Annual Report 2015 ANNUAL REPORT

Annual Report 2015 ANNUAL REPORT 2015 1 2 ANNUAL REPORT 2015 Report from the President . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...
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Annual Report 2015 ANNUAL REPORT 2015 1

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ANNUAL REPORT 2015

Report from the President

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Year 2015 in brief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 The Swerea Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Areas of expertise .

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We're here for industry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 THEME – INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 An important puzzle piece for sustainability and development . . . . 12 Compound materials manufacturing – smart solution for high-performance components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Next-generation lead-free brass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Demonstrator manufacturing – ultra-high-temperature composites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Knitted metal – lighter components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Laminate of thin-ply carbon-fibre weaves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Functional fibres – smart textiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Varying material thickness adapted for loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Additive manufacturing of next-generation pressure die-casting tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Recycled aluminium in vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Residual materials become a strategic product .

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Bio-based fibres – textiles of the future . Notices .

SWEREA'S SUBSIDIARIES Swerea IVF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Swerea MEFOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Swerea SICOMP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Swerea SWECAST .

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Swerea KIMAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Notices .

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Co-workers and expertise

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The Board and Management Group

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Income Statement and Balance Sheet

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Sustainability and competitive advantage with CSR . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Member and interest-group companies Notices .

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“Plan for the future, because that's where you are going to spend the rest of your life.” So said American author Mark Twain. Research and development are all about creating the future, solving problems in industry and meeting society's challenges. Swerea is an enabler in this development. But where are we headed? What are the future needs of industry?

Swerea is an enabler

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ANNUAL REPORT 2015

TOGETHER WITH Kairos Future, and several hundred trendspotters from industry, academia and society, Swerea has looked towards 2030 to identify significant trends. A look into the immediate future reveals three exciting main shifts; namely, revolutions in technology, development and thinking. These will have a decisive impact on our lives. The technological revolution will be largely driven by developments in digital technology. Inexpensive, highly efficient computational capacity together with very advanced mathematics will have an impact on both industrial processes and our daily lives. The development revolution is characterized by rapid growth and stronger innovation in Southeast Asia and India. This is evidenced by a dramatic increase in the number of patent applications. A revolution in thinking has to do with our ability

to realize benefit by combining more technologies to create something new. Swerea's research and development activities are already subject to the effects of these revolutions. In our operations, modelling and simulation are important tools for which computational capacity is a decisive factor. Swerea's research is of high international standard and, within certain areas, Swerea commands globally leading-edge expertise. Collaboration with the world's best research groups is an important prerequisite for achieving the latter. When leading researchers meet, ideas for the next important stage of development emerge. ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING, commonly referred to as 3D printing, has in recent years seen strong development within Swerea. There are printers for sand, ceramics, composites, metals and plastics. This reflects the breadth of possibility offered by this technology. Interest from industry is great and, during the year, Swerea, together with industrial partners, Chalmers University of Technology and University West, has started a national research arena for additive manufacturing of metal components. The ambition of this research initiative, which addresses both broad and indepth issues, is to be able to quickly create benefit for industry within this area. Materials development, the theme of this annual report, is an interesting area in which Swerea plays a vital role in translating visionary research into benefit for industry. Increasingly, materials are an important component of innovation; part of the solution, rather than being a fixed starting point. It is a matter not only of developing new materials but also combining materials in new ways and altering or modifying old materials, so that they solve the problem in a better, more sustainable way. Corrosion costs society enormous sums each year. Therefore, great benefit can be realized by finding methods and solutions for minimizing corrosion, not least in public infrastructure.

During the year Swerea has collaborated with the Swedish Transport Administration to develop effective, sustainable corrosion protection for the new Sundsvall Bridge. Another possibility is to use composite materials in the construction of road bridges. Swerea has contributed to materials engineering for Sweden's first composite bridge for heavy traffic. A CIRCULAR ECONOMY is the basis of a sustainable society. As much as possible of what is produced should be recovered and reused. Many of Swerea's research projects have to do with this. How can manufacturing processes be designed to maximize resource efficiency? What can be reused? Residual materials from aluminium manufacturing can become a product for use in steelmaking and discarded clothing can be recycled into new textiles. This is a clever way to minimize waste. Swerea has also been active in the establishment of RE:Source, a national industry-wide innovation programme that gathers many participants from Swedish industry, the waste management sector and the research community in an effort to make Sweden a world leader in minimizing waste and upgrading residual products. To reduce global warming we are continually looking for ways to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. Here, for example, the steel industry has set high goals and Swerea is an important partner. Among other things, it's a matter of minimizing the use of fossil fuels and, for example, replacing them with biofuels, but also of improving process efficiency, recirculating gases or separating and sequestering carbon dioxide. TOGETHER WITH industry, we will continue to develop processes and products that provide competitive advantage for industry in a sustainable society. We look forward to an exciting future.

Göran Carlsson President and Managing Director, Swerea Group ANNUAL REPORT 2015 5

2015 in brief Figures from the previous year are given in parentheses.

The Swerea Group's turnover amounted to 711 million kronor, an increase of 4.9 percent.  Income from industry accounted for 48 (53) percent.  Joint European research activities accounted for 8 (9) percent.  National programmes with public-sector funding accounted for 44 (38) percent.

The Swerea Group's operating income amounted to 8.8 (2.3) million kronor and income after net financial items reached 15.4 (10.3) million kronor. The total number of employees in the Group is 532 (523). Turnover per subsidiary (MSEK) Swerea IVF

2015

2014

243

219

Swerea KIMAB

247

225

Swerea MEFOS

124

146

Swerea SICOMP

55

55

Swerea SWECAST

57

56

Swerea AB

30

28

Elimination of intercompany transactions

-45

-51

Total

711

678

Turnover, excluding eliminations 2011–2015 (MSEK) 800

Swerea SWECAST

700

Swerea SICOMP Swerea MEFOS Swerea KIMAB Swerea IVF

600 500 400 300 200 100 0

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2011

ANNUAL REPORT 2015

2012

2013

2014

2015

Significant events CASTING INNOVATION CENTRE is a world-leading

research centre for cast products, casting processes and cast materials.

The

A centre of excellence for INDUSTRIAL WORK ENVIRON­ MENT is established at

Swerea IVF in collaboration with labour market parties and other research organizations.

Swerea IVF presents equip-

ment for ADDITIVE MANUCEFRACOR FACTURING of metallic AWARD goes to components. Claude Duret-Thual of Institut de la Corrosion for her great contribution to corrosion research.

N

EIT RAW MATERIALS,

F

Sept

ug July

A

PLASTICS WELDING

(CEPW) by the Swedish Welding Commission.

June

Swerea KIMAB is formally approved as a certified

ay

textile materials from cellulose is built at Swerea IVF.

M

An industrial PILOT-PLANT FACILITY for manufacturing

Apr

Lena Sundqvist Ökvist from Swerea MEFOS is appointed ASSOCIATE PROFESSOR in Process Metallurgy at LTU.

Mar

Swerea MEFOS's first MEMBERS' DAY EVENT, “With Research in Focus”, is held in Luleå. Swerea SWECAST presents unique new 3D EQUIPMENT for printing moulds and cores in sand.

A NEW ANALYSIS METHOD for powder and particles is developed by Swerea KIMAB. Surface analysis and characterization of tens of thousands of loose particles, with results within a couple of minutes, was previously considered utopian.

a Knowledge and Inno­ vation Community (KIC), is granted funding and will Swerea KIMAB co-arranges be established the annual SURFACE PROTECin Luleå. TION CONFERENCE, the largest Nordic conference and forum for protection and renovation of metal and concrete Jan surfaces.

Oct

ov

are started by Swerea SWECAST.

eb

Innventia and Swerea SICOMP are the world's first to present a composite based on 100 PERCENT CONIFEROUS LIGNIN.

Dec

The first CASTING MASTER training programmes

The EU project MUSECORR is designated a Horizon 2020 success story. Institut de la Corrosion is the coordinator. In collaboration with industry, Swerea IVF has assumed a leading role in the development of solutions for replacing hazardous chemicals in textile materials with more

ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY ALTERNATIVES.

Hans Hansson, Horizon 2020 funds the Swerea, Chalmers and Uni­ managing multi-million-krona STEPversity West begin work on director of WISE, project, of which creating a NATIONAL ARENA Swerea SICOMP, the aim is to reduce steelfor 3D printing in metal. is awarded an industry carbon dioxide emisHONORARY DOCsions. Swerea MEFOS plays an TORATE at Luleå Uni- important role in the project. versity of Technology. The trend-spotting reSwerea KIMAB's successful colport “THE FUTURE OF THE SICOMP CONFERlaboration with General Motors INDUSTRY” is produced ENCE ”Manufacturing and towards the DEVELOPMENT OF by Swerea and presented design of composites” is JOINING TECHNOLOGY for lightheld in Gothenburg with dele­ at well-attended seminars weight vehicle bodies continues. gates from 10 countries. during the autumn.

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Swerea – the link between visionary research and industrial benefit No one yet knows how visions for utilizing the revolutionary new material graphene will be realized. Nor does anyone know where the boundaries lie for adapting materials and managing residual products, which new materials can be developed or what can be achieved as information and materials become all the more interlinked. Swerea has a vital role in utilizing research findings and synergies that can create industrial benefit. Materials research is a key aspect of many major future concerns which, fundamentally, have to do with sustainability and competitive advantage. The Swerea Group creates, refines and disseminates research results within materials sciences, manufacturing engineering and product engineering for sustainable industry. Projects resolve current challenges in a sustainable and future-safe way. Collaboration among the RISE institutes broadens and enriches our customer offering.

Dialogue with industry Swerea has a constant dialogue with industry on current and future needs. "The Future of Industry", a report produced by Swerea and Kairos Future during 2015, supports this dialogue. Here, the trends are identified and we investigate what they mean for industry. What are the obstacles? Which strengths and opportunities can be discerned?

Operations per programme block, 2015

Competencies, labs and demos Swerea provides scientific and technical expertise and advanced facilities for laboratory and demonstration-scale experimentation. Within the five institutes, commissioned industrial R&D projects are conducted and strategic development and collaboration are pursued at the group level. Both academia and research institutes play a crucial role in the Swedish innovation system and Swerea has good, long-standing collaboration with the leaders in our areas of expertise. 700 companies Swerea's industrial owners represent 450 Nordic-based companies. In addition to these there are a further 250 companies which have agreements with Swerea or participate in multi-year research programmes. With

Vision

Swerea is the leading Swedish research group for industrial renewal and sustainable development.

Business concept

The Swerea Group creates, refines and disseminates research results within materials sciences, manufacturing engineering and product engineering for sustainable industry.

high-level competencies, facilities for experimentation and high capacity for computation and simulation, Swerea helps to strengthen competitiveness among these 700 companies. Demand for our services in industry continues to grow.

There are no shortcuts Industry is part of the solution to the great challenges and Swerea is a knowledgeable and committed partner on that journey. Sustainability is a central factor in all projects in which Swerea participates. There are no shortcuts. We consider the entire lifecycle and the ecological and social aspects of the product or process.

100% 100%

Swerea IVF Programme council

Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation 100%

Swerea KIMAB Programme council

RISE

43%

Swerea AB Five ownerassociations*

100%

Swerea MEFOS Programme council

57% 100%

Swerea SICOMP Programme council

 Member programmes  National programmes  EU programmes  Industrial R&D programmes, etc. 8

ANNUAL REPORT 2015

11% 39% 8% 42%

About 450 companies * Intressentföreningen för Korrosionsforskning, Metallurgiska Forskningsbolaget i Luleå, Stiftelsen Svensk Järn- och Metallforskning, Swerea IVFs Intressentförening and Svenska Gjuteriföreningen.

