G E O R G E H
V . N
A RETROSPECTIVE EXHIBITION November 9, 2006–January 15, 2007 Thomas Cooper Library University of South Carolina
G E O R G E H
V . N
A RETROSPECTIVE EXHIBITION Thomas Cooper Library University of South Carolina November 9, 2006–January 15, 2007 Exhibition and catalogue by Jeffrey Makala. Introduction by Matthew J. Bruccoli. © Thomas Cooper Library, 2006
Massachusetts’ Best Novelist* “Higgins is the great classical novelist of the late twentieth century in America.” —Lord Gowrie “Higgins achieves effects outside the scope of my other living novelists. He is a writer of genius.” —Julian Symons These sound judgments by British authorities reinforce the recognition that George V. Higgins was a great writer who was greatly underrated and misjudged at home. The misleading and condescending labels “crime writer” and “detective writer” dependably angered him. He did not write category fiction. George held the patent on personal and professional pride: “Whenever a writer is classified, no matter what the classification, there is a corresponding diminution of his or her access to the community of serious readers, and a commensurate reduction as well not only in prospective income but also in essential critical regard.” (“Rounding Up the Usual Suspects,” 1986) He strenuously insisted that he did not write crime novels: he wrote novels of social history (as did his master, John O’Hara) that included characters who were in trouble with the law and characters who were not. His work was characterdriven; he created character through speech. George never wrote a whodunit: the closest he came to this genre was The Agent, his 25th published novel.
Another slander that lazy critics applied to George was that he wrote too much; whatever that is supposed to mean, it is meant to be damaging. The dopes also alleged he wrote too fast. How the hell did they know about his working habits? The evidence—a resource that interferes with dazzling critical insights—preserved in the Higgins Archive in the Thomas Cooper Library at the University of South Carolina documents George’s claim that he “worked like a horse.” He was a compulsive rewriter and ruthless self-editor. He protected his prose from the tampering of incompetent editors: “We are surrounded by nitwits, Matt. It is not a good idea to consider how much time we spend correcting the results of their idiocy” (May 17, 1993). George was a professional. He took his work and his duty to his genius personally. He took everything personally. He was afraid not to write. On October 22, 1996, George wrote me his credo about the profession of authorship: … tomorrow what I don’t get done today, will not exist. Something like it probably will, because I will at least have made a few notes. It may even be better, but it won’t be the same thing. …… When someone condescendingly counsels me to write less, in the evident opinion what I write then will be better—thus making me sure that I’ve already written so much he’s been able to make time to read but one book of it, Coyle, most likely, and is therefore filled with guilt that he wants
to lay on me—I know I am listening to someone who has no idea what the hell he’s talking about. If I wrote less, all that would result would be a smaller quantity of work, not better work, and I would lose lots of stories. And so would deserving readers. Related to the canard about George’s over-production is the misapprehension about his technique: the construction of character and narrative through speech. Lazy critics who regarded George’s reliance on speech as a form of authorial self-indulgence did not understand that his characters’ speech is always under his control: “I write dialogue in order to make something from it—a story.” The Higgins narrative technique concealed the author. Speech is character is action. George explicated this process in a 1987 interview: A Matter of Crime: You have said that the structural use of speech in your novels is intended to replace the omniscient author with the omniscient reader. Would you expand on that? Higgins: I don’t know how my stories are going to come out. I build them the way I used to build a trial, a criminal trial. The witnesses come along, and each recites what portion of reality he knows about: what he happened to observe, what he happened to do, what he happened to hear. I don’t change
their testimony, as it were. At the end of a book, or at the end of a trial, either one, you then call upon the jury to reach its own moral decision, its own ethical judgments about the way the characters have behaved. I don’t do that for them. I give them all the evidence I know about, all the evidence I’ve “heard” or “seen” and present it on the page and let the reader decide what the morality was. I don’t want to make any judgments for the reader. That’s the reader’s job. I think reading is a participatory sport. Literary historians of necessity cling to the belief that great writers and great books achieve their just standings in the long run—often a too-long run. This process can be accelerated by the availability of the documentary evidence to support reappraisal: the drafts; the rewrites and revisions; the correspondence; the periodical appearances; the editorial material. The resurrection process for George V. Higgins will necessarily rely on the material in this exhibition and the rest of it at the Thomas Cooper Library. It is not virtual literary history or virtual literary biography: it is the real George V. Higgins in flagrante scribendum—which is how he died. Writing. *It is possible that I have departed from strict objectivity in my assessment of George V. Higgins because he was my loyal and generous friend for almost twenty years.
