AP Biology Summer Assignment 2014

AP Biology Summer Assignment 2014 AP Biology is about inquiry (a process aimed at augmenting knowledge and then using that knowledge to resolve doubt,...
Author: Amanda Jacobs
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AP Biology Summer Assignment 2014 AP Biology is about inquiry (a process aimed at augmenting knowledge and then using that knowledge to resolve doubt, and/or solve a problem or answer a question.) Your summer project is intended to get you thinking and acting in a way that promotes critical thinking and implementing those thoughts in practical applications. It is meant to be hands-on and discovery-based. Expectations: 1. Things to get: a. This packet b. Tomato Seeds from me – Heirloom Large Red Cherry (70 days) – Lycopersicon verduras (or equivalent # of days) c. AP Biology Textbook (hard bound) d. AP Biology Test Prep Book (soft bound) e. College Lab Notebook - NCR (No Carbon Required) Type – purchase from a college/university bookstore 2. Inquiry Projects: a. Plant Lab - Time frame should be: Research & Start up (2 to 3 hours) Run the experiment for 4 - 6 months (about 10 - 15 minutes/week - this time is based on:) • Maintenance of plants: water throughout the week, • Data Collection one day a week (for the duration of the lab) • Photos = minimum of 2 photos during germination, 1 prior to planting, followed by one picture a week of each plant – the control and experimental 1 & 2. • Record qualitative/quantitative observations for each plant b. Animal Behavior Lab – Research Animal and Animal Behavior ideas (2 to 3 hours) Design a 10 min. lab about Animal Behavior (2 to 4 hours) 2. Access my website: http://morescience.pbworks.com/w/page/55867238/FrontPage 3. The first day of school come with: (see attached pages for more details on the following) a. Plant Research Page b. Evidence of your Tomato Plant Project – pictures (printed on one or two pages) of how far along you are c. Flash cards on animal behavior – from chapter 51 (Term – definition & an example) d. Animal Research Page e. Specific idea of an Animal Behavior Lab you’ll have students perform If you need to reach me over break, best to email me at: [email protected] Ms. More Olympian High School Biology/AP Biology Teacher AP Biology Summer Project

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Scientific Method: 1. Identify a problem – in the form of a question 2. Do background research 3. Devise a hypothesis about how to solve the problem 4. Test your hypothesis by performing an experiment 5. Analyze your data and draw conclusions 6. Evaluate the effectiveness of your hypothesis 7. Communicate your results or “back to the drawing board!” A. Plant Lab: (after the lab set up, it’s about 10-15 minutes/week time commitment) Suggestion: start lab by Sunday, May 25, 2014 Given: 6 Heirloom seeds (70 days) – called Solanum lycopersicon  1. Problem: Does fertilizer (the type, amount, frequency – you pick) effect plant productivity? ❏ 2. Research some basics about the plant (see attachment) ❏ 3. Devise a hypothesis about how to solve the problem (If…tell what you are doing, then….what you predict will happen. Make it specific & measurable.) ❏ 4. Test your hypothesis by performing an experiment

* Your goal is to effectively grow 3 productive plants: 1 control plant & 2 experimental plants • Design and begin a lab using tomato seeds that will run for 4 – 6 months Getting Started: a. Begin germination of your seeds without soil. (Research germination recommendations). b. Photograph a minimum of two times prior to planting in soil. c. When your seeds are ready, plant the germinated seeds in soil of your choice in starter wells * Remember at this point they are no longer just seeds – be sure you are planting them, NOT burying them. d. From now on, you need to take a photo of each plant and record qualitative and quantitative observations of each, independently of each other, once a week. Picka day and be consistent. e. When you believe your plants have “taken” well to the soil and before they have out grown their cup/pot (whatever you started them in, photograph both the root system and shoot, then transplant them into other containers. (at the same time) f. At this point you can consider beginning the fertilizer regiment you’ve chosen (too much, too soon can chemically burn and kill the delicate seedling, that’s why I recommend you wait until now.)

The control should have no fertilizer Experimental #1 with “X” fertilizer Experimental #2 with “Y” fertilizer

X,Y can represent a different brand, type, amount, or frequency to which you apply the fertilizer (pick 1 & document) Fertilize once you have your plants in a cup of soil.