100%

Swerea SWECAST Programme council

Institut de la Corrosion

68

Ongoing EU-/RFCS projects

The Swerea Group

Of which we coordinate

Luleå Piteå

15

Oslo

170

Borlänge Eskilstuna

Papers presented at conferences

Stockholm

Linköping Trollhättan Brest

Mölndal Jönköping

98

Publications in scientific journals

St Etienne

Level of education

Age distribution

Research staff

Percentage of total 532 persons

 B Sc engineers or equivalent . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11%  MSc engineers . . . . . . . . 44%*  Licentiate engineers . . 8%  PhDs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34%  Associate professors . 3%

 ≤ 29 years . . . . . . 10%  30–39 years . . . . 25%  40–49 years . . . . 28%  50–59 years . . . . 25%  ≥ 60 years . . . . . . 12%

Total number of employees 532

Women/men

179

353

630

References in the media, including digital channels

8

References in broadcast media

Of the above, 11 people hold professorships. *Of which 23 are doctoral students.

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Areas of expertise We pursue evidence-based research in close collaboration with industry to promote industrial renewal, improved competitiveness and sustainable growth. In other words, our strength is applied research with customer benefit in focus. For each area of expertise, more information about services, projects and equipment is available on our website.

 M  aterials engineering and raw materials  C  orrosion and surface technology  Materials production  Manufacturing processes  Production systems  Product engineering  Energy and environment

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ANNUAL REPORT 2015

We're here for industry

A selection of good exemples from our annual periodical “Beneficial research by Swerea” Less surplus metal in casting Casting always results in a certain amount of surplus metal which must be remelted, something which demands a lot of energy. To help the foundries to improve castingprocess efficiency, Swerea has developed new virtual methods (simulations). These simulations are used to support applications which would otherwise be difficult or expensive to test in real trials. Foundries can thereby reduce the amount of surplus metal, which leads to lower energy use and better product quality. Carbon fibre for lighter satellites With a new carbon fibre material, the weight of satellite separation systems can be reduced, thereby enabling greater payload capacity for other equipment. RUAG Space and Swerea SICOMP have studied the possibilities for replacing aluminium with carbon fibre in some parts of the system. Prototypes in composite material have been tested, and manufacturing methods and performance have also been assessed. Manufacturing in composites can also yield lower cost and faster production. Impact on repository for spent nuclear fuel Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB, SKB (the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company) will build a repository for spent fuel from our nuclear power plants. Safety is vital and the repository must remain secure for 100,000 years. Together with SKB, Swerea KIMAB has studied how electrical fields in the bedrock influence corrosion on the copper canisters that are to be used. Results show that the fields cause a marginally higher corrosion rate. Sweden's first 3D printer for sand The new printer at Swerea SWECAST is used for research and development, as well as for commercial manufacturing. With the 3D printer it will be easier to develop and manufacture moulds and cores with complex geometries. Access to a printer in Sweden will make it much easier for foundries to produce prototypes for their customers. Many development projects are planned and lead times will be shortened. Prototypes which have normally taken 3–4 months to produce can now be delivered in 3–4 weeks.

New application area for forest products Researchers at Swerea IVF and Innventia have demonstrated that the conventional raw material for carbon fibre can be replaced with a forest product. Carbon fibre is normally based on non-renewable raw materials and is often very expensive, which limits use. There are great advantages to using wood for making bio-based carbon fibre. Since wood is an inexpensive raw material, more companies will be able to afford to use carbon fibre in their products, which in turn helps to reduce weight and conserve fuel.

Sundsvall Bridge protected against rust attack The new Sundsvall Bridge is rusting at a faster rate than expected. Swerea KIMAB, together with other specialists, helped the Swedish Transport Administration to analyze the problem and proposed a solution. They recommend cathodic protection, which is a verified method, but the challenge has been to achieve a wellfunctioning system in the brackish water of Sundsvall Bay. By strategically positioning anodes and applying current, the metal has been made "immune" to rust attack.

Residual products reused in synthetic rubber Höganäs AB is constantly striving to minimize waste. One step in this direction is to use a residual product from the company's process, lime from tunnel kiln slag, in the manufacture of synthetic rubber. Swerea Industrial Recycling has conducted studies in which the filler material in ethylene propylene diene M-class rubber (EPDM) is replaced with lime from tunnel kiln slag. Results show that the rubber has the same properties as it does when conventional filler material is used. A new use for tunnel kiln lime means that Höganäs no longer needs to landfill the material. In addition, use of virgin lime can be reduced.

Better surfaces and less waste During continuous casting of steel different types of cracks can form, which has a negative impact on steel quality and productivity. Swerea MEFOS has produced mathematical models that can predict when cracks form in the steel during the process, which makes it easier to control casting. The results have been applied in practice in continuous casting at SSAB in Luleå, yielding gains in the form of better quality and reduced scrap volume.

Sweden's first road bridge in composites Shorter construction time, higher strength and minimal maintenance are just some of the advantages with road bridges made from composite material. The Swedish Transport Administration has been tasked with constructing a bridge in which the composite material consists of glass fibre and carbon fibre. Construction time is estimated at one month, as opposed to half a year when conventional materials are used. Swerea SICOMP has led a project in which the technical specifications and design and construction principles for the bridge have been developed.

Environmentally friendlier pretreatment Phosphating is a surface-pretreatment method that provides good corrosion protection due to better adhesion between the material and the surface coating. However, the method requires a lot of energy, produces by-products and is not adapted for a so-called multimetal system. Over the past decade Swerea IVF has worked with the vehicle industry and material and chemical suppliers to assess environmentally friendly alternatives. Analyses help companies to make more informed choices where technology is concerned, thereby making it easier to change processes.

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THEME: INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS

AN IMPORTANT PUZZLE PIECE FOR SUSTAINABILITY AND DEVELOPMENT

Industrial materials Materials development is one of the most important future trends for industry, according to an analysis conducted by Swerea and Kairos Future. Instead of being a limiting factor for innovation, material will aid problemsolving and innovation.

MUCH TECHNOLOGICAL development in industry is not possible without new and adapted materials. Technological paradigm shifts, such as automation and additive manufacturing, also present possibilities for specialized materials with new properties and functions. For Swerea, materials development is an integral and ever-present aspect of research. Alongside the major visionary trends, Swerea's researchers must address concrete industrial challenges that often have to do with higher strength, lower weight, sensors embedded in materials, recovery and recycling. It is not always a

matter of new materials, but rather of adapting common materials for use in new industries and application areas. Here, it is increasingly evident that use and needs are the deciding factor, and that materials adaptation and development are part of the solution to the problem. Nature can be a source of inspiration for the development of new industrial materials; for example, materials with foam structure in the middle and a hard outer shell (like the bones of a skeleton), or materials with self-cleaning surfaces and a sounddampening function. Nature is miles ahead when it comes to resource efficiency and functional solutions. The most visionary advances are made within academia and Swerea translates visions in practical applications that meet needs in industry. Using forest raw materials to make textile fibre and carbon fibre is one such area in which Swerea assists industry with projects. Knitted metals and metal foam in laminates are other examples. COMBINING different materials, so that the right material is in the right place in a structure, is also an important field of development. Handling and joining different material types is complicated and poses a great challenge for industry. Design and manufacturing in mixed material is one of Swerea's strengths and is also the focal point of a major joint-group initiative in 2016. Multifunctional materials that solve several problems concurrently constitute an exciting area in which the Swerea institutes have begun to collaborate to take the lead and inspire new industrial applications.

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THEME: INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS

IN PARTICULARLY interesting

areas, Swerea conducts prestudies, often in collaboration with the best in academia. One example is surface modification, where we study whether an entire surface, or parts of it, can be optimized for the desired functionality. Another is "smart materials", for which Swerea is now doing a prestudy. A smart material can be created by integrating sensors and actuators and, for example, monitoring the material's condition during operation. Rapid development within digitalization presents exciting new possibilities. The strong drivers of materials development in Swerea's industry projects are:  Sustainability for circular economies, with efficient use of raw materials, recovery, recycling and substitution of certain raw materials.  Lightweight materials and lightweight structures for lower fuel consumption and reduced CO2 emissions.  Performance; for example, higher strength or better corrosion resistance, which contributes to more sustainable use of materials.  Multimaterials, both for improved function and lower weight.  Multifunctionality; for example, vehicle bodies that are also batteries, engine hoods that function as airbags, textiles which sense breathing and pulse or protect against intense heat.

Compound manufacturing – smart solutions for highperformance components

 Section inner ring in compound material.

A NEW CONCEPT for manufacturing

high-performance bearings of compound material has been developed jointly by Swerea, SKF, Bodycote Hot Isostatic Pressing and Erasteel. The material is intended for roller bearings that are used in difficult and advanced applications, for example, in transmissions and windpower plants. Using powder technology, a highperformance steel is applied to a

 Finished bearing. Photo: SKF.

simpler core. Thereafter, the materials are compressed into a unit by means of hot isostatic pressing (HIP). This is a smart and cost-efficient solution since, for example, it allows the possibility of controlling both residual stresses and toughness. Simulation is a valuable tool when producing suitable material combi­ nations. Thermodynamic and kinetic calculations have been done to study the bond between the materials. Heat treatment simulations are used to study stresses during hardening, as well as residual stresses. The benefit is great, since highperformance components can prevent premature failure in wind-turbine bearings, which has been a major problem for the windpower industry. The study was funded via Swedish Wind Power Technology Center (SWPTC), Swerea and participating companies.

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THEME: INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS

Photo: Nordic Brass Gusum

Nextgeneration lead-free brass LEAD IS A COMMON alloying ele-

ment in brass; however, since lead poses a health hazard, there is an increasing need to produce lead-free brass. Swerea KIMAB has helped Nordic Brass Gusum to develop the next-generation lead-free brass alloy, AquaNordic®. The alloy is based on a combination of microalloying elements. It combines good corrosion resistance and machinability with considerably better environmental performance and lower cost than competing alternatives.

Knitted metal – lighter components AN ALL-METAL laminate with knit-

Brass can be recirculated almost indefinitely and a lifecycle analysis shows that the environmental impact of the new alloy is at least 30 percent lower than other lead-free brass. Compared with other materials, such as plastic, the difference is even greater. The alloy meets all current environmental and health requirements and has been tested successfully by several of Nordic Brass Gusum's customers. The alloy is now commercially available as a product from Nordic Brass Gusum.

DEMONSTRATOR MANUFACTURING

Ultra-high-temperature composites USE OF CONVENTIONAL compo­ sites in hot environments is limited due to the matrices' tendency to soften or degrade at temperatures above 150–200ºC. Swerea SICOMP has developed a new version of a carbon fibre composite that combines the advantages of conventional composites – high strength and rigidity relative to weight – but with extreme temperature tolerance. The new material softens at 370–400ºC. The base is a new type of polymer, a crosslinked polyamide, developed specifically for the purpose by Swedish company Nexam Chemicals. The material is custom-made to function in rational,

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ANNUAL REPORT 2015

cost-efficient manufacturing processes. In the project, Swerea SICOMP has developed and adapted existing methods for manufacturing composite components to the new thermoset plastic. In addition to studying the material's properties under different types of load Swerea SICOMP has also successfully trial-manufactured components with propeller blade geometries. Ultimately, this may mean that fibre composites can be used at higher temperatures, which makes them a potential substitute for heavier metal or light metal alloy structures in many applications, for example, in aircraft engine components.

ted metal between two thin sheets, has been developed by Swerea IVF in collaboration with the Swedish School of Textiles in Borås and Swedish industry. What makes this laminate unique, in addition to the combination of thin sheet and knitted metal, is that it can potentially cut component weight by half. The material is formable and can be used much like steel sheet in conventional industrial applications.

