Adam Mickiewicz University 30,4% Poznan University of Economics 8,4% Poznan University of Technology 12,3%

35 Present condition of the city Structure of Poznan higher education establishments by the number of students in 2008 non-public universities 30,4%...
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Present condition of the city

Structure of Poznan higher education establishments by the number of students in 2008 non-public universities 30,4%

Adam Mickiewicz University 30,4%

Academy of Music 0,4% Academy of Fine Arts 1,0% Poznan University of Economics 8,4%

University School of Physical Education 2,6% Poznan University of Medical Sciences 5,8%

University of Life Sciences 8,6%

Poznan University of Technology 12,3%

Source: Statistics, Analysis and Reporting Section, City Development Department of the Poznan City Hall

Every year 30,000 students graduate from Poznan’s higher education establishments. The greatest number of students graduate from management and marketing, finance and banking, education, political science, administration, foreign language studies, tourism and recreation, economics and computer science.

in persons

Most popular faculties and specialisations in Poznan by the number of graduates in 2008

n t t g n n e n y w gy io gy en en g nc tio es) tin tio tio s) og lo La at lo ca re ag tra rsiti gem etin scie em istra rsitie oun ilo lo i u s c d g h i e l a a rk re a in iv ed ph in ve cc Pe hp d an m un Man ma litic m uni d a al lis ish M an d Po Ad ublic sic Ad blic an gl Po y n m n s a u h s E i e (p P ur n-p nc To (no ina F

Source: Statistics, Analysis and Reporting Section, City Development Department of the Poznan City Hall

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Present condition of the city

University graduates in Poznan in the years 2000-2008 in thousands

Source: Statistics, Analysis and Reporting Section, City Development Department of the Poznan City Hall

Universities also offer post-graduate and doctoral studies which are completed by nearly 10,000 people each year. In terms of post-graduate and MBA studies the highest rank is occupied by the Poznan University of Economics. A wide range of courses is also offered by the Poznan School of Banking. Thirteen Poznan universities conduct classes in 24 external subsidiaries and branches attended by 17,000 students. The majority of external units was established in Wielkopolska, but some of them operate in other regions of the country as well (in Zielona Góra, Bydgoszcz, Szczecin, Wrocław and Chorzów). The country’s unique establishment is Collegium Polonicum in Słubice, a common scientific, research and didactic establishment by the Adam Mickiewicz University in Poznan and the European University Viadrina in Frankfurt (Oder). The high quality of education at Poznan universities is confirmed by both state and environmental accreditation (at present it has faculties at various levels of education at all public universities in Poznan) as well as by the results of university rankings. In the last scientific ranking of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, Poznan’s educational institutions occupied leading places: in respective categories second place in the country fell to the Faculty of Chemistry at Adam Mickiewicz University, Faculty of Architecture and Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering at the Poznan University of Technology, and the Faculty of Animal Breeding and Biology at the Poznan University of Life Sciences. Poznan’s educational institutions are carrying out ambitious development programmes which are to increase the quality of education, support scientific development of their employees, introduce modern management methods and expand state-of-the-art didactic and scientific base. The largest investor is Adam Mickiewicz University which is building a new campus in Morasko. Considerable investments are also made by other Poznan higher education establishments: University School of Physical Education, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poznan University of Technology, Academy of Music, Academy of Hotel Management and Catering Industry, and College of Humanities and Journalism. Higher education establishments benefit from EU funds to a greater and greater extent while executing both large investment ventures and scientific-and-didactic programmes. The City of Poznan strives to actively cooperate with universities. Apart from the execution of joint projects like the creation of scientific research centres for the analysis and diagnosis of selected city functioning aspects (Centre for the Quality of Life Studies at AMU, inter-university Centre for Metropolitan Studies) or co-financing of selected research projects from the Poznan budget, the City implemented programmes addressed to students: programme of training and paid student internships at the Poznan City Hall, scholarships for the laureates and finalists of subject olympiads who choose studies at Poznan universities, awards for doctoral and MA theses thematically related to Poznan. The City also finances open lectures by well-known scientists. In addition, Poznan’s higher education establishments received city land for the expansion of their teaching base on preferential terms.