These seeds are 70 day seeds, meaning it will take that long to begin to bare viable flowers and fruits – that’s when the “productivity” data collection BEGINS, so persevere, do not give up on your plants.

* NOTE: Not having plants is not an option. If it doesn’t work, try and try again. Once school starts back up and your tomato plants begin to produce tomatoes, you are to bring them in to mass them (then you can bring them back home to enjoy with your family). Note – photos should depict the tomatoes intact, on the plant for that week – prior to picking. AP Biology Summer Project

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❏ 5. Analyze your data (see my example of a data table and info below)

• Collect data as you go (in the form of photos and qualitative/quantitative descriptions for each) A. Germination to first planting:

First growth – seed is swollen White, fuzzy, extension has broken through the seed coat 7 of 8 have roots roots are 3 to 5 mm long

Healthy Roots, Shoots, & leaves…planting time – day 7 White root, Light green Shoots, Dark green Leaves roots = 22 to 31 mm Shoots = 17 to 23 mm Leaves = 4 to 10 mm

Week later – evidence of phototropism- all seedlings are leaning toward the right where the sunlight comes through the window 6 of 7 have shed their seed coat & are displaying their two leaves. Shoots = 24 to 36 mm Leaves = 8 to 14 mm each

Two weeks later – rapid growth, most look very healthy. Leaves are larger, longer New growth to the middle of the shoot. Older leaves are on the outside. Now 2 to 5 leaves per plant Leaves = 11 to 45 mm 6 look very healthy, 1 straggler

B. Initial Planting Plant

Control Plant

Organic Fertilizer

Synthetic Fertilizer

Visual Qualitative Quantitative

❏ 6. Evaluate effectiveness - measured by productivity: the sum total of tomato mass produced by your plants. ❏ 7. Communicate your results – as a Formal Lab Write Up a. Title b. Hypothesis (as an If…then statement – If being the specifics of what you’ll do, and the then telling the expected results with some very specific – measurable accounts of what you expect.) d. Equipment (list in columns) e. Procedure (detailing what to do during these three time frames so someone else could follow) 1. Germination 2. Initial planting 3. Replanting f. Data (depicting what happens in each of the above mentioned time frames) 1. Photos (with dates) – a minimum of one a week 2. Qualitative descriptors 3. Quantitative descriptors 4. Graph of quantitative descriptor - plotting separate lines for each plant (on the same graph) g. Questions – develop and answer one question for each step of Bloom’s Taxonomy skills (Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, and Evaluation) h. Conclusion: one paragraph for each of the five categories listed below □ Experimental Design: 1. Controlled variable – the plant under “normal” conditions that you used to compare (along with all the other conditions that you kept constant in the experiment) 2. Manipulated variable – fertilizer (either type, brand, amount, application frequency,…) 3. Responding variable – how you will measure the effectiveness of your experiment □ Critical Thinking: Note trends apparent in your data. Be specific, using your data values. Discuss if the trends you see match what you would expect based on your knowledge of the subject. □ Scientific Method: What were two possible sources of errors – and what effect might they have on such an experiment? If you find data that does not seem to fit with expected trends, be sure to discuss the potential discrepancy. □ Making Connections: How can the information in this lab relate/apply to “Your” life? □ Global Thinker - Step back and look for the implications on a bigger scale. (Respond to at least one of the following.) How does this potentially impact society? Who would gain/be disadvantaged? As a result of performing this lab, should students think or act differently? What would that look like? AP Biology Summer Project

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Scientific Method: 1. Identify a problem – in the form of a question 2. Do background research 3. Devise a hypothesis about how to solve the problem 4. Test your hypothesis by performing an experiment 5. Analyze your data and draw conclusions 6. Evaluate the effectiveness of your hypothesis 7. Communicate your results or “back to the drawing board!” B. Animal Behavior Lab:  1. Problem: How can we identify and test various animal behaviors? ❏ 2. Research some basics about an animal you want to use (see attachment) ❏ 3. Devise a hypothesis about how to solve the problem (If…tell what you are doing, then….what you predict will happen. Make it specific & measurable.) ❏ 4. Test your hypothesis by performing an experiment