Factors that are important for formability, strength and appearance have been studied in the project. The laminate has been evaluated in hot and cold forming operations and in a smaller prestudy. The ability to combine metals or high-strength components with a lightweight material that performs well in hot, cold and corrosive environments while at the same time weighing half as much as conventional material presents new possibilities for making sustainable, climate-smart components. With funding from Vinnova, the work has been conducted jointly by Lamera, Gestamp HardTech, Outokumpu Stainless, Inkubatorn i Borås, the Swedish School of Textiles and Swerea IVF.

THEME: INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS

Laminate of thin-ply carbon-fibre weaves COMPOSITE LAMINATE with thin layers can withstand higher loads and strains before the first signs of damage appear. The Swedish company Oxeon manufactures thinply carbon-fibre weaves (TeXtreme)

that can be used to make this type of laminate. Aernnova, a major supplier to, among others, Airbus, Boeing and Embraer, has expressed interest in Oxeon's weaves. In the DAMTEX project, Swerea

SICOMP, Oxeon, Aernnova and the University of Girona have developed simulation models to predict damage growth in laminate made from TeXtreme. Swerea SICOMP has conducted impact experiments and damage studies, and developed models to predict response and damage growth during impact and after impact loading. Results show that, in certain cases, damage growth differs markedly from what can be observed in laminates with layers of normal thickness, which has required new modelling methods.

 Comparison of weaves with conventional fibre bundles (regular tow) and weaves with thin spread-tow tapes. Illustration: Hellström.

Functional fibres – smart textiles WITH SMART TEXTILES, athletic wear can measure heart rate and muscle activity. There are many application areas for smart textiles. The technique is based on seamless integration of electronics in textiles and research in this field has advanced in recent years. Swerea IVF is developing functional textile fibres that can be woven into garments by means of a method that is already used in the textile industry. Electrical conductivity and piezoelectric effect are functions that are incorporated into the structure and composition

of the fibres. Electrically conductive fibres of cellulose are integrated to carry signals and replace more rigid metal cables that are susceptible to corrosion. Piezoelectric fibres can be used as sensors, for example, to measure heart rate or respiration. Garments with functional fibres present new possibilities within the health and healthcare sectors, enabling simplified monitoring and measurement outside of the hospital environment or follow-up of a patient's mobility and pattern of movement during rehabilitation.

ANNUAL REPORT 2015 15

THEME: INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS

Varying material thickness adapted for loads ROLLING IS AN EFFICIENT manufacturing method with high

productivity. By rolling sheet or strip steel to varying thicknesses over the width of the material, it is possible to achieve greater manufacturing efficiency, create lighter products and save resources while at the same time maintaining or improving technical performance. In the StripPro project a method has been developed for rolling material to a cross-sectional profile that is determined by the how the material is to be used. Finished components can then be manufactured with a material thickness that is adapted to the distribution of expected loads in the components. This is particularly important for the aircraft and vehicle industries, where there is a great need to reduce weight without jeopardizing performance. StripPro is funded by Vinnova via the LIGHTer programme. Industry participants include GKN Aerospace, Gestamp HardTech and Duroc Special Steel. The project is coordi­ nated by Swerea MEFOS and the other research entities are IUC Olofström and Luleå University of Technology.

Additive manufacturing of next-generation pressure die-casting tools IN THE ADDING PROJECT, pressure die-casting tools

made by means of additive manufacturing are being developed. A wear-resistant material for 3D-printed tools will result in better productivity for Swedish foundries. One of the great advantages of additive manufacturing is the greater material yield it provides as compared with today's manufacturing methods. Tools can be produced faster and with less environmental impact, thanks to the fact that only the material that is needed is used. Another improvement is that cooling channels can be optimally positioned in locations in ways that are not possible with conventional methods. In this way, mould lubrication can be reduced, which results in shorter cycle times. Project participants include NovaCast Systems, Richardssons Verktygsservice, Volvo Technology, Ankars­ rum Die Casting, VBN Components and Jönköping University. The project is funded via the strategic innovation programme Metallic Materials.

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ANNUAL REPORT 2015

THEME: INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS

Recycled aluminium in vehicles LIGHTER VEHICLES result in lower

fuel consumption. Improved design and materials contribute to reducing the transport sector's climate impact and help to lower costs. One example is replacing iron in cast components for the vehicle industry with aluminium. To retain the desired material properties without the risk of shorter service life, aluminium must be alloyed with other metals. The aim of the project “Advanced aluminium alloys in light structural components” is to improve conditions for the vehicle and aircraft industries to use highquality aluminium alloys at higher temperatures by designing them specifically for the applications for which they are intended. Studies are being conducted of typical aluminium alloying elements, such as nickel, and interesting new materials with particle additives that give the desired properties for the purpose. By using recycled aluminium, and thereby using considerably less energy as compared to virgin material, both cost savings and environmental gains can be realized. The project is run by Swerea SWECAST in collaboration with GKN Aerospace, ABB Corporate Research, Husqvarna, Metall­ fabriken Ljunghäll, Fundo Components, Scania, Stena Aluminium and Jönköping University. Project funding is provided via the strategic inno­vation programme for lightweight engineering, LIGHTer.

Residual materials become a strategic product WHEN SCRAP ALUMINIUM is

smelted a salt slag is formed. This is a material for which there is currently no industrial use and it is landfilled after it is chemically stabilized. Stena Aluminium is Sweden's largest scrap-based aluminium smelter and the leading Nordic producer of recycled aluminium. Swerea MEFOS and Stena Aluminium have deve­ loped a new process whereby salt slag, together with lime, is converted into a strategic product for the steel industry, a synthetic slag former for treatment of high-strength, highquality steel. In the process a salt

flux that can be recirculated in aluminium smelting is also extracted. Process development has been aided by modelling, laboratory experiments and pilot trials. The material has also been successfully tested in industrial-scale trials at SSAB. The synthetic slag former can reduce carbon dioxide emissions and use of fossil energy. This could also help Sweden to become self sufficient in the supply of a valuable raw material for steelmaking. The project has been funded by Mistra, Stena Aluminium and SSAB in Luleå.

ANNUAL REPORT 2015 17

Industrial renewal through sustainable development

Bio-based fibres – textiles of the future Swerea is making a major investment to build technology and expertise in the area of biobased fibres. The vision is to produce biobased alternatives to replace oil-based products. Developments include next-generation textile fibres and carbon fibres from Swedish forest raw materials. DEMAND for fibres is increasing throughout the world, owing to population growth and the reduction of poverty. At the same time, production of cotton has reached a level which

is considered no longer sustainable. This has led to a dramatic increase in the production of oil-based fibres. This trend goes against Swedish and European ambitions regarding a transition towards a biobased economy. TO BRING about a circular economy and drive development towards reduced oil dependency, research concerning renewable textile fibre materials that can complement cotton and replace synthetic fibres is essential. With textile fibre materials made from cellulose from sustainable Swedish forestry there are good

prospects for minimizing overall environmental impact. IN RECENT YEARS Swerea IVF has invested in equipment and specialist know-how within different technologies for production of biobased fibre materials. This includes several solution-spinning lines, in both laboratory and pilot scale, as well as equipment for meltblown and solution blown (see definition on next page). The initiative has attracted great interest and several larger projects are run by Swerea IVF in close collaboration with industry.

Illustration: Astrid Hedenström

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ANNUAL REPORT 2015

Industry-related fibre projects Solution-spun textile fibres from forest-based cellulose

A pilot-plant facility for solution spinning of textiles has been installed at Swerea IVF in Mölndal. Initially, textile fibres based on cellulose from forest raw materials will be produced in the pilot facility, textile fibres from recycled textiles, marine raw materials and several other biopolymers will also be produced. The investment is an important step towards the industrial application of findings from laboratory-scale research conducted over a period of several years.

Solution blowing of cellulose fibres

Nonwoven A sheet of fibres, continuous fila­ments or yarns formed into a web and bonded together by any means, except weaving or knitting.

Solution blowing is a technique that is used to produce nonwoven fabric from polymers that cannot be melted, for example, cellulose. The material is made by extruding a polymer solution through a nozzle together with air under high pressure. The air flow makes the solution coagulate as thin fibres in the form of a nonwoven material. The irregular structure and the thin fibres make the material suitable for e.g., filters, geo­textiles and hygiene products.

Meltblowing of bioplastics

The market for biobased plastics for nonwovens is seeing strong growth. There is considerable interest in replacing oil-based plastics, such as polypropylene, with biobased polylactic acid (PLA). For this, determined research and development efforts are needed. The meltblowing machine at Swerea IVF has been used during 2015 to produce and optimize nonwovens of PLA for products in which high demands are placed on the material's microstructure.

Solution spinning of lignin for carbon fibres

Lignin is a by-product from paper pulp production. Flexible, strong fibres can be produced by solution spinning lignin together with, for example, cellulose. After heat treatment these fibres are converted to carbon fibres that can be used in high-performance lightweight products. Lignin-based carbon fibre is much more environmentally friendly and potentially cheaper than conventional petroleumbased carbon fibre.

Solution spinning Solution spinning is a method of manufacturing fibres from material that cannot be melted. This is also called wet spinning. Swerea helps companies to develop new fibres by means of solution spinning, with a focus on minimal environmental impact and low production cost.

ANNUAL REPORT 2015 19

NOTICES New multi-million-euro project will reduce carbon dioxide emissions Horizon 2020 has granted funding amounting to about 128 million kronor over four years for the Stepwise project. Swerea MEFOS is one of nine partners in the project, which addresses cost-effective reduction of CO2 emissions from the iron and steel industry. As part of the project, a pilot facility will be built at Swerea MEFOS, where verification trials will be conducted. Gas from SSAB's blast furnace will be delivered to the pilot plant via a new pipeline. “This project is important for the steel industry and for SSAB. If all goes according to plan and the separated carbon dioxide can be stored, a significant reduction in carbon dioxide emissions from SSAB's operations can be realized,” says Jonas Larsson, Director of Environmental Affairs, SSAB. Swerea MEFOS's share of funding for the project amounts to 75 million kronor.

Technological advance with 3D printer In the former Munksjö paper mill, in Jönköping, Swerea SWECAST has built a test and demo facility for 3D printing of sand moulds and cores. The heart of the facility is a large sand-casting additive manufacturing system, the S-Max, from ExOne. Within the foundry industry there is considerable inte­ rest in 3D technology, since it both shortens lead times and increases freedom of design. With the Jönköping facility the very latest 3D technology can be demonstrated and easily and flexibly evaluated by the Swedish foundry industry. In addition, Swerea SWECAST can offer research, development and consultancy services to foundries and their customers.

Patrik Fernberg appointed Associate Professor (Docent) at LTU Patrik Fernberg has been appointed Associate Professor (Docent) in Polymeric Construction Materials at Luleå University of Technology. Patrik's postdoc research has been conducted at Swerea SICOMP in Piteå and has focussed exclusively on various aspects of polymeric composites. Planned future research activities at Swerea SICOMP and LTU will be directed, as previously, towards practical manufacturing of polymeric composite materials and advanced materials characterization and analysis.