4.2. Research-and-scientific sector and innovativeness Apart from higher education establishments where research-anddevelopment works are conducted by nearly 10,000 scientific employees, the city can boast over 30 non-university scientific-and-research and development institutes employing 1,700 people (including 500 holding

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Present condition of the city

at least a doctor’s degree). Most scientific-and-research establishments in Poznan conduct research and implementation work (departmental research-and-development centres and central laboratories, for example: Wood Technology Institute, Institute of Natural Fibres and Medicinal Plants, Institute of Logistics and Warehousing, Rail Vehicles Institute, Central Laboratory of Batteries and Cells) and scientific works (scientific establishments of the Polish Academy of Sciences). Poznan occupies an important position in Poland’s science sector, particularly in such fields as molecular physics, applied chemistry, biochemistry, genetics, new technologies and materials. Computer science and biotechnology are also very well developed. Poznan scientists achieve many successes confirming their place in the world of science. Particular attention should be paid to the achievements of geneticists and medics who introduce unique vaccines and new methods of post heart-failure myocardial regeneration. Poznan engineers implement new technologies applied in cosmic research, electronics and chemistry, while biotechnologists work on the usage of new technologies in medicine and the food-processing industry. Gathered mainly in the country’s top IT establishments such as the Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Centre and the Institute of Computer Science at the Poznan University of Technology, Poznan IT specialists are appreciated throughout the world and participate in many international research projects. Poznan’s scientific and research environment is participating in the transformation of the European and national science. Its members implement new inter- and multi-disciplinary organizational solutions, e.g. centres of excellence, centres of advanced technologies, technological platforms that participate in national and international research projects in the fields of biotechnology, bioengineering, information technology and nanotechnology. Research-and-scientific establishments and universities annually spend nearly PLN 400 million on research and development. Half of this sum goes to basic and applied research, while 16.5% is spent on development. High research and education potential of the city’s scientific institutions does not considerably translate to the development of a high-tech economy. This is confirmed by the small number of patent applications and licence and implementation contracts, as well as low levels of innovativeness of Poznan enterprises. Poznan is a home to institutions based on the technological park model. The Poznan Science and Technology Park affiliated with the AMU Foundation acts as intermediary between the science and research sector and the economic practice in the area of commercialisation and the dissemination of technology. In 2007 Europe’s first research and innovation laboratory of the W.R.Grace&Co. international concern started its activity in the Park in the field of modern technologies related to material and chemical research. Also operating is the Poznan Technology and Industry Park established by the City of Poznan, and the Nickel Technology Park created with EU support by a private investor in Złotniki near Poznan. The Adam Mickiewicz University Foundation runs the Centre for Innovation Support which conducts research in entrepreneurship, the R&D sector and business environment institutions. As part of the AMU Foundation there also operates the Centre for Advanced Chemical Technologies, the Centre for Acoustic Research, the Centre for Computer Science Application, the Poznan Radiocarbon Laboratory, the Isotope Laboratory, the Centre of Medical Analytics and Diagnostics, the Speech and Language Technology Laboratory and the Archaeological Centre. In a few years the AMU Foundation plans to create the Regional Institute of Technology Transfer.

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Strategic conclusions Poznan belongs to the most important academic and scientific-and-research centres in Poland. In terms of the number of students in relation to the overall population the City of Poznan occupies one of the top places in Poland. Demographic factors and growing competition from foreign universities and scientific institutions threaten a considerable drop in the number of students and the migration of young research workers. Poznan’s achievement in attaining the position of a strong academic centre on a European scale requires the improvement of the quality of studies, internationalisation of the teaching process and research, greater relation between science and practice, development of life-long learning and advanced education.

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Present condition of the city

Poznan scientific and academic environment undertakes valuable initiatives related to the development of research infrastructure and institutions. In 2006, 11 scientific and teaching units and the City of Poznan started work on the creation of the Wielkopolska Centre for Advanced Technologies, a consortium within the framework of which joint measures will be taken in favour of scientific research, development work, innovation and implementation, investment dedicated to science and research services addressed to companies in Wielkopolska. In the same year the Poznan University of Technology, the Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Centre and technical universities from other cities started work on the creation of the Wielkopolska Centre for Advanced Information Technologies whose main task is to support the development of IT companies. In order to support innovative activities, the spheres of economic, scientific and local government conducted a number of ventures like, for example, construction of the Wielkopolska Innovation System with Regional Innovation Networks, the FINET (Food Industry NETwork), the Preinkubator (Pre-incubator) project, two Internet platforms: Wielkopolska Innovative Platform and ‘Winnova’ Wielkopolska Portal of Innovation and Knowledge about Wielkopolska, and the B2Europe West Poland European technology transfer project. In December 2008 the City of Poznan, together with seven Poznan universities, started the implementation of an innovative project support programme. The Wielkopolska Region participates in several projects oriented towards the creation of innovative regional economy based on knowledge, e.g. ‘Implementation of a European knowledge voucher system,’ New Folk Design and ‘CASTLE – Cooperation Among SMEs Toward Logistics Excellence.’

