7.6 The immune system Get started Have you ever been stung by a bee or wasp? Do you suffer from hay fever? Have you ever had a splinter or thorn in your finger? What symptoms did you notice? What medication did you use?
Non-specific immune response � White blood cells are made in your bone marrow and carried in the blood to your tissues. White blood cells called macrophages are also phagocytes (phago means eating and cyte means cell) because they detect invading pathogens and ingest (eat) them. Then they produce enzymes and chemicals to destroy the pathogens they have ingested.
Key terms Antibodies – Proteins produced in the blood that attack and kill pathogens such as bacteria or viruses. Inflammation – Part of the non-specific immune response, involves swelling and pain. Phagocytosis – The process carried out by phagocytes when they ingest a harmful particle, such as smoke in the lungs, or a pathogen, such as a bacterium or virus.
Link Read lesson 7.5 for more information on physical barriers and chemical defences.
Macrophages attacking a worm parasite.
Neutrophil, another type of phagocytic white blood cell, ingesting thrush-causing fungus.
When you cut yourself and dirt and bacteria get into the wound, you may have noticed that the area becomes swollen and hot. This is due to inflammation, which involves: • damaged cells releasing a chemical called histamine • histamine acting as a signal to a type of phagocyte called a macrophage which contains digestive enzymes • the macrophages surrounding and digesting the bacteria in a process called phagocytosis. Inflammation and phagocytosis are your body’s first line of defence if pathogens get into your tissues. Physical barriers and chemical defences are also part of the non-specific immune system.
Activity A 1 Make a flow diagram to show what happens during inflammation after a splinter enters your finger. 2 When you have been bitten by an insect you can rub on some cream called an antihistamine. (a) How do you think antihistamines can help reduce inflammation? (b) Do you think it is a good idea to reduce inflammation?
Did you know? A macrophage can ingest up to 100 bacteria in a second. Pus at a wound is mainly dead macrophages that have eaten themselves to death.
Specific immune response � If any pathogens are not killed by the macrophages then other white blood cells called lymphocytes take over. There are two types of lymphocytes – B cells and T cells. • One type of T lymphocyte kills virus-infected cells and cells that may have become cancerous. • B lymphocytes produce antibodies to kill pathogens or destroy the toxins they produce.
BTEC First Application of Science
Health Applications of Life Science
Activity B Make a large, annotated flow diagram to show the stages involved when your body’s immune system carries out a specific immune response to the flu virus.
Two lymphocytes with some red blood cells. Notice that lymphocytes are about the same size as red blood cells. They consist mainly of a nucleus, with very little cytoplasm.
Computer artwork showing antibodies surrounding a virus.
Pathogens have chemicals called antigens on their surface. Each type of pathogen has particular antigens on its surface. We also have antigens on our cell surface membranes. Your immune system can tell the difference between your antigens and those of an invading pathogen. One of your B lymphocytes recognises the antigens on the pathogen and multiplies into lots of identical B lymphocytes which make many antibodies. The antibodies can then latch on to the pathogen’s antigens and coat the pathogen. This makes it easier for macrophages to ingest and destroy the pathogen. It also stops pathogens entering your cells. This is called a specific immune response.
Natural acquired immunity � If you are infected by a pathogen, such as a virus or bacteria, and your immune system overcomes it, after you have recovered you are immune to that infection and don’t become ill if you come into contact with the pathogen again.
Common misconception Some people confuse antigens and pathogens but they are not the same thing. A pathogen is an organism that gets inside your body and makes you ill, for example bacteria and viruses. These organisms have special molecules on their surfaces, called antigens. Your immune system can recognise the pathogen’s antigens because they are different from the antigens on your own cells.
This happens because when a B lymphocyte attacks a pathogen it makes memory cells. These memory cells remain in your body for many years. If your body is attacked later by the same invading pathogen: • the memory cells release antibodies very quickly • the antibodies destroy the pathogen before you become ill. This is called natural acquired immunity.
Just checking Put these events that take place when your body mounts an immune response in the correct sequence. A This B lymphocyte is activated and divides into many identical B lymphocyte cells. B Macrophages display the bacterial antigens on their cell surface. C Some of these newly-made B lymphocytes make lots of antibodies; the rest of them become memory cells. D Macrophages ingest and digest the invading bacteria. E Bacteria enter your blood through a cut in your skin. F The display of antigens alerts a B lymphocyte that has antibodies that fit these antigens.
