AN ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH LOAN WORDS USED IN KOMPAS DAILY NEWSPAPER (A Case Study in Kompas Daily Newspaper) Neneng Susilowati [email protected]
English Education Study Program Language and Arts Department Sekolah Tinggi Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan (STKIP) Siliwangi Bandung ABSTRACT The objectives of this research entitled “An Analysis of English Loan words used in Kompas Daily Newspaper” were to analyze and to identify the English loan words used in Ekonomi, Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan column of th th th Kompas, from 8 until 24 May, 2012 and 4 June, 2012. In this research, the writer used descriptive qualitative method. The instrument used in this research was Kompas daily newspaper in Ekonomi, Pendidikan th th th dan Kebudayaan column, from 8 until 24 May, 2012 and 4 June, 2012. The populations were all the texts of th th th Ekonomi, Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan article issued since 8 until 24 May, 2012 and 4 June, 2012, and the sample of this research was entire population. The collected data were identified, classified, and analyzed based on Sudjono’s theory. The results of the research showed that there were 184 English loan words that found in 13 articles. There were 22 types of simple loan words (0,598151%), 125 types of complex loan words (3,398586%), and 37 types of translated loan words (1,005982%). According to the results above the writer concluded that the complex loan words (3,398586%), was the most frequently used and simple loan words (0,598151%) was the least frequently used in Ekonomi, Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan article issued Kompas daily newspaper. Key Words: Loan word
A. BACKGROUND Language can be influenced by the social phenomena such as the development of human though and culture. One of the kind language is Indonesian as one of language in the world also developes from time and influenced by the human thought and the result of cultural contact. Widely used language for people to convey messages from one person to another, people will speak the language of the others so that the message was accepted. Messages can be up to the recipient of the message and deliver a message not just through conversation, but also through the information presented in writing. For example, information through print media. Print media is one of tools that can be used as a social institution that uses language as a medium of information for people community. The use of language for many people, is typically used by social language to be easily understood by everyone. The use of language in the delivery of information may come from one, two or more languages that can be presented through the absorption of a language.
Absorption of a language from another language due to contact between two languages or one language to another. The example is the uptake of Indonesian words from English. Uptake of words in Indonesian that are absorbed from the English language must be known so the information can be understood by any information provider or receiver that uses two languages, either English or Indonesian. Indonesian language not only absorbs the meaning the language neighbour country, but also absorbs the aspect of the form. The effect of these phenomena causes many variation in using Indonesian in Indonesia daily life. In its development, Indonesia absorbs the influence from many languages all over the world. The form of words, phrases, and clauses, in regional languages like Dutch, English, Arabic, etc, are playing important role in influencing the form of Indonesia language. Based on all of the reason that explained above, so the writer will discuss loanwords in mass media. The reason of the use mass media newspaper for this research because of the language that used short, simple, understanable and solid interesting. It means that press as means of mass communication has a big responsibility in the establishment of a language. 1
The kind of mass communication that used by the writer is Kompas daily newspaper. It is one of the newspaper from Indonesia, in an Indonesia newspaper is one of mass media there are many word either initially from Indonesia language and other language. The other language that used in this research is loanword from English language. From all explanation above, so the writer will discuss about An Analysis of English Loan Words Used in Kompas Daily Newspaper. Every we make something that important, we must have objective to get these. Because the objective is one of important element to make well. The objective of this research are : 1. The writer wants to know how many English loanwords founded in column of Kompas from 8th , 9 th , 10th , 11th , 12th, 14th, 15th , 21nd, 24th May 2012, 4th June 2012. 2. To clarify the types of English loanwords used in column of Kompas from 8 th, 9 th, 10 th, 11th, 12 th, 14th , 15th, 21 nd, 24 th May 2012, 4th June 2012. 3. To know what types of English loanwords is the most frequently English loanwords are founded in Ekonomi,Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (culture and education, economic) article column of Kompas from 8 th, 9 th, 10 th , 11th , 12th , 14th , 15th, 21 nd, 24th May 2012, 4 th June 2012. To know what types of English loanwords is the least frequently English loanwords are founded in Ekonomi,Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (culture and education, economic) article column of Kompas from 8 th, 9 th, 10 th, 11 th, 12 th, 14 th, 15 th, 21 nd. B. THEORETICAL FOUNDATION This research needs theory to strengthen the research. The research use theory can get support to analyze the problem and it can strengthen the reader to believe the research. There are many kinds of theoretical that synchrony with this research: 1. Sociolinguistic Jendra (2010:9) describes that “Sociolinguistics is a branch of linguistics that takes language as an object of study, in a way that is usually distinguished from how syntax, semantic, morphology, and phonology handle it”. From sociolinguistic we can know about language. Gumperz (1972:14) describes “Language is regarded as a set of rules enabling speakers to translate information from the outside world into sound. Social categories are part of this outside” world along with physical environments, cultural artifacts, myths, etc.