MN The George V. Higgins Archive was acquired by the Thomas Cooper Library in 2003 with the support of Dean John Skvoretz and the cooperation of Loretta Cubberley Higgins, who supplemented the appraisal inventory and let us plunder her home. The vanload of material filled more than 380 boxes. It included authorial typescripts, working drafts, personal and professional correspondence, memorabilia, literary records, printed matter, proofs, clippings, and two computer harddrives. Higgins’s papers were supplemented by the Bruccoli collection The Higgins Archive upon arrival at the University of South Carolina of Higgins publications. It is not incongruous that the papers of the Homer of Bahstan are at the University of South Carolina. There was a connection. George visited the University three times. He addressed the Thomas Cooper Society in April 1993; he participated in English department classes, and he met with law school faculty. I arranged a luncheon for him with James Dickey, assuming that they would enjoy each other. Jim reacted with the wariness of a gunfighter who has just learned that another fast gun is in town. But the first encounter of Dean George Terry and George V. Higgins here was an occasion of elective affinity. —Matthew J. Bruccoli Jefferies Distinguished Professor Emeritus
A Note on the Exhibition This exhibition seeks to document the life and works of George V. Higgins. It also provides an introduction to the Higgins archive at Thomas Cooper Library, a comprehensive collection of Higgins’s personal papers and records. As such, what you see here is necessarily incomplete, as the items in these cases can only offer representative examples that demonstrate the depth and range of the entire collection, along with some of its notable highlights. The arrangement of the items displayed is roughly chronological, beginning with Higgins’s earliest fiction and literary work in college. It concludes with a posthumously published collection of short fiction, with occasional detours along the way. Between those two points are a wide variety of items that document an impressive career as a “scribbler” (Higgins’s own preferred term). George V. Higgins wrote 26 novels, 4 nonfiction titles, scores of short stories, newspaper and feature-length magazine journalism, literary criticism and book reviews, and quite literally hundreds of columns for three major newspapers. This list also does not take into account his parallel careers as a prosecutor, an attorney in private practice, and a professor and teacher of writing and the law. All these activities are extensively documented in the Higgins archive, the processing of which is nearing completion. A complete finding aid to all component parts of the archive, as well as an electronic version of this exhibition, will be available to all on the Rare Books and Special Collections Web site (www.sc.edu/library/spcoll/rarebook.html) in the coming months. My thanks go to Michael Berry and Eugene McClain, whose work on organizing the archive has helped make this exhibition possible. —Jeffrey Makala Assistant Librarian Rare Books and Special Collections
George V. Higgins: A Chronology November 13, 1939 1957–1961 1961–1962 1962–1963 1963–1966 1964–1967 1967 1967–1968 1968–1970 1970–1973 1971–1972 1970s 1972 1973 1973 1973–1983 1974 1974–1976 1975 1975 1976 1976–1979 1977 1977 1979 1979