5. Finances and city property

Strategic conclusions In recent years the increase in the city budget income and expenditure has been threatened by: - Change in tax thresholds introduced by the amendment to the income tax law, - Results of the financial and economic crisis. Due to the growing share of ‘current’ expenditure in the ‘total’ expenditure there might occur problems with retaining the present level of investments. Due to the limitation of potential participation of the City in projects co-financed by the EU funds the City should encourage entities and institutions based in Poznan to actively apply for the allocation of resources for project implementation.

In 2008 the net value of the City of Poznan’s property amounted to PLN 15.5 billion (that is PLN 27,700 per inhabitant), where nearly 70% consisted of the value of communal land. The City’s financial policy is conducted on the basis of the budget passed every year by the Poznan City Council. The resolution determines the sources of income and the direction of resource expenditure. The City budget is developed pursuant to the provisions of the law on public finances. Poznan has a Long-term Financial Plan and Long-term Investment Programme. The financial position of the City is determined by the size of the budget income that constitutes the source of financing of expenditure, current and investment. In the last few years both income and expenditure were characterised by constant rises. Changes were observed in 2009, when the budget income decreased due to the results of the economic crisis. In 2008 the City’s income amounted to PLN 2,400 billion, that is PLN 4,200 per inhabitant. The highest share was accounted for by personal and corporate income taxes (nearly 35%), as well as subsidies and grants from the state budget (nearly 25%). The City’s taxation policy places emphasis on the efficiency of tax collection. The City itself is authorised to conduct execution measures aimed at the recovery of taxes that constitute the commune’s own income. The City incurs expenses from the execution of tasks assigned to the local government within the scope of the commune’s and county’s tasks that include all public affairs of local importance that are not restricted by law to other entities. In 2008 the expenses from the City budget amounted to PLN 2.3 billion, that is PLN 4,100 per inhabitant. The ratio of current expenditure to investment expenditure in the total expenditure structure

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is 7:3 with a slightly rising tendency in favour of current expenditure. The largest sums are spent from the City budget on the financing of the social sector: implementing educational tasks (37%), transport (19%) and social help and healthcare (over 15%). In the years 2007–2008 the result of the City’s budget was positive, but the annually growing material scope of the City’s tasks and the need to involve own resources in the realisation of ventures co-financed with EU funds has necessitated contracting credit and loans to finance them. In the years 2001–2007 the City of Poznan issued 7 series of municipal bonds for the overall sum of PLN 785 million. The last series will be redeemed in December 2012. These bonds were introduced into circulation at the Central Table of Offers. Revenues from this issue were assigned for financing communal investments.

Medical personnel in Poznan per 100,000 inhabitants in the years 1999-2007

6. Healthcare and social help 900

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800 700 600 number

As a centre of highly specialised medical services, Poznan occupies a considerable position in the country. In the city there are 19 civil hospitals, including five clinical and five private hospitals, with 5,400 beds. There are 98 beds per 10,000 inhabitants, which is twice as much as in the Province of Wielkopolska and Poland. The inpatient treatment base is supplemented by two departmental hospitals (run by the Ministry of National Defence and the Ministry of Interior and Administration) and two care and treatment facilities that have 214 beds. Poznan hospitals are of supralocal importance as they admit not only inhabitants of the region but also from around the country. Poznan’s hospitals belong to the most modern Polish centres of treatment for cancer, cardiology, orthopaedics (the only centre in western Poland), laryngology, palliative care (Poland’s first and Europe’s fourth palliative care centre), clinical genetics and neonatology. Every year they provide treatment to over 250,000 people. On average, patients stay in hospital for 5 days. The hospital treatment base is diverse. Apart from modern city hospital at Szwajcarska Street and recently modernised hospital wards, the city also has hospitals located in old buildings erected in the previous century and not adapted to contemporary treatment standards. Diversification is also evident in the fitting out of hospitals with modern medical equipment. As part of the preparations for hosting EURO 2012 a new infectious disease ward was established in the hospital at Szwajcarska Street. 280 units in Poznan offer outpatient medical care. Every year they receive nearly 5.2 million visits, where 90% constitute doctor’s visits (nearly half of them involve specialist advice). The city has two emergency units that provide aid to 55,000 patients a year. Poznan’s inhabitants are treated by 2,300 doctors (42 per 10,000 people), 2,000 dentists (3,600 per 10,000 people) and 4,100 nurses (73 per 10,000 people). Approximately 75% of doctors are specialists, mainly in the fields of internal diseases, paediatrics, gynaecology and obstetrics, and surgery. 60% have a second degree in another specialization.

