g e space w i l l have t o be

provided.

An a l t e r n a t i v e product t h a t i s j u s t a s e f f e c t i v e and t h a t i s a v a i l -

a b l e i n smaller c o n t a i n e r s would e l i m i n a t e t h e s e a s s o c i a t e d c o s t s . I

Type and amount of c a r r i e r t h a t i s needed can a l s o a f f e c t t h e cost.

1 1 I

Dry

products, such a s p e l l e t s and granules, t y p i c a l l y have a low percentage of a c t i v e ingredient and a high concentration of i n a c t i v e c a r r i e r such a s clay. A l a r g e p a r t of t h e shipping c o s t f o r t h e product and s t o r a g e space w i l l b e

iI

f o r t h e clay c a r r i e r .

Also, t h e capacity of t h e usual s i z e t r u c k and/or b o a t

t h a t i s used by a work crew may be inadequate t o c a r r y a 1-day supply of mater i a l s with t h e added weight of t h e c a r r i e r .

Larger s i z e d or a d d i t i o n a l

v e h i c l e s would be necessary t o c a r r y a day's supply of chemical, o r the number of t r e a t e d a c r e s per day would be reduced.

E i t h e r way, t h i s would r e s u l t i n

added c o s t s . Liquid h e r b i c i d e s u s u a l l y have higher concentrations of a c t i v e ingredients.

Highly concentrated formulations reduce shipping and s t o r a g e c o s t s .

More a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t can be hauled and s t o r e d i n t h e same space with l e s s weight.

Transporting a day's worth of h e r b i c i d e does n o t r e q u i r e s p e c i a l o r

a d d i t i o n a l equipment.

However, t h e user should be c a r e f u l t h a t a requirement

f o r s p e c i a l d i l u t a n t s o r a d d i t i v e s (adjuvants) does not e l i m i n a t e t h i s advantage.

For a q u a t i c a p p l i c a t i o n s , water i s e a s i l y a v a i l a b l e a t t h e a p p l i c a t i o n

site. Products t h a t use water a s t h e d i l u t a n t have advantage over o t h e r s .

If

t h e d i l u t a n t i s o i l o r combinations of other products, t h i s must b e c a r r i e d t o t h e work s i t e on t h e t r u c k and/or b o a t .

Some l i q u i d products, p a r t i c u l a r l y

e s t e r formulations, r e q u i r e a form of o i l f o r t h e d i l u t a n t .

Others may

r e q u i r e an o i l and an e m u l s i f i e r , a s well a s water, t o form an i n v e r t emulsion f o r application.

Anytime a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l i s needed i n t h e s p r a y mix, t h e

c o s t of t h e a p p l i c a t i o n i s increased because of s p e c i a l shipping, s t o r i n g , and handling requirements f o r t h e a d d i t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s . The amount of h e r b i c i d e required t o t r e a t an a c r e of v e g e t a t i o n w i l l v a r y considerably from product t o product.

Cost of t h e t o t a l amount of product

necessary t o t r e a t an a c r e should be used i n making comparisons. product may be deceptively inexpensive.

A potential

For i n s t a n c e , i f product A costs only

$10 a g a l l o n and product B c o s t s $50 a g a l l o n , i t would seem t h a t product A would be more c o s t e f f e c t i v e .

However, i f i t takes 4 g a l of product A t o do

t h e same job a s 0.5 g a l of product B, then t h e reverse would be t r u e . wise, granular formulations of t h e same a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t may be more

Like-

expensive t h a n l i q u i d f o r m u l a t i o n s on a c o s t p e r u n i t a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t b a s i s . Granular p r o d u c t s may have a purchase p r i c e of n e a r l y $1 p e r pound, while l i q u i d f o r m u l a t i o n s may c o s t many d o l l a r s f o r a g a l l o n .

Remember thst

granu-

l a r f o r m u l a t i o n s u s u a l l y a r e ready f o r a p p l i c a t i o n and have a low concentrat i o n of a c t i v e i n g r e d i e n t .

Thus, w i t h t h e same a p p l i c a t i o n r a t e of a c t i v e

i n g r e d i e n t , t h e g r a n u l a r product would be more expensive. There may b e s e v e r a l h e r b i c i d e s t h a t c a n be used t o c o n t r o l a p a r t i c u l a r s p e c i e s of p l a n t .

One o r two may b e b e t t e r from an economic s t a n d p o i n t .

The

p r o d u c t t h a t i s t h e e a s i e s t t o u s e , r e q u i r e s l i t t l e o r no a d j u v a n t s , and i s e f f e c t i v e over a long p e r i o d of t i m e i s u s u a l l y t h e most economical even though i t may appear t o b e t h e most expensive i n i t i a l l y .

APPENDIX G: APPLICATOR'S DAILY SPRAY REPORT AND BIDDING SCHEDULE

WEEKLY REPORT OF OPERATIONS AQUATIC PLtIN-F CONTROL

Crew No.

11

I ! I

I

[

(1-5)

f i County

Watershed and Area

(16-20) Cost Account No.