2. Language Contact Jendra (2010:67) states that Language contact is a sociolinguistic circumstance where two or more languages, elements of different languages, or varieties within a language, used simultaneously or mixed one over the others. The concept has been used to cover a situation where people choose to switch from using a language to another for particular reasons as well as for no obvious reasons. Forms of language contact have been also described to result from spontaneous acts of the speakers. 3. Bilingual Jendra (2010:68) states that “Lots of western people are still monolinguals these day. But there are actually many more that are not. People who are not monolinguals but speak two languages everyday are named bilinguals (bilingual people)”. Jendra (2010:69) states “bilingual people has been now common to use the term bilinguals to include people who are actually more properly identified as multilinguals”. 4. Borrowing Words According to Jendra (2010:81), besides choosing, switching, and mixing some codes, a bilingual often borrows lexical items (words) from another language and uses it in his/her utterance. Borrowing foreign words does not require a high degree of fluency in a different language. 5. Loanwords Jendra (2010:88) according to the level of the necessity in borrowing the words, loanwords are distinguished further into two types, namely necessary and unnecessary loanwords. Necessary loanwords, also named importations, are words borrowed from foreign language by bilinguals into their utterance because they find there is no exact word in their own language that can express what they mean. Jendra (2010:89) states that “Unnecessary loanwords are the words from a foreign language that are borrowed although there are actually corresponding words in the receiver language that may be used to subtitute them (subtitutions)”. 6. Type of Loanwords Haugen (1950:214) in http//:www.wikipedia.types of loanword, distinguishes three basic of loanword they are: 2
This type shows morphemic important without subtitution. Any morphemic important can be further classified. According to the degree of phonemic subtitution : none, partial, and complete. There are kinds of loan word. a. Loan word without phonetic subtitution, the spelling of the loan word is not adapted to Indonesian : however the pronunciation is adapted from indonesian. Example : Indonesian English Target from target Normal normal Set set Media media b. Loan word with partial phonetic subtitution Is english loan words that has been adapted partially to Indonesia both in spelling and the pronunciation, and is changed in the end of the word. Solusi solution Adaptasi adaptation Indikasi indication Distribusi distribution c. Loan word with complete phonetic subtitution is english loanwords which have the spelling and pronunciation changed to indonesian completely and some words the pronunciation stay as they are even the spelling is changed to indonesian Example Akademik academic Nama name Kualitas quality Universitas university According to Samsuri (1994:57-65) stated in his book Analisa Bahasa, based on the structure English loan words are divided into three types: a. Simple word There are two characteristic of simple words, first the spelling of the word is not adapted to Indonesian: however, the pronounciation is adapted, such as the word Target from target, Surplus from surplus, Global from global. And second the spelling of loan words is adapted to Indonesian; however, the pronounciation is not adapted, such as the word Minimum from minimum, Maksimal from maximal. b. Complex word Complex word has been adapted to Indonesian both in the spelling and the pronounciation. The examples of English loan words in the form of complex word are produksi from produce, institusi from institution, nasional from national.
c. Translated word in Indonesian Translated word is type of English loan words can be defined as Indonesian expression which is a translation of English. The example of English loan words in the form of translated word is produk nasional from national product, ekonomi domestik from domestic economic. 7. Loan blends Jendra (2010:91) describes about loanblends are formed through combining the word of foreign language and a word of the base language. Compared to loanwords, this type of word-borrowing is rather rare. This classsic example is gumbaum that blends the English gum and the German baum. 8.