Guide to green public procurement Swerea IVF and Kammarkollegiet have produced a handbook that will support purchasers in their efforts to minimize the environmental impact of products and services from a lifecycle perspective. The guide includes general chapters on various sustainability issues, as well as concrete advice and examples on how to design and follow up on requirement specifications. “We hope that it will be of great benefit in the creation of a sustainable society and contribute to the development of sustainable goods and services,” says Stefan Posner, chemicals specialist and co-author of the book. 20

ANNUAL REPORT 2015

MUSECORR – a success story The EU project MUSECORR has been designated a Horizon 2020 success story. Institut de la Corrosion, Swerea KIMAB's subsidiary in France, has coordinated the project. To protect Europe’s cultural heritage artefacts from the ravages of corrosion, sensitive detectors have been developed that monitor corrosive atmospheric pollu­ tants in museums and archives. The detectors issue a warning signal when preventive measures must be taken. The project has achieved great commercial success. This has also resulted in follow-up research on new applications for the sensor in areas including vehicle corrosion and the paper industry.

Industry 2030 − where are we headed, and why? What will the future global industrial landscape look like? Which competencies will be required and what does Sweden need to do to remain at the forefront? “The Future of Industry”, a report commissioned by Swerea and produced by Kairos Future, provides new insights. It is a future-trend analysis based information from more than 400 people active in industry, aca­ demia and the public sector. The report was presented during Almedal Week, and at seminars during the autumn which attracted more than 400 participants in twelve locations throughout the country. “Those who have been warned can be prepared and, at Swerea, we want to be prepared to meet the needs and expectations of industry,” says Göran Carlsson, President and CEO of Swerea AB.

NOTICES

Agglomeration and minerals engineering Centre for surface cleanliness − because cleanliness pays What happens in a fuel system if particle residues are left behind during assembly? How is a painted or coated surface affected by patches of surface contaminants such as oil, grease or oxides? Contaminants on components can result in extra costs due to failure, corrosion attack, peeling or other quality deficiencies. The Centre for Surface Cleanliness at Swerea IVF addresses the research and development needs of Swedish companies in this area. The centre will secure the long-term accumulation of knowledge related to surface-cleanliness issues, such as reduced contamination during manufacturing or warehousing, within the Swedish manufacturing sector. Both time and money can be saved if more work is devoted to minimizing contamination.

CEFRACOR Award to Claude Duret-Thual Claude Duret-Thual, general manager of Institut de la Corrosion in Saint Etienne, was presented with the prestigious CEFRACOR Award at CEFRACOR's annual general meeting. CEFRACOR is a French organization that works with corrosion-related issues. In connection with the meeting, Claude gave a presentation of experiences of trials in the testing laboratory. The award is in recognition of Claude's contribution to corrosion research in general, and the deve­lopment of testing methods for stainless steel and other high-alloy material in particular.

Rapid tensile testing Swerea SWECAST has developed a new method for tensile testing (test for determining ultimate tensile strength). With the new method the test specimen (rod) is drilled out of the material to be tested. The material is then affixed directly to a lathe, without any need for timeconsuming truing of the workpiece. The method not only saves time, another advantage is that it is a controlled and repeatable process. The process was developed as part of a project to study the occurrence of chunky graphite.

In September Swerea MEFOS arranged a seminar on Agglomeration and Minerals Engineering in Luleå. About fifty participants from seven countries presented and discussed issues of current interest within minerals engineering, pretreatment and agglomeration. These are highly relevant topics at a time when global demand for metals and energy is placing greater requirements on more efficient processing of raw materials and residual products. “A general trend is that the supply of prime-quality ore raw material is decreasing, and the demand must be met with materials of a more complex nature. More string­ent environmental legislation and the industry's striving towards sustainable production mean that technology for recovery of metal-bearing sludges, slag and dust must be developed,” says Ulf Sjöström, Swerea MEFOS.

Smart transfer of residual heat from foundries to greenhouses Even though surplus heat from smelting plants and foundries is used in various ways, much of the heat is wasted. In a prestudy by Swerea SWECAST and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, the possibility of utilizing surplus energy from foundries to heat greenhouses has been presented. The study has focused on conversion of relatively low-temperature (30-40ºC) residual heat. “Our ambition is to design a demo facility and test technologies for efficient transfer of heat to greenhouse cultivation,” says Martin Wänerholm, Swerea SWECAST. New technology for conversion of surplus heat will enable new greenhouses to be established more easily in different parts of the country, regardless of climate zones.

Swerea SICOMP's managing director has been awarded an honorary doctorate Hans Hansson, managing director of Swerea SICOMP, has been awarded an honorary doctorate by the Faculty of Science and Technology, Luleå University of Techno­ logy. The citation read: “Under his leadership Swerea SICOMP has grown to become an internationally leading research institute and a strong research partner for Swedish and European industry and academia, not least, for Luleå University of Technology. Collaboration between the university and the institute has resulted in a large number of degree projects and project courses. Hansson has also encouraged the establishment of joint research centres and centres of excellence, which has been very important for the university.”

Product and production development, manufacturing efficiency and work organization. Industrial manufacturing processes: sheet metalworking, mixed materials, surface finishing and heat treatment. Work, environment and energy. Materials development: textiles, plastics, rubber, ceramics and metals. Electronics packaging and hardware reliability. Materials analysis, testing and certification.

Biobased materials and sustainable production A CLEAR lifecycle perspective in

terms of both operations and products is becoming all the more evident in industry. This is strongly reflected in the research and development work conducted by Swerea IVF. Raw materials from renewable sources as a basis for materials and product engi­ neering are gaining in importance, while resources must be used more effectively and, preferably, recirculated in the process. Use of forest raw materials for producing polymeric and textile materials is currently of great interest for the furniture and textiles industries. Therefore, we operate an industrial pilot plant for manufacturing textiles from cellulose. Here, in industry-funded development projects, the step is taken from the lab to industrial-scale production.

SWEREA IVF is working intensively

to develop solutions for replacing hazardous chemicals in textile materials. This is accomplished in close colla­ boration with industry via a network

known as the Chemicals Group. In collaboration with the relevant authorities, we are a strong resource for bringing about change in the industry. This includes consultation at the ministerial level to promote national development in this area. WE ARE INVESTING heavily in additive manufacturing. In combination with our leading-edge expertise in this field, we provide a powerful technical resource for introducing technology across a broad front in Swedish industry. We help companies to test and evaluate technologies, based on their individual conditions and requirements. This includes manufacturing of components in metallic, ceramic and polymeric materials. Expertise in geometric modelling, post treatment of 3D-printed components and quality assurance is also included. Not only material and energy resources must be used sustainably; the same also applies to human resources. Swerea IVF is therefore

establishing a centre of excellence for industrial work environment in collaboration with companies, labourmarket actors and other research entities. Here, we are building a strong base for research and development in the workplace, where higher productivity and an improved work environment go hand in hand. FINANCIALLY and business-wise,

2015 has been a satisfactory year for Swerea IVF. The foundation is our ability to develop innovations within product engineering and manufacturing that span several industry sectors. This is becoming all the more important as greater focus is placed on a lifecycle perspective.

MATS LUNDIN, Managing Director

FACTS TURNOVER 243 million kronor EMPLOYEES 164 MEMBER COMPANIES 440 ESTABLISHED 1964 OPERATION LOCATIONS Mölndal,

Stockholm, Linköping, Trollhättan, Eskilstuna, Jönköping and Oslo BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Göran Carlsson, Chair, Swerea Johan Ancker Hans Persson, Volvo Group Trucks Technology Johan Carlsten, Chalmers University of Technology Tor Ahlbom, Hultsteins Kyl AB Ola Asplund, IF Metall Lars-Olof Ingemarsson, Employee representative Mikael Eriksson, Employee representative Carina Egeman, Employee representative (deputy) Melina da Silva, Employee representative (deputy)

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ANNUAL REPORT 2015

Development and consultancy in process metallurgy, heating, metalworking, environmental and energy engineering for the minerals, steel and metallurgical industry. Large-scale pilot projects (management, equipment, operation), reduction metallurgy, measurement technology and process analysis, advanced modelling/simulation, environmental and waste-product management, process integration.

Commitment and expertise CHALLENGES in the steel and metals sector have given rise to challenges for Swerea MEFOS. Although income for the year declined, we have an even stronger commitment to inno­ vative thinking and smarter ways of working. As newly appointed managing director in August, I was struck by the commitment and expertise that exist in our company, and I am convinced that, in future, Swerea MEFOS will be a leading industrial research institute for resource-efficient and sustainable industry. The concept of circular economy is prominent in much of the work we are now doing for industry. A closedcycle approach, whereby waste is seen as a raw material and the possibilities for recycling are grasped already in the design phase, is reflected in the work we are doing in agglo­ meration and fluidized-bed technology.

FACTS TURNOVER 124 million kronor EMPLOYEES 91 MEMBER COMPANIES 42 ESTABLISHED 1963 OPERATION LOCATIONS Luleå and

We are developing new processes, for example, for recovery and recycling of salt slag and batteries, and through our involvement in Re:Source, a national innovation programme that spans several sectors, we want to realize even broader solutions. WHERE RAW MATERIALS are concerned, Swerea MEFOS has been instrumental in the formation of “EIT Raw Materials”, a Knowledge and Innovation Community (KIC). Together with Luleå University of Technology, as coordinator, Swerea MEFOS and other partners look forward to building up the centre in Luleå. By designing materials in the earliest stage of product engineering, raw materials can be used as effectively as possible. In a current project we are studying how sheetmetal can be rolled to varying thicknesses across the entire breadth, for example, for aircraft components. This enables greater manufacturing efficiency and lighter products. Verifying technologies and methods in semi-industrial scale using real raw materials has been one of our spe-

cialities since we started, more than 50 years ago. The Stepwise project is a good example of our capacity to design and develop tests that are applied under realistic conditions. In Stepwise we are designing, building and running a new pilot facility to investigate how the blast furnace can be converted for hydrogen operation and, in the same process, how carbon dioxide can be captured and separated. IN OCTOBER we arranged our first members' day event on the theme “With Research in Focus”. The day gave insights into future trends such as raw-materials supply. In addition, members had a chance to meet our researchers, as well as having time to ask questions and discuss new ideas. We are very pleased that there is an overwhelming interest in more members' day events. Equipped with commitment, expertise and our pilot and demo facilities, we are ready to meet the needs of industry, today and tomorrow. EVA SUNDIN, Managing Director

Borlänge

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Jarl Mårtenson, Chair, Ovako Sweden Göran Carlsson, Swerea Nils Edberg, SSAB Europe Kerstin Konradsson, Boliden Commercial Johan Sterte, Luleå University of Technology Fredrik Sandberg, Sandvik Materials Technology Fredrik Skarp, Scanmast Bijish Babu, Employee representative Roger Nielsen, Employee representative Lars-Erik From, Employee representative (deputy)

ANNUAL REPORT 2015 23

Polymer fibre composites, including materials science, mechanical computation and simulation, damage resistance, process and manufacturing engineering, product development, prototyping and testing, and customized training programmes.