Born in Brockton, Mass. Boston College, A.B. Stanford University (M.A., 1965) Reporter, Providence (R.I.) Journal and Evening Bulletin Correspondent, reporter, editor— Associated Press Boston College Law School, J.D. Legal assistant, Department of the Attorney General, Commonwealth of Massachusetts Deputy Assistant Attorney General, Commonwealth of Massachusetts Assistant Attorney General, Commonwealth of Massachusetts Assistant U.S. Attorney, District of Massachusetts Instructor in trial practice, Boston College Law School Columnist, Boston Magazine The Friends of Eddie Coyle Special Assistant United States Attorney, District of Massachusetts The Digger’s Game Attorney at Law, George V. Higgins, Inc. Cogan’s Trade Columnist, Boston Phoenix City on a Hill The Friends of Richard Nixon The Judgment of Deke Hunter Columnist, Boston Herald-American Writer in residence, Washington Star Dreamland A Year or So with Edgar Instructor in trial practice, Boston College Law School
1979–1985 1980 1981 1982 1984 1984–1987 1984 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1988 1988 1988–2000 1989 1989 1990 1990 1991 1992 1993 1995 1996 1997 1998 November 6, 1999 2000 2004
Columnist and critic, Boston Globe Kennedy for the Defense The Rat on Fire The Patriot Game A Choice of Enemies Critic, The Wall Street Journal Old Earl Died Pulling Traps Style Versus Substance Penance for Jerry Kennedy Impostors Outlaws The Sins of the Fathers Visiting Professor of English, State University of New York at Buffalo Wonderful Years, Wonderful Years Professor, Special Programs, Metropolitan College, and Creative Writing Program, Department of English, Boston University The Progress of the Seasons Trust Victories On Writing The Mandeville Talent Defending Billy Ryan Bomber’s Law Swan Boats at Four Sandra Nichols Found Dead A Change of Gravity The Agent Death in Milton, Mass. At End of Day The Easiest Thing in the World
Introduction, Early Life and Careers “The Man Who Made the Ocean Roll.” Stylus [Boston College], May 1960, p. 33–35. “For Love Is a Feather: A Novelette.” Stylus [Boston College], January 1961, p. 40–67. Sub Turri of Boston College. Chestnut Hill: Boston College, 1961. “Three Stories.” Unpublished MA thesis, Stanford University, 1964. “All Day Was All There Was.” Arizona Quarterly, 19(1), Spring 1963, p. 23–36. “Arizona Quarterly Annual Awards.” Arizona Quarterly, 20(1), Spring 1964, p. 4. Best story, 1963: “All Day Was All There Was,” by George Higgins. “Witness: Something of a Memoir.” Massachusetts Review X(3), Summer 1969, p. 596–602.
Father Robert Drinan with George V. Higgins, framed photograph, 1969. Irving Howe, 1920–1993. Typed letter, signed, to Leslie Fielder, January 8, 1988, framed photocopy. [“… I just don’t recall him at all, let alone a ‘traumatic experience.’”] Portrait of George V. Higgins, Henry Holt press kit, 1992.
Boston College Stylus staff members, framed photograph, 1961. George V. Higgins at the wheel of his Sunbeam Alpine, photograph, ca. late 1960s. Press pass, Providence Journal Co., September 27, 1962. Associated Press membership card, 1965. U.S. Attorney license plate, ca. 1970.
George V. Higgins (left) from the Stylus staff photo, Boston College yearbook, 1961
Trumpet, with Boston College–lettered case, used by Higgins, ca. 1958–61.
The Friends of Eddie Coyle. “Dillon Explained That He Was Frightened.” North American Review, 255(3), Fall 1970, p. 42–45. Pre-publication excerpt from Eddie Coyle. Earliest typescript, corrected, 81 p., ca. 1970. The original title, “Jackie Brown at TwentySix,” has been crossed out. Paul Monash. Friends of Eddie Coyle. Based on the Novel by George V. Higgins. First draft screenplay typescript, September 30, 1971. Earliest typescript, corrected
Setting copy, 1971. Advance proofs, uncorrected, 1971. Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli Collection of George V. Higgins. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1972. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. London: Secker & Warburg, 1972. First UK edition, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. Christopher Lehmann-Haupt. “‘You’re Dead,’ He Explained.” New York Times, January 25, 1972, framed. Review of The Friends of Eddie Coyle. John Kronenberger. “A Hard-Eyed Prosecutor Wins as a Novelist.” Life, May 12, 1972, p. 81.