500 400 300 200 100 0 1999 2001 2003 2005 2007 do octors deentists nu urses

Source: Statistics, Analysis and Reporting Section, City Development Department of the Poznan City Hall

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Present condition of the city

Inhabitants per 1 hospital bed in Poznan in the years 2000-2008

Main reasons for utilising social help in Poznan in 2008 family violence 6,5% poverty 29%

number

helplessness in life matters 16%

unemployment 23%

long-lasting illness 13%

disability 12%

Source: Statistics, Analysis and Reporting Section, City Development Department of the Poznan City Hall

Strategic conclusions Poznan healthcare has at its disposal a developed base of inpatient and outpatient treatment some of which requires modernisation. Directional measures for health improvement include: t1SFWFOUBUJWFTUFQTXJUISFHBSEUP social and civilizational diseases t1SPNPUJPOPGBXBSFOFTTPGJOEJWJEVBM responsibility for one’s own health, t"DDFTTUPIFBMUIDBSFBOETPDJBM services adequate to the inhabitants’ needs. With regard to social help the following actions are recorded: t4USFOHUIFOJOHPGUIFGBNJMZXJUI reference to the function of child care and upbringing, t4VQQPSUGPSUIFFMEFSMZBOEEJTBCMFE enabling them to function in their surroundings by the development of community self-help homes, support groups, counselling and levelling of architectural barriers in municipal and residential buildings, t$POUJOVBUJPOPGIFMQGPSUIFIPNFMFTT and socially excluded.

Source: Statistics, Analysis and Reporting Section, City Development Department of the Poznan City Hall

The results of research conducted by the French Servier Research Group indicate that the main threats to the health of Poznan’s inhabitants are high cholesterol, hypertension, being overweight and smoking. Another serious problem is the lack of physical activity in everyday life: only one in four people declare that they take regular exercise. The City of Poznan finances numerous health-related programmes such as prophylaxis in the fields of oncology, cardiology, osteoporosis, caries, smoking tobacco and bad body posture, combat against drug addiction, and prophylaxis and the solving of alcohol-related problems. In 2008 the City spent nearly PLN 15 million on measures aimed at prophylaxis and promotion of health. Social help is addressed to the poor, the alienated, people threatened with social exclusion and the elderly. Every year it supports approximately 4% of Poznan’s inhabitants. Nearly half of them are single. The most common causes for utilising social help were long-term or severe illness (6,100 families), poverty (5,200 families), disability (4,100 families), unemployment (3,300 families), helplessness in childcare matters and in running the household (2,800 families), and family violence (821 families). Poznan is home to 35 childcare centres for children and teenagers (including 2 children’s homes, 3 socialisation and intervention centres and 5 children’s family homes), 7 social help homes, 8 support centres, 2 adoption and care centres and one adoption and mediation centre, 9 homes for the homeless and the addicted, and 2 homes for single mothers. Their activities are financed or subsidised by the City’s budget. These establishments permanently house 2,000 people: single people and chronically somatically ill, people threatened with social exclusion, children and teenagers with behavioural problems and those living without their natural parents. Two thirds of those in care are elderly and are more than 74 years old. Half of those in care require constant nursing care and attention, and a quarter are not able to leave their beds. In Poznan there are an insufficient number of beds in care homes for the elderly and somatically chronic patients. It is also necessary to create an establishment performing the function of the child care centre. The City has two day care centres: the municipal Centre for Children and Youth Development Support and the Youth Home run by St. Adalbert’s Salesian Association, as well as 7 community centres operating via the foundations, associations and parishes, and 17 socio-therapeutic centres.