Biobased and multifunctional composites SWEREA SICOMP conducts research on three technology platforms: dimensioning, manufacturing engineering/process engineering and materials science. Nationally and internationally, in materials science, biobased compo­ site materials is a large research field that is aimed at the development of products made from forest raw materials. This includes development of biobased reinforcement fibre and plastics, as well as material based on nanocrystalline cellulose. One example is lignin-based carbon fibre, a high-value, biobased reinforcement fibre produced from residual products from paper manufacturing. In this area we work closely with Innventia and, together, we have produced a national roadmap for development across the entire value chain from tree to finished carbon fibre component.

of new products from forest raw materials. The raw materials consist mainly of by-products from the forest industry, such as tall oil, wood chips and lignin. Nanocrystalline cellulose foam can be used as core material for both thermal insulation and sandwich structures. In our case, the feedstock for nanocrystalline cellulose is derived from dewatering by-products from paper manufacturing. High-temperature composites for applications at temperatures exceeding 300 degrees are of great interest to the aircraft engine industry. The aim is to build energy-efficient engines for use in civil aviation by introducing light carbon fibre composites. We collaborate closely with materials manufacturers and European companies that work with aircraft engines, such as Swedish GKN Aero Engine Systems in Trollhättan.

WHERE BIOBASED plastics are concerned, research is now under way in EU-sponsored projects and in a Swedish cluster for the development

SMART, multifunctional composite materials is an exciting area that includes, among other innovative applications, structural batteries – carbon fibre

structures that can bear mechanical load and store electrical energy. Using similar technology it is also possible to create composite materials that can be modified to quickly change in stiffness or rigidity. One application that is now being investigated, in collaboration with the automotive industry, is to use the material to distribute energy in collision situations and thereby lessen the risk of injury. In addition, research on graphene and nanocomposites is also in progress. The research is conducted mainly in EU-sponsored projects and the aim is to improve certain properties or to add more functions to the same product. NEW CHALLENGES wait us in 2016, when we begin research on additive manufacturing. Please feel free to contact us, so we can tell you more and discuss how we can help you and your company. HANS HANSSON, Managing Director

FACTS TURNOVER 55 million kronor EMPLOYEES 50 MEMBER COMPANIES 41 ESTABLISHED 1988 OPERATION LOCATIONS

Piteå, Mölndal and Linköping BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Göran Carlsson, Chair, Swerea Ingegerd Annergren, Scania CV Erik Persson, Municipality of Piteå Bengt-Olof Elfström, University West Jerker Delsing, Luleå University of Technology Jonas Engström, Employee representative Peter Mannberg, Employee representative

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ANNUAL REPORT 2015

Cast products, casting processes and cast materials, metallurgy, product engineering, simulation, and process and manufacturing engineering. Failure and damage analyses including accredited mechanical testing. Environmental studies and environmental protection engineering. Energy efficiency and industrial recycling Testing and demonstration foundry, and training programmes for industry.

Safer, lighter, more efficient GLOBALLY, production of cast pro­

ducts has increased by more than 50 percent over the past ten years and, as the global economy continues to grow, potential demand remains high. Development is mainly being driven by the need to reduce climate impact, improve resource efficiency and lower costs. Above all, this is reflected in smarter materials and more and lighter multifunctional cast components. One of the most interesting areas will probably be intelligent new products and new materials with improved properties and performance. Swerea SWECAST also continues to drive development within the national lightweight arena LIGHTer, which spans several industrial sectors.

ANOTHER INTERESTING area

concerns improvements in resource efficiency in the manufacturing of cast components. Within RISE we have been tasked to lead a strategic initiative of which the aim is to strengthen

all of the RISE institutes' energyrelated offerings to industry. DURING 2015 Swerea SWECAST has initiated new research and deve­ lopment projects on topics including recycling of casting sand, briquetting and reuse of fine-grained slag, additive manufacturing of pressure die-casting tools, MMC (Metallic Matrix Composite) and intelligent cast products. In collaboration with a company that is world-leading in 3D sand printing, we have built up a successful testing and demo centre, where Swerea SWECAST provides research and development related to cast components. We can design moulds and cores and make them using the 3D sand printer, and then make cast prototypes or short series. The 3D sand printer is kept at our testing and demo facility and is the first and only one of its kind in Sweden. Thanks to the new facility, Swerea SWECAST will be able to assist

with prototyping, taking the product concept to finished component while reducing the lead time from several months to about a week. We are currently the only European research institute that can do this under our own management and with our own resources. In continuation, we plan to invest further in new equipment and build knowledge surrounding additive manufacturing and the development of processes and new materials. Demand for our services has exceeded expectations and we are seeing considerable interest from companies that purchase cast products. WE FORESEE great opportunities

for continued growth, for developing new technologies and working with new customers and customer segments. We look forward to exciting new projects in 2016 together with customers and strategic collaborative partners.

PETER SEMBERG, Managing Director

FACTS TURNOVER 57 million kronor EMPLOYEES 45 MEMBER COMPANIES 142 ESTABLISHED 1967 OPERATION LOCATION Jönköping BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Göran Carlsson, Chair, Swerea Lars Alfredsson, Bruzaholms Bruk Mats Jägstam, Jönköping University Sten Dahlqvist, Swerea Lars Johansson, BLJ Invest Håkan Fernström, Employee representative Ulf Gotthardsson, Employee representative

ANNUAL REPORT 2015 25

Process and alloy development for steels and metals. Joining technology, processes and dimensioning. Component manufacturing, processes and optimization. Mechanical properties, testing and prediction. Materials, including polymers, for aggressive environments. Corrosion (testing, evaluation of protection methods) – in various environments (atmospheric, high-temperature, marine, H 2S, etc.). Materials analysis and metallo­graphy. Failure analysis and materials selection.

Our focus is on customer value SWEREA KIMAB has a strong custom-

er base in the Swedish export industry, where heavy engineering, vehicles, energy, steel and metals are important sectors. These are demanding customers with world-leading products and considerable research resources. To be able to meet their expectations we must be an internationally competitive research entity. In the area of corrosion protection for vehicles in road environments we have a members' consortium in which most of the major vehicle manufacturers participate, together with several supplier companies. Here, groups of companies contribute ideas and funding for projects addressing corrosion-related problems. One new project has to do with how corrosion problems can be prevented when new lightweight technologies, including composite materials, are introduced in order to reduce fuel consumption. Project participants include 13 companies, together with Swerea KIMAB and Institut de la Corrosion. We are very proud to report that one of the world's leading automakers proposed us as project manager.

In the area of joining technology, we must remain internationally competitive, although our customer base comprises mainly Swedish companies. We are proud to have General Motors as a member company and one of our researchers spends three month each year at GM's R&D Centre. Together with GM, we have developed an innovative spot-welding process for aluminium which eliminates the need for riveting, a considerably more expensive process. The method is patented.

Society's costs for corrosion are estimated at 100 billion kronor annually in Sweden alone. Unfortunately, relatively few people are aware of this fact. We are therefore very pleased to report that we have been asked to take part in many infrastructure projects during the year. For example, together with the Swedish Transport Administration, we have identified a safe and sustainable solution to protect the new Sundsvall Bridge from corrosion. Now, a solution has been chosen after very extensive work on-location with divers, engineers and researchers.

FROM A NATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

it is an expressed priority that the institutes support small and mediumsized enterprises (SMEs) in their innovation efforts. A customer survey has shown that our SME customers often learn about us from colleagues in other companies. It is gratifying to note that nine out of ten expressed interest in using our services again. From the survey it was clearly evident that our expertise in materials and corrosion is our most important strength.

WE ARE ALSO very pleased to report

that 2015 has seen resumed growth in Swerea KIMAB's business and a dramatic improvement in financial outcome. We have welcomed 23 new co-workers during the year.

STAFFAN SÖDERBERG, Managing Director

FACTS TURNOVER 247 million kronor EMPLOYEES 175 MEMBER COMPANIES 184 ESTABLISHED 1921 OPERATION LOCATIONS Stockholm,

Trollhättan, Brest and St Etienne

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Göran Carlsson, Chair, Swerea Anders G Lindberg, Scania CV Göran Nyström, Ovako Peter Gudmundson, KTH Hans Klang, SSAB Tomas Hult, Employee representative Ragna Elger, Employee representative Alexander Angré, Employee representative (deputy) Thomas Björk, Employee representative (deputy)

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ANNUAL REPORT 2015

NOTICES

Unique Research Friday initiative in Piteå Subsidiary of Swerea KIMAB, established 2002.

Institut de la Corrosion OPERATIONS in Brest have con­

tinued to grow during 2015, mainly in the areas of corrosion testing under realistic field-test conditions and in marine corrosion. A new EUsponsored project has commenced, of which the aim is to gain a better understanding of how microstructures affect the occurrence and spread of corrosion in metallic coatings in vehicles and building structures. In Saint Etienne, in a new industrial project, researchers have begun to study the effects of oxygen on stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in steel. A framework agreement has been signed with ANDRA (French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency), making IC a selected partner for certain areas of corrosion research related to radioactive waste management.

Collaboration with various French universities, such as Ecole des Mines and the University of Brest, continues via doctoral studies programmes related to corrosion in hydrogen sulphide and corrosion sensors. Internationally, we have strengthened our collaboration with Singapore (Simtech and University of Singapore) and the University of Swansea. WE LOOK FORWARD to exciting new challenges in 2016. Of particular interest are the emergence of a new research field concerning corrosion in the aerospace sector, and increased activity within corrosion testing under high pressure and high temperatures. DOMINIQUE THIERRY, Managing Director

Research Friday is arranged each year as part of the EU Researchers’ Night event. The 2015 edition was held in more than 300 towns and cities. In Sweden, 27 towns and cities took part, with Piteå being the northernmost. Swerea SICOMP and Swerea MEFOS, together with SP Energy Technology Center and Inter­ active Institute Swedish ICT, joined forces to attract increased interest in research and development. The primary target group was secondary-school students, but public participation was welcome during the afternoon. “We wanted to give visitors some insight into what composites can be used for and how materials selection and development can create incredible benefit for companies and society in general,” says Lars Liljenfeldt, marketing manager at Swerea SICOMP.

Establishing locally grown textiles in Sweden Demand for textile fibres is growing and is expected to triple by 2050. Production of oil-based textile fibres and cotton fibres, which has already reached capacity, impacts the environment negatively in various ways. Funding amounting to 45 million kronor over three years has been granted for the project "Establishing locally grown textiles in Sweden" via the strategic innovation programme BioInnovation. Under the direction of Swerea IVF, project partners including companies, research institutes and academia will collaborate to secure sustainable production of new textile fibres from forest raw materials or recycled biobased textiles.

Revised edition of rustproofing handbook A newly revised edition of the rustproofing handbook has been published. Like the earlier edition it is the result of teamwork, this time between Swerea KIMAB and Auktorisation för Rostskyddsmålning. The handbook is both a practical and a theoretical guide to the field of rustproofing coating. The intention has been to provide a general yet, in many respects, detailed overview of the area. It is a primer that gives a good introduction to regulatory frameworks and fundamental standards, etc. The handbook is available from Swerea KIMAB. ANNUAL REPORT 2015 27

NOTICES New project will reduce vibration injuries Vinnova is investing 7.3 million kronor in a Swerea IVFmanaged project of which the aim is to come to terms with vibration-related occupational injuries. The goal is to eliminate vibration injuries by developing low-vibration handheld machines. Vibration is the second-greatest cause of occupational injuries among men and the occurrence of such injuries among women is steadily increasing. Often, young people are subject to this type of injury and the consequences are long-term. A consortium with broad representation from all rele­ vant public-sector agencies has been formed. “The project is unique, in that we are now, finally, gathering all stakeholders in society to address the problem and to stimulate demand for better machines. Everyone has something to gain if vibrations can be eliminated,” says Hans Lindell, Swerea IVF, who is leading the consortium.