New York: Ballantine, 1981. Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli Collection of George V. Higgins. Les copains d’Eddie Coyle. Paris: Editions Rivages, 1991. New York: Recorded Books Inc., 1996. 4 audiocassettes, unabridged, narrated by Mark Hammer.
Higgins (left) on the movie set of The Friends of Eddie Coyle
New York: Henry Holt and Company, 2000. Introduction by Elmore Leonard. Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli Collection of George V. Higgins. George V. Higgins, photographs and contact sheet, ca. 1972. The Friends of Eddie Coyle, advertisements in The New York Times, February 1 and 22, 1972. George V. Higgins on the movie set of The Friends of Eddie Coyle, photograph, ca. 1973. Penguin Books paperback edition, cover sample sheet, 1987.
Advertisement in The New York Times, Feb. 22, 1972
Henry Holt–Owl Books paperback edition cover, publisher’s mockup, 1995.
The Friends of Eddie Coyle. Original movie poster, 1973. Color lobby card and blackand-white still photographs from The Friends of Eddie Coyle, 1973.
The Early Novels The Digger’s Game. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1973. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. The Digger’s Game. New York: Popular Library, 1973. The Digger, The Greek and Richie. Screenplay by George V. Higgins. From his Novel: The Digger’s Game. First draft screenplay, photocopied typescript, n.d. Melvin Frank and David Zelag Goodman. The Digger’s Game. Based on the Novel by George V. Higgins. First draft screenplay, typescript, December 2, 1974. The Digger’s Game. British paperback cover mockup, ca. 1984. La jugada d’en Digger. Barcelona: Edicions 62, 1994. Time and Jackie Cogan. Corrected typescript, 99 p., ca. 1973. The earliest version of Cogan’s Trade. Cogan’s Trade. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1974. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. Cogan’s Trade, ¾ page advertisement mockup for The New York Times Book Review, March 24, 1974. Advertisement inThe New York Times Book Review, March 24, 1974 14
Cogan’s Trade. New York: Warner Paperback Library, 1975. Cogan’s Trade. London: Thriller Book Club, 1975. Cogan’s handel. Amsterdam: Uitgeverij De Arbeiderspers, 1978. The Judgment of Deke Hunter. London: Secker & Warburg, 1976. First UK printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. Dreamland. London: Secker & Warburg, 1977. First UK printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. A Year Or So With Edgar. New York: Harper & Row, 1979. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. The Rat on Fire. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1981. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. The Patriot Game. London: Robinson Publishing, 1985.
Lawyer and Journalist “Omnicompetence and Omnibus Crime Control: The Policeman as Specialist.” Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, (60)1, Spring 1969, p. 113–122. “Warrants Upon Warrants: The Pen Register and Probable Cause Under Omnibus Crime Control.” Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 60(4), Winter 1969, p. 455–463.
The first of two 1974 Atlantic cover stories Higgins wrote on Watergate. They were expanded into The Friends of Richard Nixon the following year.
“The Judge Who Tried Harder: Maximum John and The Undoing of Richard Nixon.” Atlantic, April 1974, p. 83–106. “The Friends of Richard Nixon.” Atlantic, November 1974, p. 41–52. The Friends of Richard Nixon. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975. An Atlantic Monthly Press Book. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. Julia Cameron. “George V. Higgins Comes to Washington. America’s Premier Crime Novelist Turns His Hard Eye from the Gritty Life of the Boston Underworld to the Corruption and Political Dealing of Washington.” Washingtonian, March 1975, p. 40–43.
Substitution of Attorney motion, filed by George V. Higgins on behalf of Eldridge Cleaver, February 10, 1976. “New Attorney for Cleaver.” Oakland Tribune, February 11, 1976. Eldridge Cleaver to George V. Higgins on Black Panther harassment by the police in Oakland in 1968. Autograph note, 2 p., April 2, 1976. “Can Law Enforcement Deter Crime?” Harvard Law School panel featuring “George V. Higgins, Attorney & Author,” poster, February 10, 1977. David Reich. “True Confessions? The Characters in the Late George V. Higgins’s Literary Crime Novels Offer A Rare Glimpse Inside the Writer’s Life and Legal Mind.” BC Law—Boston College Law School Magazine, Fall 2001, p. 14–19. G. Gordon Liddy to George V. Higgins on the probability of a Presidential pardon. Typed letter, signed, December 20, 1976.