1 m1

-1 (23-27)

(28-32)

1

Kind of Vegetation

(33-37)

Effective Time ----------.----------------Travel Time vehicle Travel Time plant

.L?.s!.T!??e r?!?....- - -.- - - - s

Lost Time wind Minor repairs (explain)

$ .Maio.r.rep.a.iin-Ce*.e!aI?I

9

g

Other duties Holiday or leave

-S"'v.ey.

- .- ...- - .- -

lnspect~on Preparation

Y. Y. Y.

III I

--

Y. Y. Y.

Remarks

Submitted:

Approved: Crew Chief

SAJ Form 454

26 Jun 78

m

(21.221 Method 01 Control (38) (331

COUNTY CODES 11 52 23 45 19 f0 58 53 47 48 64 29 1 34 54 2 9 61 59 21 55 60 66

- Alachua - Baker - Bay - Bradford - Brevard - Broward - Calhoun - Charlotte - Citrus - Clay - Collier - Columbia - Dade - DeSota - Dixie - Duval - Escambia - Flagler - Franklin - Gadsden - Gilchrist - Glades - Gulf

56 30 49 40 27 3 51 32 25 46 62 12 18 13 39 67 35 15 14 42 38 41

- Hamilton - Hardee - Hendry - Hernando - Highlands - Hillsborough - Holmes - I n d i a n River - Jackson - Jefferson - Lafayette - Lake - Lee - Leon - Levy - Liberty - Madison - Manatee - Marion - Martin - Monroe - Nassau

43 57 7 26 6 28 4 5 22 20 24 33 16 17 44 31 37 63 8 65 36 50

- Hyacinth - Alligatorweed - Hydrilla

E u r a s i a n Water-

4 5

- milfoil

- Cattails

-

- Washington

METHOD OF CONTROL

VEGETATION TYPE 1 2 3

- Okaloosa - Okeechobee - Orange - Osceola - Palm Beach - Pasco Pinellas - Polk - Putnam - S t . Johns - S t . Lucie - Santa Rosa - Sarasota - Seminole - Sumter - Suwannee - Taylor - Union - Volusia - Wakulla - Walton

- Chemical - Mechanical B - Biological

- Water l e t t u c e - Hyacinth-water l e t t u c e mix 8 - Melaleuca 9 - Other

C M

6 7

EQUIPMENT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

- Airboat - Aircraft - Kickerboat - Harvester - Transporter

- Elevator - Dump Truck

(Harvester)

- T r a i l e r with Tank - ATV P l a t f o r m - Underwater C u t t e r - Tank Truck ( A i r c r a f t ) 2-1/2 t o n - Spray Truck ( I n v e r t 2-1 /2 t o n ) - Batch Truck - 1 t o n

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

- F l a t Bed Truck - 2 t o n - F l a t Bed Dump R u c k - 2-1 /2 - T r a c t o r (Semi-Truck) - T i l t T r a i l e r - 12 ton - Low Bed T r a i l e r - Dragline - Towboat - Other - Barge - Pontoon Boat - 20 Foot Motorboat - Helicopter VEHICLES

HERBICIDES ( l i q u i d i n g a l l o n s ; g r a n u l a r i n pounds)

1 2 3 4 7 8 9 11

- 2,4-D Amine - Diquat - Copper Complex - Hydrothol 191 - Other - Invert O i l - Diesel - Aquathol-K (liquid )

12 13 14 15 16 17 18

- Sonar ( l i q u i d ) - Sonar ( g r a n u l a r ) - Aquathol g r a n u l a r - Polymers - 2,4-D g r a n u l a r - Other a d j u v a n t s - Rodeo

ton

1

2 3 4 5 6 7

- Sedan - S t a t i o n Wagon - P.U. Ruck-1/2 t o n - P.U. Truck-3/4 t o n - P.U. Truck-1 t o n - Blazer, C a r r y a l l , 4x4 wagon - Other

BIDDING SCHEDULE "A" (To b e attached to b i d )

I

1

DESCRIPTION

NU.

1

UNIT PRICE

ESTIMATED AMOUNT

-----

-----

-----------------

CREW OPERATING TIME AIRBOAT OPERATING TIME AIRBOAT LAY TIME

TRANSPORT TRUCK WITH BOAT! TRAILER A. B.

3

UNIT

CONTRACTOR FURNISHED AIRBOAT, SPRAY SYSTEM,AND CREW A. B. C.