Lesson outcomes You should understand that if microorganisms enter the body then the first line of defence involves inflammation and phagocytosis, which are non-specific responses, and understand the specific immune response and how this gives you natural acquired immunity.
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7.7 Vaccination Get started Make a list of the diseases you have been vaccinated against. Do you know when you were vaccinated for each one, and did you need a booster? Which diseases might you need to be vaccinated against when you go travelling abroad?
Key term Vaccination – A dead or weakened pathogen, or its antigens, introduced into the body to make the body carry out a specific immune response and protect it from the disease the pathogen causes.
Common misconception Many people think infectious diseases like measles, mumps and rubella are trivial. This is not true as, apart from causing death in rare cases, measles can cause brain damage, rubella during pregnancy leads to defects of the fetus and mumps can cause deafness or sterility.
Activity A Find out about the vaccination schedule in the UK for children. In small groups, discuss whether the advantages of vaccinations outweigh the possible risks.
Science researchers have found out how to make you immune to an infection without suffering the disease first – they make vaccines. When you are vaccinated (injected with the vaccine), your body responds by mounting an immune response. The vaccine contains either: • a dead or weakened pathogen, or • the pathogen’s antigens. A B cell is activated so it divides and makes antibodies and memory cells. The memory cells stay in your body and make you immune to the disease. There are potential disadvantages, as well as advantages, to vaccination.
Advantages � • If everyone in a community is vaccinated then the pathogen cannot infect anyone and cannot spread. This is called herd immunity. However, it depends on everyone being vaccinated during childhood. • Many infectious diseases can cause death or may leave survivors disabled in some way. Treatment also costs the NHS money. Prevention is better than cure. • In 1967, the World Health Organization (WHO) started its smallpox eradication programme. Vaccination was used to prevent the spread of smallpox and it was eventually eradicated by 1980. The WHO is now on the verge of eradicating polio, also by using vaccination.
Disadvantages � • Some people may suffer side effects or a reaction to the vaccine. • If the vaccine consists of a weakened but live pathogen, it could make some people ill with the disease, but this is very rare. • Some people object to being vaccinated on religious grounds, as they consider it an invasive procedure because foreign material is injected into the body. • The whooping cough vaccine has been linked to causing brain damage in a few children, so those with a family history of epilepsy are not vaccinated. • There have also been scares, and a suggestion that the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine could cause autism. This piece of research has not been supported, and the doctor who made the claims has been struck off the medical register. However, some parents have chosen to not have their children vaccinated and as a result there have been recent outbreaks of measles.
Baby receiving MMR vaccine.
BTEC First Application of Science
Health Applications of Life Science
Case study Jensen works at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine. He used to be a nurse but after taking a postgraduate qualification in epidemiology and statistics he began working as an epidemiologist. Jensen undertakes research into the factors that affect the incidence of diseases, and he evaluates the effectiveness of preventative programmes. He is soon going abroad to an African country, Malawi, to supervise a research programme to find out about the incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infection in the population, and to find out how effective the vaccine against TB is for adults. There is a link between HIV and TB. Most people are exposed to the bacteria that cause TB, but if your immune system is healthy, macrophages in your lungs ingest the bacteria and keep them imprisoned for years. However, if someone’s immune system is weakened, the TB bacteria can ‘break out’ from the macrophages, infect the lungs and make the person ill. 1 Why do you think many people who are HIV positive – infected with the virus but have not yet developed AIDS – develop TB?
Assessment activity 7.3
2B.P4 2B.P5 2B.M3
As a health promotion specialist, you have been asked to provide posters for a GP surgery to inform young mothers about vaccination. Your poster should include the following. 1 Draw a large diagram showing the body outline. Label it to show how the nonspecific immune system prevents entry of pathogens. 2 Annotate your diagram to describe how the non-specific immune system protects us from infection. State also how the specific immune system defends us against infection. 3 Draw a flow diagram to describe the specific immune response. 4 Write a paragraph or draw a flow diagram to show how a vaccine helps to defend us from infection. 5 Write a description of what happens in the human body after a vaccination. 6 Make a table to compare non-specific immunity with acquired immunity.