Design a lab using an animal that… a. You have or…will buy, find, borrow and one(s) you can bring to school (ideas could include but are not limited to: worms, insects, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals)

b. Lasts for 10 minutes c. Involves at least two trials d. Will be performed in class by other students e. Has students gather qualitative AND quantitative data ❏ 5. Analyze your data ❏ 6. Evaluate effectiveness perform your own lab multiple times have others (family, friends, neighbors) try you lab – BEFORE you bring it to class. ❏ 7. Communicate your results – as a Formal Lab Write Up Consider looking on YouTube: Animal Behavior Skinner Operant Conditioning Pavlov’s Classical Conditioning Bozemanbiology Information Exchange: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g0jim0EiTJM&list=PLD926D87B675061D7&index=49

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O LYMPIAN H IGH S CHOOL Scientific Research Form 1925 Magdalena Avenue, Chula Vista, CA 91913

Phone: 619-656-2400 – Fax: 619-216-0650

Plant Research: (Solanum lycopersicon– Heirloom Tomato Plant) 1. Classification: Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus Lycopersicon

Species verduras

2. Information/characteristics about this plant: ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Other plants in its “family” of plants _________________________

_________________________

_________________________

4. Determine its requirements: a. Nutritional needs – soil recommendations, nutrients, and water: ______________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ b. Space – appropriate planting spacing and depth : __________________________________________ c. Level of sunlight - __________________________________________________________________ d. Germination time - __________________________________________________________________ e. Days to bare fruit - ______________________ 5. Mode of reproduction and any developmental stages the plant might go through (include a visual) ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 6. What pest might feed on this plant – Identify 3 should you watch for: Name

AP Biology Summer Project

Visual

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What should you do if it shows up?

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O LYMPIAN H IGH S CHOOL Scientific Research Form 1925 Magdalena Avenue, Chula Vista, CA 91913

Phone: 619-656-2400 – Fax: 619-216-0650

Animal Research: (What animal are you choosing? ________________________) The first week of school you will perform an AP Biology prescribed Animal Behavioral Lab. You will then be expected to design and run an animal behavior lab of your own using an organism you can bring to school other than Pill Bugs/Sow Bugs, since we are already using them. Choose responsibly – do not get a “pet” and then decide you don’t want it anymore. 1. Classification: Kingdom

Phylum

Class

Order

Family

Genus

Species

2. Information/characteristics about this animal: (and visual) ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ 3. Other animals in its “family” of animals _________________________ _________________________

_________________________

4. Determine its requirements: a. Space – habitat or physical make up of its home __________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ b. Its trophic level in the food web: 1. Is it an herbivore, carnivore, omnivore, detrivore? _____________________ 2. Nutritional needs – what does it eat? ______________________________________________ 3. What what do you need to protect it from? (What are its predators?) _____________________ ________________________________________________________________________ c. Its Niche – the job it plays in its environment _____________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 5. Mode of reproduction and any developmental stages the animal might go through ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________ Time frame should be: Research & Start up: 2 to 3 hours Trail Runs and Perfecting your lab: 2 hours Lab Write Up - 2 hour (rough, then final draft) AP Biology Summer Project

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AP Biology Animal Behavior Inquiry

Name ______________________ Period ___ Date _____________

Design an Animal Behavior experiment that can be performed in about 20 minutes in class and is clear enough that others can perform your lab using your procedure. Pick from at least three behaviors to study and document 1. Title: ________________________________ 2. Purpose: (be specific, tell what you’re trying to accomplish by performing the lab) _________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Hypothesis: (If…then statement, be sure it’s measurable) If ______________________________________________________________________________ Then ____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Equipment/Materials: ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

5. Procedure: (be detailed enough so someone else can run your experiment – consider what data you will collect) a. ___________________________________________________________________________ b. ___________________________________________________________________________ c. ___________________________________________________________________________ d. ___________________________________________________________________________ e. ___________________________________________________________________________ f. ___________________________________________________________________________ g. ___________________________________________________________________________ h. ___________________________________________________________________________ i. ___________________________________________________________________________ j. ___________________________________________________________________________ k. ___________________________________________________________________________ l. ___________________________________________________________________________ m. ___________________________________________________________________________ 6. Data:

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Behavior

Kinesis

Ethology

Taxis

Proximate causation

Pheromones

Ultimate causation

Innate Behavior

Fixed Action Pattern

Imprinting

Stimulus

Sensitive Period

Associative Learning

Altruism Kin Selection

Classical Conditioning

Promiscuous

Operant Conditioning

Monogamous

Agonistic behavior

Polygyny Polyandry

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