2

ESTIMATED QUANTITY

OPERATING TIME LAY TIME

200 1400

HRS HRS

ADVERSE WEATHER LOST TIME HERBICIDES AND SPRAY ADDITIVES TO BE FURNISHED BY THE CONTRACTOR

2,4-D AMINE AQUATIC HERBICIDE

300

GALS

-----

---------

DIQUAT HERBICIDE

400

GALS

-----

---------

CHELATED COPPER COMPLEX

400

GALS

-----

---------

50

GALS

-----

---------

1 ZOO

GALS

-----

---------

800

GALS

-----

---------

36

GALS

------------ ------------------

RODEO HEBICIDE AQUATHOL-K HERBICIDE NALQUATIC AQUATIC HERBICIDE CfiRRIER NON-IONIC SURFACTANT TO BE USED WITH RODEO .WECIFY NAME:--------------------

TOTAL

............................................................................. NOTE: THE GOVERNMENT RESERVES THE RIGHT, AT ITS OPTION, TO FURNISH ANY OR ALL OF THE ITEMS 4 THRU 10 ABOVE IN LIEU OF PAYMENT TO THE CONTRACTOR. ALL BIDS MUST BE FOR THE ENTIRE WORK AND MUST HAVE EACH BLANK SPhCE FILLED IN. THE TIME &ND/OR BUANTITIES SPECIFIED ARE THE GOVERNMENT'S BEST ESTIMATE OF THE AMOUNT REQUIRED. HOWEVER,THE CONTRACTOR WILL BE PAID FOR THE SERVICES AND/OR SUPPLIES ACTUALLY USED-BE IT MORE OR LESS THAN THE QUANTITY SPECIFIED.

APPENDIX H: JOURNALS ON AQUATIC PLANT MANAGEMENT

MAJOR REFERENCES Aquatic Botany Elsevier Science Publishers PO Box 330, 1000 AH Amsterdam, Netherlands

Estuaries (previously ~hesa~eake Science) Estuarine Research Federation PO Box 368 Lawrence, KS 66044

Aquatic Toxicology Elsevier Science Publishers Biomedical Division PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands

Freshwater Biology Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ltd. Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 OEL, England Hydrobiologia

Aquatics Aquatics Magazine 7922 NW 71st Street Gainesville, FL 32606 Archiv Fur Hydrobiologie

Dr. W. Junk Publications PO Box 13713, 2501 ES The Hague, Netherlands Journal of Aquatic Plant Management (previously Hyacinth Control Journal)

E. Schweizerbart Verlagsbuch, Nagele U. Obermiller Johannesstrasse.3A, D-7000 Stuttgart 1, Fed. Republic of Germany

Aquatic Plant Management Society, Inc. Box 16 Vicksburg , MS 39180-0016

Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research

Journal of Environmental Quality American Society of Agronomy 677 S. Segoe Rd. Madison, WI 53711

Commonwealth Science and Industry Research Organization 314 Albert st7 Journal of Freshwater Ecology East Melbourne, Victoria 3002, Australia Oikos Publications, Inc. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination PO Box 2558 and Toxicology La Crosse, WI 54601 Springer Verlag 175 Fifth Ave. New York, NY 10010 Canadian Journal of Botany National Research Council of Canada Ottawa, Ontario Canada KIA OR6 Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences Department of Fisheries and Oceans Scientific Information Public. Branch 240 Spark St. Ottawa, Ontario, Canada KIA OE6

Journal of Pesticide Science Pesticide Science Society of Japan Tokyo University of Agriculture Department of Agricultural Chemistry Tokyo 156, Japan Limnology and Oceanography American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc. Great Lakes Marine and Water Center 2200 Bonisteel Blvd. Ann Arbor, MI 48109

New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research Department of Science and Industrial Research Scientific Information Division PO Box 9741 Wellington, New Zealand

Water Resources Bulletin American Water Resources Association St. Anthony Falls Hydraulic Laboratory Mississippi River at 3rd A V ~ - S E Minneapolis, MN 55414 Weed Research

Pesticide Science

Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ltd. Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 OEL, England

Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ltd. Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 OEL, England

Weed Science (previously Weeds) Weed Science Society of America 309 W. Clark St. Champaign, IL 61820

Water Research Pergammon Press, Ltd. Headington Hill Hall Oxford OX3 OBW, England

MINOR REFERENCES American Journal of Botany

Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry

Botanical Society of America Ohio State University Department of Botany 1735 Neil Ave., Columbus, OH 43210

American Chemical Society 1155 Sixteenth St. NW Washington, DC 20036

Applied and Environmental Microbiology

Journal of Chemical Ecology

American Society for Microbiology 1913 I St. NW Washington, DC 20006

Plenum Publishing Corp. 233 Spring St. New York, NY 10013

Ecology

Journal of Ecoloev

Ecological Society of America Arizona State University Center for Environmental Studies Tempe, AZ 85287

Blackwell Scientific Publications, Ltd. Osney Mead, Oxford OX2 OEL, England Journal of Environmental Science and Health

Environmental Pollution, Series A Elsevier Applied Science Publications, Ltd. 22 Rippleside, Commercial Est. Ripple Rd. Barking, Essex, IGll OSA, England Environmental Science and Technology American Chemical Society 1155 Sixteenth St. NW Washington, DC 20036

Marcel Dekker, Inc. 270 Madison Ave. New York, NY 10016 Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology Academic Press, Inc. 111 Fifth Ave. New York, NY 10003

S o i l Science S o c i e t y of $ e r i c a S o i l Science S o c i e t y of h e r i c a 677 S. Segoe Rd. Madison, W I 53711

Journal

Water, A i r , and S o i l P o l l u t i o n D. R e i d e l P u b l i s h i n g Co. V o o r s t r a a t 479-483, PO Box 1 7 3300 AA Dordrecht, Netherlands