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Present condition of the city

Beneficiaries of social help in Poznan per 1,000 inhabitants in the years 1995-2008 70

65

60

55 number

According to the last National Population and Housing Census, over 16% of Poznan’s inhabitants are disabled (93,000), most with officially recognised invalidities. More than 430 out of 2,700 disabled children were included in kindergarten care. Children and teenagers with various degrees of disability attend 47 special schools at all levels24 and alternative divisions organised in generally accessible schools25. The events organised in Poznan for the benefit of the disabled include regular recreation and rehabilitation activities, various Olympiads, tournaments and sports events, occupational therapy workshops and stays in rehabilitation centres. The disabled, particularly the elderly, have to struggle with many physical, structural barriers both in public spaces and in residential buildings. According to the National Population and Housing Census, there are 368 homeless people in Poznan. However, it is estimated that this problem concerns over four times that many people. Only some of them benefit from the help offered by homeless centres. The City of Poznan runs the Michałowo Homeless Centre and awards financial grants to non-governmental organisations and monastic societies that help the homeless (nearly 700 needy persons a day). In Poznan, the Barka Foundation operates for Mutual Help which is one of the biggest non-governmental organisations in Poland that specialises in helping the homeless, the permanently unemployed, alcoholics and drug addicts after therapy, as well as former prisoners and refugees26.

50

45

40

35 1995

2000

20 002

2004

2006

200 08

Source: Statistics, Analysis and Reporting Section, City Development Department of the Poznan City Hall

7. Culture and historical monuments

Turnout at the selected cultural institutions in Poznan 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 number

Poznan is one of the most important cultural centres in the country characterised by high dynamic and diversity of artistic life. The rhythm of cultural measures is marked out by regular events like the ‘Poznan Music Spring’ Contemporary Polish Music Festival, ‘Malta’ International Theatre Festival, International Biennale of Contemporary Dance and Contemporary Dance Workshops, ‘Universitas Cantat’ International University Choir Festival, ‘Maski’ International Theatrical Festival, International November of Poetry and ‘Verba Sacra’ International Festival of the Art of Word. The most important cultural event is the Henryk Wieniawski International Violin and Lute Competition organised every four years. Old music is also gaining more and more importance in Poznan. In 1998 the Persona Grata Old Music Festival was founded, and in 2005 the Festival of Baroque Bows and Strings, hosted by the ‘Arte de Sounatori’ festival orchestra, one of the most interesting bands of the European old music stage in recent years, was initiated. Poznan is also a dynamic centre of alternative theatre. It organises such prestigious international festivals of alternative theatre as ‘Malta’ and ‘Maski.’ Poznan is the home of the ‘Ale Kino!’ International Young Audience Film Festival which is the only festival in the country dedicated to cinematic art for children and young people. The idea behind the ‘Off Cinema’ International Film Festival is to present and promote independent cinema. In 2007 new projects of intercultural and international dialogue were initiated, e.g. Tzadik Poznan Festival and Nostalgia Festival for music, ‘Close Strangers’ European Theatre Encounters for theatre, and ‘Asia-Europe Mediation’ for the visual arts.

2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 1999

2001

2003

2005 5

2007

museumvisitors showand dconcertspecctators

24

Such pupils constitute nearly 4% of the total number of pupils attending Poznan schools.

25

In generally accessible primary schools 89 alternative divisions were organised.

26

At present, “Barka” is implementing six programmes related to community, education, employment, housing and cooperation (with non-governmental and international organisations), and partnership in the EQUAL Community Initiative.

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cinemaaudience Source: Statistics, Analysis and Reporting Section, City Development Department of the Poznan City Hall

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Present condition of the city

Strategic conclusions Poznan culture is well developed in terms of institutions, organisation, scope and variety of events and measures. Key issues for further development of culture are its popularisation and education. Programme and organisational transformations of cultural institutions should take place via the extension and modernisation of their infrastructure, increased effectiveness, internationalization and prestige building. The activity of Poznan’s artistic circles distinguishes the City from the country and abroad in selected fields like choral art, string music, alternative theatre and contemporary dance. A challenge for the development of culture is to create space for it in the form of new venues and institutions (e.g. ‘TRAKT’ Cultural Tourism Centre, New/ Old Gasworks, Modern Art Gallery/ Museum). Culture should shape and create the identity of Poznan’s inhabitants by the popularisation of the City’s historical and cultural traditions