The Jerry Kennedy Novels Kennedy for the Defense. Early drafts, chapter 18, corrected and uncorrected typescripts, ca. 1979. Kennedy for the Defense. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1980. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. Kennedy for the Defense. New York: Ballantine, 1981. Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli Collection of George V. Higgins. Joel Oliansky. Kennedy for the Defense. Teleplay typescript, first draft, January 23, 1990. Kennedy for the Defense, Owl paperback edition advertising broadside, 1995. Penance for Jerry Kennedy. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1985. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. Penance for Jerry Kennedy. New York: Critic’s Choice Paperbacks, 1986. Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli Collection of George V. Higgins. Defending Billy Ryan. New York: Henry Holt, 1992. Signed first printing. Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli Collection of George V. Higgins. Defending Billy Ryan. London: Warner Books, 1994. Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli Collection of George V. Higgins. Sandra Nichols Found Dead. New York: Henry Holt, 1996. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. 18
Nonfiction Books Style Versus Substance: Boston, Kevin White and the Politics of Illusion. New York: Macmillan, 1984. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. The Progress of the Seasons. Chapters 1–3, corrected typescript, later edit, ca. 1988. The Progress of the Seasons: Forty Years of Baseball In Our Town. New York: Henry Holt, 1989. Signed first printing. Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli Collection of George V. Higgins. The Progress of the Seasons: Forty Years of Baseball In Our Town. New York: Prentice Hall Press, 1990. Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli Collection of George V. Higgins. The Progress of the Seasons, publicity leaflet and postcards, 1989. Review of The Progress of the Seasons. Booklist, March 1, 1989. On Writing, author’s proofs, corrected, 1990. On Writing: Advice For Those Who Write To Publish (Or Would Like To). New York: Henry Holt, 1990. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. Review of On Writing. Atlantic, July 1990, p. 105. On Writing, British dust jacket mockup, 1991.
Columnist, Journalist and Reviewer “A Day Without News is a Day You Miss the Heartbeat of the World.” Boston Herald-American, August 24, 1978.
“Ms.—the Greatest Insult to Women Yet.” Boston Globe, February 16, 1980. “Right On Target, Mother Jones.” Boston Globe, April 12, 1980. Includes corrected typescript, as submitted. John Updike to George V. Higgins expressing his appreciation of a recent Higgins column. Typed postcard, signed, July 30, 1983. “Stacy Keach’s Toughest Case.” Wall Street Journal, October 1, 1984. Higgins reviews a television broadcast of “Mickey Spillane’s Mike Hammer.”
George V. Higgins at the helm of the Litigator, framed photograph, ca. early 1970s. Malcolm Jones. “Our Most Underrated Writer.” Newsweek, December 13, 1993, p. 62. Framed review of Bomber’s Law.
George V. Higgins at Fenway Park, photograph, 1993
Time Out “Watching the New Detectives—Special Books Issue,” poster, April 8–15, 1987.
Higgins as Writing Teacher; Short Fiction and Anthologies “The Habitats of the Animals: The Progress of the Seasons.” in Martha Foley, ed. The Best American Short Stories 1973. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1973. “The Hit.” in William Kittredge and Steven M. Krauzer, eds. Great Action Stories. New York: New American Library, 1977. “Boston’s Busing Disaster: After Ten Years, The Schools Are More Segregated Than Ever.” New Republic, February 28, 1983, p. 16–21. “One-Man Gang: The Outrageous Career of Buddy Cianci, Mayor and Felon.” New England Monthly, August 1984, p. 30–39. “A Case of Chivas Regal.” in Matthew J. Bruccoli and Richard Layman, eds. New Black Mask Quarterly, Number 1. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985. “Mother’s Day.” Playboy, March 1985, p. 85–86, 172–73. “Professor Richardson et al.: A New England Education.” New England Journal of Public Policy, I(2), Summer/Fall 1985, p. 37–46.