Grading tips For the non-specific immune system, think about the roles of skin, stomach, nose, airways, sweat, tears, macrophages and resident bacteria. For the specific immune system, think about lymphocytes and antibodies. For 2B.P4, use the labels on your diagram to provide more information. Keep the annotations clear and concise. Constructing a flow diagram helps you to understand the process. Use arrows to show the sequence of events. For 2B.P5, you must describe how being vaccinated stimulates an immune response and leads to the production of memory cells. Explain the role of the memory cells if this pathogen enters the body again. You will need to carefully plan the table for 2B.M3, to compare how the different defence mechanisms protect you. Think about which are non-specific and which are specific (acquired). Explain what is meant by specific and non-specific. Think about the types of cells and tissues involved.
Lesson outcomes Just checking 1 What is herd immunity? 2 List two advantages and two disadvantages of vaccination. On balance, do you think the advantages outweigh the disadvantages, or not?
You should understand how vaccination produces artificial acquired immunity, and be able to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of vaccination.
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7.16 Organ donation Get started Do you know anyone who has had an organ transplant? Do you know anyone who has donated a kidney or bone marrow? Would you be willing to have some of your organs given to someone else after you died? Discuss the reasons for your decision in pairs.
Key terms Organ donation – Giving of an organ by a donor for transplant into a recipient. People can opt to donate organs after they die or can give some organs, such as one kidney or part of the liver, while they are living.
Who needs organ transplants? � Sometimes people suffer from organ failure. As each organ in your body is important, this will usually lead to death. In the case of kidney failure, patients can have dialysis, where their blood is passed through a machine to have toxic waste and excess salts and water removed. This treatment involves being connected to the machine for up to 8 hours, three or four times a week. Having a functioning kidney transplanted instead greatly improves their quality of life.
When did organ transplants start? � The first successful transplant between humans was of the cornea (the clear, front part of the eye) in 1905. Much pioneering work was carried out in the early part of the twentieth century, particularly with skin grafts to treat patients badly burnt during the First and Second World Wars. In many cases, skin was used from another part of the patient’s body so there was no problem with rejection. ln 1954, in the USA, a kidney was successfully transplanted between identical twins. Some landmarks in the history of organ transplants are listed in the table. First successful transplant
Rejection – Immune response of recipient that causes deterioration and death of the transplanted organ.
See lesson 7.17 to find out more about rejection of transplanted organs.
Read Principles of Applied Science lessons 1.1–1.3 about cells, organs and tissues.
Activity A 1 Your cornea does not have a blood supply. It is nourished by fluid. Why do you think the first cornea transplant was not rejected? 2 Why do you think skin transplanted from one part of a patient’s body to another part is not rejected? 3 Why do you think there was no rejection of the first kidney transplanted in 1954? 136
BTEC First Application of Science
Health Applications of Life Science
Case study Samira works for the organ donor register. This organisation was launched in 1994, following a 5-year campaign by a donor family when their 24-year-old son died of a brain tumour. Before his death, the son asked that his organs be used to help others, but his parents found that although people waiting for an organ transplant were listed on a central NHS computer there was no equivalent list of potential donors. The register contains the name, sex, date of birth and address of potential donors, along with a list of the organs they wish to donate. There is no upper or lower age for joining. By the end of 1995, more than 2 million people had joined the register, and numbers have increased 10-fold since then. The target for 2013 is to have 25 million potential donors on the register. In 2009, Samira helped organise road shows in 20 locations throughout England, Northern Ireland and Wales to raise awareness of the need for more organ donors and to get people to sign up. She has also helped set up the website where people can register online. In July each year, National Transplant Week focuses on the importance of potential donors making sure their families know of their wishes. Samira works with NHS Blood and Transplant and other health organisations to help promote National Transplant Week. 1 A donor can save more than one life. List all the organs that someone could potentially donate when they die.
Did you know? There are procedures known as domino transplants. This is where a recipient with lungs that are diseased, e.g. by cystic fibrosis, receives a heart–lung transplant. These are more successful than just transplanting the lungs. The heart of the person with cystic fibrosis may be perfectly healthy and so can be given to someone in need of a heart transplant.
Activity B Make a list of pros and cons for having a kidney transplant as opposed to needing dialysis three times a week. Which do you think you would prefer if both your kidneys failed?
2 Why do you think it is important that a potential organ donor tells their family that they wish to donate organs when they die?
Surgeons performing a kidney transplant operation
Just checking 1 Explain how a transplanted kidney may be rejected by the recipient. 2 Why do you think it is important that the blood groups of donor and recipient are matched? 3 What would happen if a kidney from a person with blood group B was transplanted into the body of a recipient with blood group O?
Lesson outcome You should understand the principles and uses of organ donation.
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