Every year Poznan is the host of numerous events related to cultural and artistic education, and several dozen mass events. The undisrupted series of cultural ventures is ensured in Poznan by over 80 cultural institutions: 9 theatres and music institutions offering over 3,000 seats, about 50 galleries and 21 museums27. The most important ones include Teatr Polski, Nowy Theatre named after Tadeusz Łomnicki, Eighth Day Theatre, Animation Theatre, Teatr Wielki, Musical Theatre, Poznan Estrada, Polish Dance Theatre, Tadeusz Szeligowski Poznan Philharmonic, Amadeus Chamber Orchestra of Polish Radio, ‘Poznan Nightingales’ Boys’ and Men’s Choir of the Poznan Philharmonic, Poznan Boys’ Choir, Cathedral Choir, Arsenal City Gallery and the Zamek Culture Centre. Poznan theatres and music institutions annually offer over 2,000 shows and concerts for nearly 500,000 spectators, and museums that exhibit altogether 300,000 exhibits are visited every year by over 300,000 people. A considerable problem in Poznan is posed by the lack of individual stages for such culture-creative groups as the Polish Dance Theatre, Amadeus Chamber Orchestra and Poznan alternative theatres like the Teatr Biuro Podróży, the Zone of Silence Theatre, Mouth-to-Mouth Theatre, Amadeus Chamber Orchestra of Polish Radio, and the building of the Musical Theatre that does not comply with modern standards. At the end of 2008 Poznan had 12 cinemas, including 4 multiplexes: Kinepolis, Multikino51, Multikino Stary Browar and Cinema City (the last two with 3D IMAX screens). They accommodate 15,200 seats. On average, a citizen from Poznan goes to the cinema more than 4 times a year, while an average Pole goes 0.9 times a year. The Multikino chain of cinemas with 10 screens for 2,000 spectators has been recently opened in the Galeria Malta shopping and entertainment centre. Since September 2009 Poznan can also boast Poland’s third unique 5D Extreme cinema located in the Green Point gallery. The largest, and at the same time Poland’s oldest, public library in Poznan is the Raczyński Library concentrating 57 city establishments, including 49 library branches (19 for adults, 12 for children and 18 mixed libraries). At the end of 2008 the book collection included 1.5 million volumes. The library was visited by nearly 90,000 people who were granted access to 2 million items. In 2009 the library acquired EU funds for the expansion of the building at Plac Wolności. Poznan can boast numerous historical secular and sacral buildings representing all historical styles and epochs, from the early middle ages to secession and modernism. In the City of Poznan there are altogether 473 historical sites (including 35 churches and chapels, 11 monasteries, 18 external forts constituting the remains of the 19th century Prussian fortifications, 11 sites forming the remains of the medieval city walls). In December 2008 the Old Town was awarded the Historical Monument status. It is expected that this award will facilitate the acquisition of funds for the special protection of the City’s most valuable historical sites. The most endangered and valuable historical sites in Poznan are subject to annual renovation and conservation works and archaeological studies (e.g. in Ostrów Tumski where the existence of residential and sacral complex of the first members of the Piast dynasty was confirmed in 2007). Other valuable initiatives include the project to restore the royal castle on Przemysł Hill and the creation of the ‘Royal-Imperial Route in Poznan’ presenting the history of the city’s development from the first Piast settlement, through the Middle Ages and modern ages, to the present. The Interactive Centre of the History of Ostrów Tumski to be established at Śródka will promote our historical 27

The museum base is too small and outdated; there is no space to exhibit and store frequently rich and unique collections (take for example the Museum of Musical Instruments, one of the most important facilities).