Loan shifts Jendra (2010:92) describes about loanshifts refer to words whch are formed by borrowing only the meanings found in the words of the foreign resources. Thus, unlike loanwords and loanblends, in loanshifts only the meanings are borrowed while the forms are replaced by the ones found in the language. C. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1. Research Design In this research, the writer use descriptive. Descriptive research has two kinds of research, there are ethnographic research and survey research. The kind of this research is ethnographic research. Crowl (1996:11) states that “Ethnographic research is a form of descriptive research that relies heavily on qualitative methods largely developed by anthropologists and sociologists”. The purpose of ethnographic research is to provide a rich, detailed verbal description of how members of a culture perceive the culture. Researcher use descriptive research design because to know english loanwords that adapted by indonesian word and the different about pronounced in Kompas daily newspaper. 2. Research Method This research use qualitative research method, Crowl (1996:10) describes about “qualitative research methods are used to examine questions that can best be answered by verbally describing how participants in a study perceive and interpret various aspects of their environment”. Qualitative research method is one of the types of educational research. Educational researcher 3
conventionally classify all researcher methods as either qualitative or quantitative. The distinction is important because the the kind of method selected by a researcher offers an important clue to what the researcher is trying to find out. This research is one kind of qualitative research method.
N P= percentage F= frequency of word N= total of word, And to know the total percentage calculation from each edition, the writer use table.
3. Research Instrument In collecting the data, the writer used analysis document. The writer collected the data, which were written from article in Kompas daily newspaper, and then analyzed the data. The writer use tables in order to further analyze the data. In spesific manner of gathering the data, the writer did searching on Kompas daily newspapers from 8 th, 9 th, 10th, 11th , 12th, 14 th, 15 th, 21 nd, 24th May 2012, 4th June 2012.
7. Procedure Research In this research, the writer used procedure to get data. The procedure is collect instrument of data, data is collected from Kompas daily news paper. And then the writer read the column about culture & education and also economic from Kompas daily newspaper. After that, the writer arrange loanword from the newspaper, analyze the article to find how many kinds of loanword, how many least frequently and most frequently loanword. Not only that all, after that the writer search research methodology for instance research design, research method, research instrument, population and sample, data collection, data analysis, procedure. And than the writer must explain the statement of the problem in this research, and give conclusion and sugesstion for this research.
4. Population and Sample Crowl (1996:8) describes about “population are groups consisting of all people to whom researchers wish to apply their findings”. Sometimes researchers conduct their studies using entire populations. The population of this analysis were the article of the Kompas, Ekonomi (Economy) and Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (Culture and Education) column. Crowl (1996:8) describes about “sample which are subsets of people used to represent populations”. Moore (2001:8) describes about “a Sample is a part of the population from w'hich we actually collect information, used to draw conclusions about the whole”. And sample this research use thirteen article Ekonomi (Economy) and Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan (Culture and Education) column of Kompas it self from 8 th, 9 th , 10th, 11th , 12th, 14th, 15th , 21nd, 24 th May 2012, 4th June 2012. 5. Research Data Collection For research data collection in this research, the writer was taken from culture and education, economic column of Kompas. Firstly, the writer read and rewrite the first issue of the source of data. Then, the writer checked all words and also the terms that might belong to English loanwords and listed them into table. 6. Research Data Analysis This research were collected data were identified, classified, analyzed based on the categories of loanwords. Here are the pattern to count the loanwords rate. According to Sudjana (1996: 47) the formula are: P= F x 100 %
D. FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS
In this chapter, the writer will show loanword in article, English loanword that founded in article, show the line where English loanword that founded in article and the writer will show types of loanwords. The writer will tell the element of loanword used in a table. 1. Result Analysis The writer has serve 13rd article as source of the writer to find types of loanword, and then serve each article in a table. The aim these tables are further the writer to analyze how many kind of loanword, to know English word from loanword that founded in articles, and the last to further the writer find calculation the least and the most frequently types of loanwords in articles. There are tables to know the total percentage calculation from each edition, the table are : Table.4.27 The Total Percentage Calculation
No. 1. 4
Data Article 1
Loan word 4
2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.