New Professor of Process Metallurgy Lena Sundqvist Ökvist, Swerea MEFOS, has been appointed Associate Professor of Process Metallurgy at the Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Tech­nology. Lena works with LTU both in research projects and in teaching. She has extensive experience of national and international research in reduction metallurgy and recycling of residual products, particularly in the area of materials and energy efficiency in the steel industry. “Lena's expertise and commitment to research and teaching-related issues, as well as her very considerable national and international network, will be a major asset for our research field,” says Caisa Samuelsson, Professor at the Division of Minerals and Metallurgical Engineering.

3D-printed tools open new possibilities for the die-casting foundry industry Together with Swedish die-casting foundries, Swerea SWECAST is studying the potential for pressure diecasting tools made by means of additive manufacturing. “We see enormous potential in the project. We can make tools faster and we can reduce environmental impact, since only the material that is needed is used,” says Jörgen Henriksson, quality and production manager at Ankarsrum Die Casting. The project builds on work done in a prestudy entitled Adding. In the second phase of the project, virtual methods for optimal positioning of cooling channels to achieve the right heat transfer and thermal balance in the tool will be studied.

28

ÅRSBERÄTTELSE 2015

SICOMP conference 2015 Our 2015 conference, “Manufacturing and Design of Composites”, was held 1-2 June, at Hotell Arken in Gothen­burg. During the two days, delegates from ten countries heard very interesting presentations on subjects including: use of composite materials in Renault and Volvo, mini car Zbee and innovative manufacturing methods. New this year is a recently established grant for graduate studies in polymeric fibre composites by Stiftelsen Swedish Institute of Composites SICOMP. This year the grant was awarded to Joraine Rössler, with a thesis project from Chalmers.

Transatlantic collaboration for new joining technology for General Motors Swerea and General Motors have joined forces to develop next-generation joining technology for light vehicles. The technology gives GM environmental and production gains by reducing weight and cost for aluminium vehicle components. Collaboration has facilitated the introduction and verification of a recently GM-patented solution for aluminiumto-aluminium joining in several different production-like scenarios. “For us, Swerea's expertise and experience are a great asset. Working side-by-side on decisive research issues allows us to make strategic choices during the course of the project. That's what characterizes research and deve­ lopment,” says Blair Carlson, GM manufacturing systems research lab group manager.

NASA and Swerea SICOMP collaborate on simulation of impact damage in polymeric carbon fibre composites High-performance carbon fibre composites are subject to damage due to, for example, impact. This type of damage is often not visible to the naked eye and it is important to be able to design structures with the help of computations in order to prevent damage. Swerea SICOMP will collaborate in a two-year project with NASA Langley Research Center to develop a computer model for simulation of damage processes in polymeric carbon fibre compo­ sites. NASA is responsible for developing the model and Swerea SICOMP will assess the experimental test data. This collaboration is an important step towards an industrially adapted method for structural computation of polymeric carbon fibre composites. The development will strengthen both organizations' ability to support industry with advanced computations.

NOTICES

New 3D printer for metal Award for research on biobased carbon fibre Swerea IVF and Innventia accepted the award at the International Symposium on Wood, Fibre and Pulping Chemistry, ISWFPC, in Vienna, in recognition of their joint research on the development of light, wood-based carbon fibre material. In the project two wood components, lignin and cellulose, have been solution-spun and thin, pliable threads in which the best properties of hightech, carbon-rich fibres and more conventional textiles are combined have been made. “Naturally, we are very pleased that our project has attracted so much interest. Now, we want to scale-up production and it is important that we can bring the industry on board,” says Carina Olsson, Swerea IVF.

DISIRE – Integrated process control 58 million kronor has been allocated to the DISIRE project via Horizon 2020. The aim of the project is to develop a sensor that can be incorporated into the raw-material flow in the steelmaking process. The sensors can gather data (e.g., temperature) inside the blast furnace, walking beam furnace or similar high-temperature environments and the information can be sent to process-control units online. Swerea MEFOS will help to develop and adapt the sensors for high-temperature environments. Testing and analysis will show if/how the sensors contribute to improved process control. Luleå University of Technology is coordinating the three-year project.

Over the past three years Swerea IVF has increased its activities in additive manufacturing and now has access to 3D printers for metal, ceramics and plastics. The most recently acquired 3D printer is adapted for manufacturing components in different metal alloys such as stainless steel, tool steels, titanium, cobalt-chromium, Inconel and aluminium. All of these alloys have a range of applications in, for example, the medico-technical, aerospace and vehicle industries. The new printer represents yet another step forward in the Swerea Group's major investment within this field.

New biobased lightweight material presented Efforts in recent years to realize the vision of lightweight materials made from forest raw materials are now starting to yield results. Innventia and Swerea SICOMP are the world's first to present a composite based on 100 percent coniferous lignin in a so-called demonstrator. The demonstrator, a sandwich structure consisting of balsa wood laminated with carbon fibre, is the first successful laboratory-scale evidence to show that it is possible to manufacture lignin-based carbon fibre. Yet another demonstrator, a model car that operates on a lignin-based battery, is now being developed to demonstrate a future application in the vehicle industry.

Docent in Atmospheric Corrosion Johan Tidblad has been appointed Docent in Corrosion Science, with specialization in atmospheric corrosion, at KTH in Stockholm. Johan works at Swerea KIMAB as manager for the Corrosion Protection and Surface Engineering section. The title of his Docent address was: “Planning for a sustainable infrastructure with short-term corrosion testing. Can we solve the conflicting demands of the modern world?”

3D focus at Elmia The Statue of Liberty – 3D-printed in sand in Swerea SWECAST's new test and demo facility in Jönköping – was a real showstopper at the innovation arena Innodex at Elmia Subcontractor. The statue and several other 3D-printed objects were displayed at Swerea's stand to attract the interest of visitors. Many people visited the stand and a guided showing of the 3D machine during the fair was well attended. For those interested in the very latest in 3D technology, Swerea arranged a conference in collaboration with Elmia Subcontractor and the industry organization Sveat. ANNUAL REPORT 2015 29

The people behind the successes Swerea's researchers are key players in Sweden's new industrialization. Each day, their contributions strengthen the country's industrial competitiveness and attractiveness. Thanks to their efforts, established companies choose to remain here, while companies from abroad choose to open for business in Sweden. Qualified, committed co-workers are the most important factor for success in every project. RESEARCHERS FROM ALL of

What is the most exciting thing happening in your field right now in the development of industrial materials?

Swerea's subsidiaries contribute small puzzle pieces to the development of industrial materials and innovative solutions often see the light of day in meetings between specialists from different fields. Of the researchers employed in the group's Swedish operations during 2015, about ten percent are foreign recruitments. The fact that researchers from around the world come to work for us benefits our customers, our research and our

commissioned work. Finding and developing competencies and building leadership that fosters an inclusive and successful corporate culture is an important process. Swerea Academy provides management training for supervisors and project managers. Personnel from Swerea' subsidiaries meet in the courses, which gives co-workers the opportunity to broaden their know­ ledge and their network within the group.

Of Swerea's active research personnel, 45 percent hold doctorate degrees. During 2015, 23 employees have pursued concurrent doctoral studies. Expertise and creativity are our core business and our co-workers are our most important resource.

Marie Fredriksson

Jan Levén

Peter Mannberg

Senior Research Engineer, Casting of Light Metals, Swerea SWECAST

Designed materials for casting is an area that is gaining increasing interest. These may be metals that are alloyed to give the desired properties, or materials to which various types of particles are added to achieve specific properties. Examples include components for heavy vehicles which are conventionally cast in iron, but where aluminium alloys that can withstand high temperatures are an interesting alternative. One alternative is to cast different materials together in the same component, for example, aluminium and cast iron, in order to utilize the low density and thermal conductivity of aluminium while taking advantage of iron's superior mechanical properties. 30

We asked Swerea's co-workers a question:

ANNUAL REPORT 2015

Research Engineer and Operations Manager, Heating and Metalworking, Swerea MEFOS

In my research, one goal has been to manufacture products with consistently uniform properties, for example, thickness or strength. The trend towards greater resource efficiency means that each product must be customized so that properties are adapted to meet specific conditions at each point over the entire product. The challenge today is to find methods for designing and manufacturing these products with the same or better productivity, material yield and energy consumption as in conventional manufacturing. Taking part in this development is both exciting and a privilege.

Research Engineer, Materials, Swerea SICOMP

Raw materials from renewable sources are the future, since the demand for continuous growth means that finite resources are being used too quickly. Therefore, use of renewable resources must be increased. The building blocks from renewable resources can be used to replace those from finite resources such as oil. From the forest, Sweden's new “oilfield”, monomers, building blocks from which polymeric materials and fibres can be made, can be extracted. These plastics and fibres can directly replace today's oilbased equivalents in composites applications.

Mari Sparr Section Manager, Metallic Materials in Aggressive Environments, Swerea KIMAB

Lawrence Hooey Group Manager, Materials and Raw Materials, Swerea MEFOS

We work a lot with materials producers, the manufacturing industry and end-users to study corrosion properties of materials and products in different environments. The basic materials have certain corrosion properties, but different manufacturing processes e.g., welding, also affect corrosion properties. Corrosion has a great impact on a product's service life and is an especially important consideration from a material strategy perspective, since it can have a bearing on costs, the environment and safety. To be able to predict a product's service life it is important to have good knowledge of the environment in which it is to be used and access to reliable methods for testing under conditions resembling that environment. In corrosion testing, we have longstanding experience of exposing test specimens in the field to obtain reliable corrosion data.

The goal of process integration is to maximize efficiency throughout an entire production system. One example is the introduction of new technology for converting a residual product into a valuable and sustainable product. Energy-bearing process gas from integrated steelmaking is now combusted in combined heat and power plants (CHP) or heating plants. Through new ways of converting this gas into valuable and sustainable products, technologies can be developed that will reduce CO2 emissions, improve energy efficiency and lower costs. Swerea MEFOS is involved in the EUsponsored Stepwise project, of which the aim is to convert blast furnace gas to hydrogen and, in the same process, capture and separate CO2.

Lennart Sibeck

Annika Strondl

Research Engineer, Cast Materials, Swerea SWECAST

Section Manager, Process Development, Swerea KIMAB

Austempered ductile iron (ADI) with double the strength of ductile iron has been in use for several years. Since austempering can double the strength of ductile iron while retaining good ductility and toughness, this material is starting to compete with steel. Similarly, ausferritic steels with a unique combination of strength and ductility are being developed. Castforging of ductile iron combines conventional technology and material, resulting in a new forming process and a new material. Aluminium alloy-based metal matrix composites have long shown great potential. Widespread use of the material has been inhibited by difficulties in manufacturing and high cost, but new casting methods could solve these problems.

Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, has virtually exploded in Sweden over the past year. This technology is rapidly driving the rate of materials development and enabling design for function i.e., lightweight products in which the material is used only where it is needed. Rotating aircraft engine components that have been made by means of additive manufacturing are one exciting example. If the material meets these tough requirements, there is enormous potential in other industrial applications. The next step is to take advantage of the possibility of locally customizing the properties of the material in the process.