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Present condition of the city

value of the documented site of the origins of the Polish state using of stateof-the-art means. To this end the City of Poznan has acquired considerable co-financing from EU funds. Apart from historical sites, the City’s tourist map is marked out by contemporary art works presented in art galleries and in the city areas. In Poznan one can admire works of such well-known contemporary artists as Alessandro Mendini, Mr. Kozouzu, Leon Tarasiewicz, Heinz Mack, Bazyli Wojtowicz, Jerzy Sobociński, Jan Berdyszak, Andrzej Banachowicz, Józef Murlewski and Magdalena Abakanowicz. M. Abakanowicz’s sculptures exhibited at the Citadel could become the nucleus for the construction of a Modern Art Centre at this site. Since 2005 the Zachęta Wielkopolska Society of Fine Arts has been implementing the ‘City of Art’ project in Poznan which involves the exhibition of the works of contemporary artists in public areas. The city is also home to modern buildings of unique architecture like the industrial ‘Old Brewery’ Centre of Commerce, Business and Art that was awarded with the title of ‘The Best Shopping Centre in the World,’ and the Nova Hall, the Academy of Music’s concert hall. In addition, new projects of world-class designers like Claudio Silvestrin and Daniel Liebeskind are envisaged. The popularity of contemporary art in the City is confirmed by the success of the 1st International ‘Mediations Biennale’ of Contemporary Art in 2008 whose theme is the dialogue between the world’s cultures.

8. Spatial management The City occupies an area of 261.8 km2, which means Poznan lies in 6 position amongst the large Polish cities (after Warsaw, Łódź, Kraków, Wrocław and Gdańsk). 43% of the city consists of developed areas, while 48% is agricultural land, forests and green areas. The ownership structure is as follows: communal land (37%), private land (36%) and land owned by the State Treasury (27%). The City has huge development potential in the area of agricultural land with soil valuation class ranging from IV to VI. The functional and spatial structure of the City is shaped in relation to the natural conditions of the Warta and Cybina River valleys. The Warta River valley constitutes a national ecological corridor and one of the elements of the Natura 2000 European ecological network. Poznan lies adjacent to forest complexes to the north, east and south which, together with Lake Kierskie to the west and Lake Swarzędzkie to the east, form a natural limit to urban structures and valuable recreational areas. One may distinguish between three functionally diversified basic zones in Poznan: the city centre (intensive services management), the intermediate zone (intensive residential and production management) and the periphery (extensive agricultural and residential management, and economic activity areas). The spatial structures of the city centre, as well as the districts of Jeżyce, Łazarz and Wilda with their historical secessionist development, attractive preserved public space such as streets and squares with their own character giving it a distinct and specific climate to these areas. On the other hand the large modernist housing estates in Rataje, Winogrady, Piątkowo and Grunwald built in the 1960s 70s and 80s, exemplify a mono-cultural construction without functional diversification. th

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Present condition of the city

Strategic conclusions A vital determinant in the changes taking place in the city is the outflow of inhabitants from its centre to the suburban zone, which necessitates an intensification of measures aimed at making people to want to live in Poznan. Poznan should intensify measures aimed at making areas more attractive (including in particular the city centre) by managing post-industrial areas and utilising natural phenomena (e.g. the Warta River valley). Taking into consideration the functional diversification of the city’s land mass it would appear desirable to improve the quality of management of residential estates.

The city centre is losing its city-creative function in favour of peripheral areas where new services, recreation and cultural complexes, shopping centres and new small housing estates are being established. Sociological studies indicate that the city centre is also losing its appeal as a place to live in. The City of Poznan started the implementation of the municipal revitalisation programme28 in areas that require public support, as well as the ‘RoyalImperial Route in Poznan’ project whose axis is marked out by the most valuable, culturally and historically attractive areas and buildings in the city centre. The City has unmanaged historical post-industrial areas like the old slaughterhouse and the old gasworks. The example of the former Hügger brewery on ul. Krakowska, where the ‘Old Brewery’ Centre of Commerce Culture and Art with a surface area of over 120,000 m2 was established, shows that such venues could be successfully utilised. Another unmanaged area that should perform a recreational and tourist function lies on the Warta river banks. Poznan’s spatial policy is determined by the Study of Conditions and Directions for Spatial Management of the City of Poznan, updated in 2008, which indicates the direction of spatial management development. They provide guidelines for preparing local spatial management plans. Local spatial management plans have been approved and valid for 26% of the city space, while plans for 35% of the space are in preparation. Structure of Poznan’s surface area in 2008 other 19% agricultural lands 33% waters 3%

industrial areas 5%

residential areas 12% forests and tree cover 15% transportation areas 13%

Source: Statistics, Analysis and Reporting Section, City Development Department of the Poznan City Hall

28

The goal of the Municipal Revitalisation Programme is to improve residential conditions for people living in economically poor areas and having serious social problems, to protect the Poznan’s cultural and historical heritage, to protect the natural environment, and to preserve green areas.

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