“Remarks Prepared For Conference of Writing Teachers, Bristol Community College, November 5, 1986.” Corrected typescript, 8 p., 1986. “Field of Broken Dreams.” American Scholar, Spring 1990, p. 199–210. “On Writing—Today in America.” Typescript, 7 p., 1991. Remarks for delivery to the Boston University London Internship Program, November 25, 1991. “Fenway, With Tears.” in Daniel Okrent and Harris Lewine, eds. The Ultimate Baseball Book. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1991. “Where I Get My Ideas: A Veteran Novelist Walks You Through The Genesis and Writing of a Short Story To Demonstrate That Writers ‘Must Pay Attention At All Times.’” Writer’s Yearbook, 1991, p. 20–26. “An Intensive Seminar in Creative Writing for Publication. Prof. George V. Higgins.” Typescript syllabus, Boston University, ca. 1988.
Later Novels Outlaws. London: Andre Deutsch, 1987. Advanced uncorrected proof, signed copy. Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli Collection of George V. Higgins. Impostors. Tokyo: Fusosha, 1990. Wonderful Years, Wonderful Years, ⁴⁄₅ page advertisement mockup for The New York Times Book Review, October 30, 1988. Trust, publicity leaflet, 1989. Two Complete Novels by George V. Higgins: Cogan’s Trade and A Choice of Enemies. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1989. Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli Collection of George V. Higgins.
Advertisement mockup for The New York Times Book Review, October 30, 1988
Bomber’s Law. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1993. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. A Change of Gravity. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1997. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli.
.38 Special and quill pen flags from Higgins’s sailboat Scribbler, ca. 1990s. Printing and Publishing Council of New England. “He’s Wanted for Murder, Robbery, Racketeering….” Publishing Week Luncheon poster, January 21, 1998.
The Agent. New York: Harcourt Brace & Company, 1998. First printing, inscribed to Matthew J. Bruccoli. At End of Day. New York: Harcourt, Inc., 2000. First printing. Matthew J. and Arlyn Bruccoli Collection of George V. Higgins.
Literary Lion James Ross. They Don’t Dance Much. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1975. Afterword by George V. Higgins. Inscribed by Higgins to Matthew J. Bruccoli. Hugo Davenport. “Novel Choice For the Best of U.S. Books.” Observer, September 29, 1985. The Friends of Eddie Coyle was named by The Observer as one of the top 20 American novels of the twentieth century. Robert B. Parker. Taming A Sea-Horse. New York: Delacorte Press, 1986. Inscribed copy to George V. Higgins: “George, Nobody does it better, RBP.” John Snow. “The Man With the Golden Ear.” Time, November 26, 1990, p. 87–88. New York Public Library, Literary Lions 10th Anniversary, photograph, 1990. Higgins is in the second row, far right, in company that includes Gwendolyn Brooks, Richard Ford, George Garrett, Stanley Kunitz, August Wilson and others. Literary Lions 10th Anniversary photograph, 1990 26
NYPL Literary Lion Medal, 1990. Brian Doyle. “My Lunch With George.” Boston College Magazine, 50(2), Spring 1991, p. 22–31. Robert Pinsky to George V. Higgins after reading Sandra Nichols Found Dead. Autographed letter, signed, June 13, 1996. David Mamet. “The Humble Genre Novel, “My Lunch With George.” Sometimes Full of Genius.” Boston College Magazine New York Times, January 17, 2000, p. E1. The first sentence reads: “For the past 30 years the greatest novelists writing in English have been genre writers: John le Carré, George Higgins and Patrick O’Brian.” The Easiest Thing In the World: The Uncollected Fiction of George V. Higgins. Matthew J. Bruccoli, ed. New York: Carroll & Graf, 2004. First printing. Gift of Matthew J. Bruccoli.
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