Sepehr Hatami

Lisa Schwarz Bour

Research Engineer, Additive Manufacturing, Swerea IVF

Research Engineer, Textiles Recycling, Swerea IVF

I work with additive manufacturing (so-called 3D printing) of metal components. This new technology enables the use of less material for manufacturing certain components, thereby reducing weight without jeopardizing performance or strength. In practice, only a few companies have succeeded in finding the right application for the method while retaining profitability. This is an interesting and challenging part of my work. Therefore, my research focuses on understanding the full potential of additive manufacturing, as well as its limitations in various industrial applications.

Globally, there is a great demand for effective textiles recovery that would enable use of the recovered material as a valuable raw material in new processes. This would contribute to meeting increasing world demand for textiles. Since recovered textiles consist largely of mixed materials, no single technology can meet this demand. We need to use the entire palette of recycling technologies, both mechanical and chemical, and develop recovery, sorting and separation methods to create a functioning circular value chain for textile materials.

ANNUAL REPORT 2015 31

Board of directors FROM LEFT:

Olof Sandén (b 1962). CEO, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden. MSc, Chalmers University of Technology/ETH Zürich. Formerly employed with Bactiguard, Elekta, Exportrådet (Business Sweden), and Boston Consulting Group in various senior management positions and business development. Other directorships: Board member, SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut (Technical Research Institute of Sweden), Swedish ICT, Innventia, Scandidos AB, Micropos Medical and Unisport-Saltex Oy. Other assignments: Advisory Board, Wistrands Advokater. Elected to the board in 2015. Eva Wigren (b 1954). Director, Industrial Deve­ lopment, Teknikföretagen (the Association of Swedish Engineering Industries). MSc, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH); MSc Business Administration and Economics, Stockholm University. Former CEO Electrolux Core Technology & Innovation and Sweco Industriteknik. Other director­ ships: Chairman, Teknikföretagens Bransch­ grupper. Board member of Vinnova, Structural Fund Partnership Stockholm and European Factories of the Future Research Association. Board member, IVA. Elected to the board in 2012.

32

ANNUAL REPORT 2015

Bo-Erik Pers (b 1956). Managing Director, Jernkontoret. MSc, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Formerly employed by SSAB EMEA, SSAB Tunnplåt and Scania in various positions in marketing, sales and technology development. Other directorships: Chairman, Hugo Carlsson Foundation for Scientific Research, and MEFOR. Board member, Eurofer and SIS. Elected to the board in 2011.

Karl-Gustav Ramström (b 1954). CEO and President, Prevas. MSc and MBA, Uppsala University. Formerly employed by SSAB Plate, SSAB Oxelösund and Process Automation ABB Sweden in various positions in engineering, divisional management and senior management. Other directorships: Board member, Automation Region. Board member, IVA. Elected to the board in 2012.

Peter Samuelsson Chairman (b 1963). Former CTO, Sandvik MT. MSc Metallurgical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Formerly employed by Outokumpu Stainless AB, Ovako AB, Danieli, Centro Met, Avesta Sheffield AB and Avesta Polarit in various positions in engineering, production, logistics, R&D and business management. Other directorships: Chairman, Högskolan Dalarna. Elected to the board in 2013.

Eva Pétursson (b 1968). Research Manager, SSAB. PhD, Luleå University of Technology. Former Associate Professor, Steel Construction, Luleå University of Technology. Senior specialist in high-strength steel structures, SSAB. Other assignments: Board member, SSAB Technology and member of TGS8 (Research Fund for Coal and Steel). Elected to the board in 2015.

Merja Myllykoski (b 1971). Process Controller, Swerea MEFOS. MSc International Marketing, Luleå University of Technology. Employee representative. Board member since 2015.

Sten Farre (b 1957). Senior Researcher, Swerea SWECAST. BSc, Metallurgy, Bergsskolan. Employee representative. Board member since 2014.

Management group

Sten Dahlqvist (b 1952). CFO, Swerea. MBA, Stockholm University. Employed with the group since 1994.

Göran Carlsson (b 1954). President and CEO, Swerea. MSc Metallurgical Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Board member, IVA. Employed with the group since 2008.

Peter Semberg (b 1961). CEO, Swerea SWECAST. Studies in behavioural science at Linköping University. Employed with the group since 2015.

Staffan Söderberg (b 1951). CEO, Swerea KIMAB. Associate Professor, Uppsala University. Board member, IVA. Employed with the group since 2007.

Gunilla Kühner (b 1965). Marketing Director, Swerea. Studies in medical technology and chemistry at Stockholm University and Umeå University; studies in marketing at Berghs School of Communication and IFL. Employed with the group since 2014.

Eva Sundin (b 1965). CEO, Swerea MEFOS. PhD, Luleå University of Technology. Employed with the group since 2015.

FROM LEFT:

Mats Lundin (b 1963). CEO, Swerea IVF. MSc, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Employed with the group since 1989.

Mats Holmgren (b 1952). CTO, Swerea. MSc, Lund University, Faculty of Engineering. Employed with the group since 1979. Hans Hansson (b 1955). CEO, Swerea SICOMP. PhD, (Hon.) Luleå University of Technology. Employed with the group since 1993.

ABSENT:

Göran Fahlén (b 1951). Strategic development, Swerea. Studies in Mechanical Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology and Forestry Production at Umeå University. Employed with the group since 2010.

ANNUAL REPORT 2015 33

Five-year summary Turnover, MSEK Operating profit after depreciations, MSEK Income after net financial items, MSEK Balance sheet total, MSEK Shareholders' equity, MSEK Operating margin, % Return on equity, % Equity/assets ratio, % Cash liquidity, % Capital expenditures, MSEK Average number of employees

Balance sheet 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 711.1 678.1 666.3 604.9 472.0 8.8 15.4 682.0 347.6 1.2 3.3 51 121 31.6 532

2.3

6.6 -0.8 22.6

10.3 15.7 10.0 30.6 638.4 654.9 616.4 527.7 337.3 328,.5 317.6 273.6 0.3 1.0 -0.1 4.8 2.1 3.0 2.3 9.2 53 50 52 52 125 131 145 134 28.8 39.8 51.8 23.7 523 532 527 407

Income statement Sums in kSEK Operating revenue Net sales Other operating revenues Total revenue

2015 2014

Sums in kSEK ASSETS Fixed assets INTANGIBLE ASSETS Capitalized expenditure for computer software TANGIBLE ASSETS Land Land improvements Buildings Costs invested in another party's property Machinery and technical systems Equipment, tools, fixtures and fittings Fixed assets under construction FINANCIAL FIXED ASSETS Shares and participations in group companies Other securities held as fixed assets Deferred tax asset Other long-term receivables Total fixed assets

2015 2014

503 470 503 470 476 35 20 825 25 900 29 389 63 047 10 302 149 974

476 39 20 759 28 664 32 432 65 774 148 144

10 145 983 175 3 589 149 757 300 234

11 136 731 150 3 844 140 736 289 350

3 413 3 413

3 547 3 547

66 555 24 015 6 400 87 117 184 087

66 252 7 621 5 371 87 151 166 395

709 858 1 274 711 132

676 644 1 480 678 124

-266 213 -406 910

-251 420 -395 851

-29 218 8 791

-28 550 2 303

Profit from financial items Profit from other securities and receivables accounted for as fixed assets Other interest income and similar profit/loss items Interest expenses and similar profit/loss items Profit after financial items

3 791 3 924 -1 126 15 380

3 544 4 950 -487 10 310

SHORT-TERM INVESTMENTS

12 088

10 643

CASH AND BANK BALANCES Total current assets

182 198 381 786

168 493 349 078

Profit before tax

15 380

10 310

TOTAL ASSETS

682 020

638 428

Tax on profit for the year

-3 839

-3 393

PROFIT FOR THE YEAR

11 541

6 917

TOTAL SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY AND LIABILITIES RESTRICTED EQUITY Share capital Restricted reserves NON-RESTRICTED EQUITY Profit or loss brought forward Profit for the year PROVISIONS Provisions for pensions Provisions for deferred tax Other provisions

12 157 13 421 25 578

12 157 12 607 24 764

310 479 11 541 322 020 347 598

305 645 6 917 312 562 337 326

3 722 12 236 745 16 703

3 621 13 147 721 17 489

1 644 1 644

3 863 3 863

181 692 43 237 25 701 65 445 316 075

160 845 32 033 23 523 63 349 279 750

TOTAL SHAREHOLDERS' EQUITY AND LIABILITIES 682 020

638 428

Operating expenses Other external expenses Personnel expenses Depreciation and write-downs of tangible and intangible assets Operating profit

Current assets INVENTORIES, ETC. Finished products and goods for resale CURRENT RECEIVABLES Accounts receivable, trade Taxes recoverable Other receivables Prepaid expenses and accrued income

LONG-TERM LIABILITIES CURRENT LIABILITIES Advances from customers Accounts payable Other liabilities Prepaid expenses and deferred income

34

ANNUAL REPORT 2015

Sustainability and competitive advantage with CSR* Sustainability is one of the most important drivers of the projects in which Swerea participates. All aspects of sustainability are at the crux of society's greatest environmental, societal and economic challenges. Swerea's collective expertise enables unique possibilities for adopting a broader view, even when approaching issues of a seemingly insular nature. All projects address challenges that are related to a system; a lifecycle from raw material to product, use and end-of-life management. Swerea has a deep and genuine commitment to sustainability, and the Swerea institutes practise what they preach. Here, development is ongoing and during 2015, among other things, we have produced a research policy and a business policy. We have also presented proposals for ethical guidelines for Swerea.

Practising what we preach Swerea creates broad, group-wide research and development platforms in areas where we see that our collective expertise can contribute to meeting society's challenges. Swerea Industrial recycling is one such area. Lightweight, Additive manufacturing, Industrial work environment and Swerea Virtual Lab are other areas in which we create benefit for industry with a holistic approach. All of the Swerea institutes work continuously to improve sustainability in their own operations. As an example, in 2015 Swerea KIMAB conducted a review of its energy and heat consumption. Swerea IVF has updated its climate declaration and the results showed a further reduction in climate impact per hour. In collaboration with the property owner the institute also installed solar panels on the roof in order to make energy use more sustainable.

Sustainability in practice Most of Swerea's work towards longterm sustainability is done successfully in concrete projects in collabo­ ration with industry and our research colleagues. Getting the most out of a raw material while using as little energy as possible is the top priority in many projects. Similarly, focus is placed on deve­ loping new materials and upgrading old materials, and reducing the environ­mental impact of products during use and when they have reached end-of-life. Swerea's model for sustainability assessment of projects has been applied in several of Vinnova's** strategic innovation programmes, such as Metallic Materials and LIGHTer.

Equality and diversity Swerea strives to balance the numbers of men and women in all positions. In our work groups people with different backgrounds and experiences meet with mutual respect to deliver on Swerea's promise: scientifically and creatively excellent solutions that meet industry-related challenges. Swerea MEFOS has also participated in an EU-funded development project, Mångväx, where the goal has been to put the principles of equality and diversity to practice in developing the company's business. Both Swerea MEFOS and Swerea KIMAB have arranged professional development days on the theme of diversity and equality.

* Corporate Social Responsibility ** Sweden's Innovation Agency

Work environment To be able to deliver research results and maximum benefit to industry it is absolutely essential to be an attractive employer. Therefore, creating and developing a good physical and psychosocial work environment is always at the top of the Swerea institutes' agenda. During the year Swerea SICOMP has designed workspaces and deve­ loped working methods for working with nano-modified materials based on the latest research in nanosafety. Swerea SWECAST has built an integrated management system and a new quality management system in an effort to ensure continuous improvement. Work environment management is done systematically. Making a difference in the world The expertise that accrues from projects and collaboration with the Swerea institutes often brings benefit on a broad front. Swerea IVF has produced a new guide to green public procurement. The guide, produced in collaboration with Kammarkollegiet, is an aid to public procurement of very large volumes. As an important Swedish industrial research entity, we have a very great responsibility for development that leads to greater sustainability.