Article 2 401 23 Article 3 185 5 Article 4 399 20 Article 5 214 12 Article 6 316 14 Article 7 201 9 Article 8 319 19 Article 9 271 8 Article 10 347 18 Article 11 314 27 Article 12 267 15 Article 13 211 10 Total 3678 187 Percentage 5,084285% The writer can conclude that the author of st rd Kompas article 1 to article 13 , the edition are economic and education article column of Kompas from 8th, 9 t h , 10th , 11th, 12th, 14th , 15th, 21nd, 24th May 2012, 4th June 2012 used 184 loanwords or 5,08425%. Then, based on the formula the total percentages calculation from each types of loanwords presented in the following table.
about precentage to complex word is 3,398586% and to simple word is 0,598151%. 2. Discussion of the Study This research discuss about English loanword. English loanword is gotten by the writer in article from Kompas daily newspaper (8th, 9 t h, 10th, 11th, 12th, 14 th, 15 th, 21 nd, 24th May 2012, 4th June 2012). Based on the objective in chapter 1,the writer explain (look at table 4.15) the total percentages calculation from each types of loanwords of article 1 to article 13 in the Ekonomi, Pendidikan & Kebudayaan column of Kompas from 8 th, 9 th, 10 th, 11 th, 12th , 14th , 15th, 21nd, 24th May 2012, 4 th June 2012. There are three types of loanword, simple word, complex word and translated word. From each article, the writer founds 184 loanword from 3678 total word. There are 22 kinds of simple word, 125 kinds of complex word and 37 kinds of translated loanword. Simple word was the least frequently used (0,598151%) and complex word was the most frequently used (3,398586%).
Table.4.28 The Total Percentage Calculation from Each Types of Loanwords
Types of Loanwords Total Sim- Com Trans- word No. Data ple -plex lated word word word 1. Article 1 0 4 0 233 2. Article 2 2 16 5 401 3. Article 3 1 3 1 185 4. Article 4 1 14 5 399 5. Article 5 2 6 4 214 6. Article 6 4 8 2 316 7. Article 7 1 8 0 201 8. Article 8 2 14 3 319 9. Article 9 1 4 3 271 10. Article 10 3 9 6 347 11. Article 11 1 24 2 314 12. Article 12 3 9 3 267 13. Article 13 1 6 3 211 Total 22 125 37 3678 0,5981 3,3985 1,00598 5,0027 Percentage 51% 86% 2% 19% Based on data above, the author of article 1 to article 13 in Ekonomi and Pendidikan & Kebudayaan column of Kompas from 8 th, 9 th, 10th , 11th, 12th, 14th , 15th, 21 nd, 24 th May 2012, 4th June 2012, tends to used complex word was the most frequently used and simple word was the least frequently used . And
E. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGESSTIONS 1. Conclusions In this, the writer will conclude about this research after explain in the chapter fisrt until chapter four. The conclution are a. There are 184 English loanwords used in Ekonomi, Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan column of Kompas from 8th , 9 th, 10th , 11th, 12 th, 14th , 15th, 21 nd, 24th May 2012, 4th June 2012. And total of word from article that used by the writer is about 3678 words b. There are three types of English loanwords used in this research. Fisrt about simple loanword, complex loanword and the last about translated loanword. The reesearch found English loanword in Ekonomi, Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan column of Kompas from 8th , 9 th, 10th , 11th, 12 th, 14th , 15th, 21 nd, 24th May 2012, 4th June 2012. Total of each types of loanwords are 22 kinds of simple word, 125 kinds of complex word and 37 kinds of translated loanword. c. In this research that founded the types of English loanwords is the most frequently and the least frequently. The percentage most frequently is about 3,398586% for complex loanword and percentage for the least frequently is about 0,598151%, the types of loanword that has least frequently is simple word. 5
2. Suggestions In above, the writer has give explanation about conclution. The next level, the writer will give suggestion for this research. The suggestions are : a. There are dificult to found source of loanword, sometimes the writer confuse dificult to undestand about loanword. Thats all situation happened because there are lack information about loanword. b. The writer hope this research can give advantages to reader, generally about linguistic and specipically about English loanword. c. In this research the writer found the types of loanword, many kinds of loanword from article 1 to article 13 in the Ekonomi, Pendidikan & Kebudayaan column of Kompas from 8th , 9 th, 10th, 11th , 12th, 14th , 15th, 21nd, 24th May 2012, 4th June 2012. The writer suggest, in that daily news paper is least information about loanword. F.
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