ANNUAL REPORT 2015 35

Member and interest-group com 3K Consulting Group 3PR Profil Projekt Promotion AB 3M Svenska AB A Teknik i Robertsfors AB AB Lindex AB Londré Textiles AB AB SKF Abacus Sportwear AB ABB AB ABB AB, Composites ABB Corporate Research ABB Plast ABB Robotics ABIC Kemi AB ABP Induction AB Accoat A/S ACG Accent Ab acg Nyströms AB Acne Studios Ad Manus Mterialteknik Adam Opel GmbH Adekvat Försäkring AB AGA AGA Gas AB AGO AB AH Automation Aker Solutions Akzo Nobel Functional Chermicals B.V. Akzo Nobel Industrial Finishes Akzo Nobel Pulp and Performance Chemicals AB Alcan CRV Aleris Aluminum Duffel BVBA Alfa Laval France Alfa Laval Lund AB Alfa Laval Tumba AB Alfdex AB Aliaxis Utilities & Industry AB Allard Manufacturing AB Almedahl Kinna AB Alstom Power Sweden AB Alten Sweden AB Aluwave AB Alvenius AM Stacke Matsson AB Aneby kommun Ankarsrum Die Casting AB Antiphone Antrad Medical AB AP&T AB AP&T Sweden AB APERAM Isbergues Aplicator System AB Aptus Elektronik AB AQ Plast AB Arcelormittal ARCOR Armacell International Aros Electronics AB Ascatron Asco Appliances AB Ascom Sweden AB Ascometal ASK Chemicals Scandinavia AB ASSA AB ASTRIUM Atlas Copco Industrial Technique AB Atlas Copco Rock Drills Atlas Copco Secoroc AB Atlas Copco Tools Atlet Auson AB Autotube AB Avure Technologies Axema Access Control B.O. Park AB BAC France Bagheera AB Baosteel BASF Coatings Becker Industrial Coatings AB Beijer Electronics Products AB

Beijer Industri AB Bendiro Profile Berendsen Sourcing AB Billerudkorsnäs Karslborg AB Billerudkorsnäs Skärblacka AB Billerudkorsnäs Skog & Industri Binar Elektronik AB Biteam Björn Borg Clothing AB Blekinge Pressgjuteri AB Bluescope Steel Ltd Blåkläder AB BMW Aleris Aluminum Duffel BVBA Bodycote Värmebehandling AS Bodycote Värmebehandling AB Bodycote Ytbehandling AB Boliden Mineral AB Bombardier Transportation Boob Design Borealis Borås Energi & Miljö Bosch Rexroth AB Bratänder Sweden AB Brogårdsand AB Bruker AXS Nordic AB Brunngård Group AB Bruzaholms Bruk AB Bulten Bulten Sweden AB Burde Förlags AB Böhler Edelstahl GmbH & Co KG Böhler Welding AB CAB Group AB Cadland AB Calderys Nordic AB Carbomax AB Carl Stahl AB Carpenter Powder Products Casall AB Cathay Composites Cedervall & Söner AB CEJN AB Cellwood Machinery AB Chalmers Tekniska Högskola Chemetall GmbH Chemtrend Clariant SE Clas Ohlson Cogent Surahammars Bruk Combitech AB CompeEng Composite Engineering AB Componenta Wirsbo AB Composite Consulting Group Composite Design Compositteknik i Norr AB Comptech AB Consortio Fashion Group AB Constellium CRV Construction Tools PC AB CAB Group AB Corrosion Controll Company CPAC Systems AB Cupori Group Oy CWP Ljungby AB Daimler AG Daloc AB Data Respons AB DCNS Delaval International AB Devex Mekatronik AB DGA Didriksons Douce Hydro Dr Denim AB DSM Resins BV Dynamate DYNAmore Nordic AB Easy-Laser AB E Sabel AB E.ON Gas Sverige Echotech Ecris AB EFD Induction AB

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NOTICES

mpanies SNA Europe AB SNCZ Solme AB Solvay Solexis S.p.A. Solyvent Fläkt AB SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut Specma AB SSAB Europe SSAB Merox AB SSAB Special Steels Stadium AB Star Trading i Svenljunga AB Statoil Fuel & retail Sweden AB Stén & Co Oy Stena Aluminium AB Stena Rederi AB Steuler Nordic AB Stockholm vatten Stoneridge Electronics AB Stora Enso Skoghall AB Storebrogjuteriet AB Stresstech Oy Strömsholmen AB Style Sweden HBG AB Sulu AS Sulzer Pump Solutions AB Suncab AB SundaHus Sunfab Hydraulics AB Swebor Stål AB Swede Ship Composite AB Swedegas AB Swedish Fitness Trading AB SWEDMEC AB Swefos AB Swegon AB Svensk Armaturindustri Svensk Handel Svensk Industriautomation AB Svensk Kärnbränslehantering AB Svenska Elektrod AB Svenska Kraftnät Svenskt vatten Swedish Waterjet Lab SWEP International AB SwePart Transmission AB Svetskommissionen SWISSTEC Skandinavien AB Sydvatten SYSAV Söderenergi Södra Cell AB, Mönsterås Bruk Södra Cell AB, Värö Bruk T.E.L Nordic TA Hydranics AB Tata Steel Team Sportia Ted Bernhardtz at work Teknik och Kompetenscentrum AB Teknikföretagen Service AB Tekniska Verken i Linköping AB Teknoheat AB Termap AB Ternium Siderar Texet Sweden AB Thales Underwater Systems Thermotech Thule Group Thule Sweden AB Tidomat AB Tierps Järnbruk AB Tjeders Industri AB TN International TOTAL Total Paris La Defense Toyota Motor Corporation TPC Textil AB TR Fastenings AB Trafikverket Tranemo Textil AB Traryds Metall AB

Triple Steelix TST Sweden AB TT Termotech Tyrolit AB Uddeholms AB Ulefos NV A/S Umeå Energi AB Umicore Corporate Development, Belgien Umicore France Unfors RaySafe AB UniBrands Unicarries Manufacturing United Initiators AB Unjo AB Unnayrd Modell AB Uponor AB UTComp Utools AB Wackers AB Vagabond International AB Vaggeryds kommun Vallourec & Mannesmann Valmet AB Valmet Power Valtimet Valvoline GmbH & Co KG Vanderbilt Industries AB Varner Retails AS Wayne Fueling Systems Sweden AB VBG Group Truck Equipment AB Webac Maskin AB Velox Specialities AB Vendingföreningen Veola Eau Wermland Mechanics AB WeSC AB Vestacastings Guldsmeds­ hyttan AB Westerstrand Urfabrik AB Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB Vetlanda Energi Vetlanda Energi & Teknik Wiges AB Vikan AB Villeroy & Boch Gustavs­ berg AB Winfoor AB Voestalpine Böhler Welding Voestalpine Precision Strip AB Voestalpine Stahl GmbH Voice Norge A/S Volvo AB Volvo Construction Equipment Volvo Global Trucks Operations Volvo GTO Powertrain Volvo GTT Volvo Lastvagnar AB Volvo Personvagnar AB Volvo Personvagnar Karosskomponenter AB Volvo Powertrain AB Volvo Powertrain Corporation AB Volvo Technology WR Controls AB VVS företagen Växjö Energi X-Cim AB Xstrata Nikkelverk Xylem Sverige AB Y. Berger & Co AB Yaskawa Nordic AB Yourflow AB Åhléns AB Åkers Sweden AB ÅLÖ AB Älmhults Gjuteri AB Öhlins Racing AB Öresundskraft Kraft & Värme Österby Gjuteri AB

Award winners Two of Swerea KIMAB's co-workers have been awarded for their efforts. Claes Taxén has been awarded the 2015 Einar Mattsson Award, amounting to 30,000 kronor. Claes Taxén is an innovative researcher who has extensive knowledge of fundamental corrosion, electrochemistry and modelling. Thanks to his solid understanding of the theory of chemical processes, Claes can create directly applicable corrosion models. Christer Eggertson has been awarded the 2015 Rune Lagneborg Award, amounting to 30,000 kronor, in recognition of his outstanding contributions in the field of experimental simulation of steelmaking processes. Both are also good ambassadors for Swerea KIMAB.

New technology will reduce Europe's vanadium imports Vinnova has granted Swerea MEFOS funding amounting to 3 million kronor for a vanadium extraction project, of which the aim is to develop new technology for economically viable, environmentally friendly exploitation of untapped vanadium resources in Europe. In the EU, where industry accounts for 13% of total world consumption, vanadium is classed as an economically important metal. Vanadium is used primarily in the production of high-strength, low-alloy steels, special steels (e.g., tool steels) and in special alloys for the aerospace industry. The technology can reduce Europe's import requirement for vanadium raw material by as much as 80-90 percent.

Re:Source – It's all interrelated Sweden will be a world leader in minimizing waste and upgrading residual products. RE:Source, a national industry-wide innovation programme that gathers many participants from Swedish industry, waste management and research, has now begun. RE:Source will address three challenges: Less waste, sustainable materials supply and reduced dependency on non-renewable resources. “It is exciting to start and coordinate a new innovation programme that brings together, and benefits, all of society,” says Johan Eriksson, Swerea, who is responsible for “Sustainable materials supply”. The programme is led by SP Sveriges Tekniska Forsknings­ institut (Technical Research Institute of Sweden).

New pipeline to supply pilot plant with blast furnace gas Construction of a 500-metre-long pipeline from SSAB's BF 3 to Swerea MEFOS began in autumn 2015. The gas pipeline is part of the Stepwise project and will supply the new pilot plant at Swerea MEFOS with process gas. The new pipeline also augments Swerea MEFOS's pilot plant facilities while giving the institute a means to make a considerably greater contribution to the steel industry's efforts to reduce CO2 emissions. The capacity is about 2,500 m3n/h. ANNUAL REPORT 37

“Research is to see what everybody else has seen, and to think what nobody else has thought.” Albert Szent-Györgyi

© 2016 Swerea Project manager: Karin Edfast Text and graphic design: Plan Sju kommunikation AB Translation: Mark Wilcox Photo: Swerea, Maria Åsén, Patrik Svedberg, Anneli Nygårds, Anders Alm, Fredrik Broman, Carina Olsson, Matton. Printing: Lule Grafiska AB, May 2016.

w w w. p la ns ju. s e

Swerea AB Box 7047 SE-164 07 Kista, Sweden +46 (0)8 440 45 00 [email protected] www.swerea.se

Swerea IVF Box 104 SE-431 22 Mölndal, Sweden +46 (0)31 706 60 00 [email protected] www.swereaivf.se

Swerea KIMAB Box 7047 SE-164 07 Kista, Sweden +46 (0)8 440 48 00 [email protected] www.swereakimab.se

Swerea MEFOS Box 812 SE-971 25 Luleå, Sweden +46 (0)920 20 19 00 [email protected] www.swereamefos.se

Swerea SICOMP Box 271 SE-941 26 Piteå, Sweden +46 (0)911 744 00 [email protected] www.swereasicomp.se

Swerea SWECAST Box 2033 SE-550 02 Jönköping, Sweden +46 (0)36 30 12 00 [email protected] www.swereaswecast.se