25th World Gas Conference

25th World Gas Conference (WGC 2012) Technical Papers Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 4-8 June 2012 Volume 1 of 4 ISBN: 978-1-62993-440-2 Printed from e-m...
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25th World Gas Conference (WGC 2012)

Technical Papers

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 4-8 June 2012 Volume 1 of 4

ISBN: 978-1-62993-440-2

Printed from e-media with permission by: Curran Associates, Inc. 57 Morehouse Lane Red Hook, NY 12571

Some format issues inherent in the e-media version may also appear in this print version.

This publication is produced under the auspices of International Gas Union (IGU) by the Author(s) mentioned. The Author(s) and IGU enjoy joint copyright to this publication. This publication may not be reproduced in whole or in part without the written permission of the abovementioned holders of the copyright. However, irrespective of the above, established journals and periodicals shall be permitted to reproduce this publication or part of it, in abbreviated or edited form, provided that credit is given to the Author(s) and to IGU.

Copyright┬ę (2012) by International Gas Union (IGU) and its Author(s) All rights reserved. Printed by Curran Associates, Inc. (2014) For permission requests, please contact International Gas Union (IGU) at the address below. International Gas Union (IGU) Office of the Secretary General c/o Statoil 0246 Oslo Norway

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TABLE OF CONTENTS VOLUME 1 Technology Options and Economics for Unconventional Shale Gas and Gas Liquids Monetization....................................................... 1 Dennis Leppin

Current Status and Prospect of Exploration and Development of Tight Sand Gas in China ................................................................... 9 Yijin Wan, Xizhe Li, Fudong Zhang, Yong Hu

Industrial Development of Gazprom's Unique Fields of East Siberia: Challenges and Ways to Address Them.................................. 15 P. G. Tsybulskiy, D. V. Lyugai

New Gas Producing Regions Located in the Sea of Okhotsk Offshore Russia.......................................................................................... 22 Victor Gavrilov, Victor Martinov, Mikhail Tsemkalo, Valentin Holodilov, Yury Shamalov

High-Efficiency Accumulation Process and Exploration Potential of Natural Gas in China.................................................................. 31 Honjun Wang, Wenzhi Zhao, Guangdi Liu, Congsheng Bian, Mingliang Sun, Changyi Zhao, Zecheng Wang, Yongxin Li, Zhaohui Xu

The Potential of Shale Gas Plays in Algeria .................................................................................................................................................. 49 Mohamed Kaced, Mohamed Arab

New Progress of China Natural Gas Exploration Practice and New Recognition on Resources Potential............................................ 54 Guoqi Wei, Fudong Zhang, Zongli Wang, Dong Yang, Minglei Wang

Perspective of Shale Gas Prospection in Poland ........................................................................................................................................... 66 Marek Karabula, Stanislaw Rychlicki, Jerzy Stopa, Michal Szubski

Unconventional Gas - Transforming the Global Gas Industry ................................................................................................................... 73 Michael Stoppard, Shankari Srinivasan, Laurent Ruseckas, Wolfgang Moehler, Mary Barcella, Xizhou Zhou, Andrew Ellis

Principle Approaches to Developing OAO GAZPROM Long-Term Program for Hydrocarbon Fields Development Offshore the Russian Federation .................................................................................................................................................................... 86 V. S. Vovk, P. B. Nikitin

A Field Case of CO2 Storage and EOR .......................................................................................................................................................... 94 Abel Lins Jr., Long Nghiem, Thomas Harding

Design of the Latest Gasunie Compressorstations in a Cross Border Environment is a Challenging Business.................................. 116 Ad Pijnacker Hordijk

Environmental Challenges in Variable Speed Drive System (VSDs) Applications: Design and Construction of a Water Cooling Unit Facing Extreme Temperatures and Continuous Critical Duty .............................................................................. 125 Luca Bacchetti, Andriana Batistoni Ferrara, Paolo Benedini, Gianbattista Ramundo

Changing Contract Structures in the Liquified Natural Gas Market: An Empirical Analysis of Sellers and Buyers Relations in the Natural Gas Industry ......................................................................................................................................................... 134 Akbar Nazemi, S. Mansouri Alghalandis

North American Shale Gas Industry Perspectives Risks and Challenges Versus Opportunities and Gains....................................... 143 Akbar Nazemi, S. Mansouri Alghalandis

How to Integrate Renewable Power in the Natural Gas Grid................................................................................................................... 151 Aksel Hauge Pedersen

Interfuel Competition Model for Electricity Generation in Venezuela.................................................................................................... 153 A. Balza, M. Padrino, C. Gonzalez, A. Mieja, C. Cabrera, A. Viloria

Remote Sensing Analysis for Pipeline Incidents Risk Evaluation............................................................................................................. 159 Alexandre Agaian, Dmitry Vilbaum

Comprehensive Approach to Efficient Use of Natural Gas and Other Fuel and Energy Resources in Development of Projects of Power Deliveries to Regions .................................................................................................................................................. 186 Alexander Karasevich, Valery Zamergrad, Elena Sennova, Olga Kuskova

Arctic LNG Industry Development: Overcoming Regional Challenges .................................................................................................. 195 A. I. Novikov, D. A. Udalov

Acid Gas Oxidizer - A Sustainable Development & Challenges ............................................................................................................... 200 Aminudin Yahia, Norhasnizam A. Hasan

Dry Low NOx Systems Retrofit for Gas Turbines...................................................................................................................................... 209 Amr Gad, Atul Deshpande

Offshore Gas-to-Liquids: Modular Solution for Associated Gas with Variable CO2 Content.............................................................. 222 Ana Fonseca, Antonio Bidart, Fabio Passarelli, Giovani Nunes, Roberto Oliveira

Hydrogen Energy Development Forecast .................................................................................................................................................... 237 Oleg Andreev, Anatoly Arabskiy, Sergey Kozlov, Vladimir Fateev

Role of Underground Gas Storage Facilities of Ukraine to Ensure Reliable and Efficient Gas Consumption ................................... 246 Andrii Datsiuk, Petro Galii

Gas Pipeline Risk Assessment by Web Based Decision Support System ................................................................................................. 254 Andrzej Dietrich, Jakub Badowski

Role of Gas Markets in Gas Monetization Case Study: European Gas Market Development.............................................................. 259 Andy Hubbard

How to Attract Students to the Gas Industry: The NaturGas Energia R&D Challenge ....................................................................... 267 A. M. Gutierrez, J. R. Arraibi, J. Gorozika, B. Guemez

Human Capital and the Development of a Competitive and Sustainable Supply Chain for a Growing Oil & Gas Industry ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 276 Jose Renato F. Almeida, Emerson Andrade Pacheco, Anisvaldo Bomfim Daltro

New Leadership Competencies to Lead Companies Sustainably in a Complex World ......................................................................... 298 Anita Hoffmann, Adam Faruk

Challenges and Perspectives for the Indian Gas Market ........................................................................................................................... 316 Anne-Sophie Corbeau

Enhancement of the Environmental Performance of Power and Heat Supply by the Combined Use of Wind Driven Energy, Natural Gas and District Heating .................................................................................................................................................. 356 A. L. J. Janssen, L. Van Der Sluis, M. C. A. M. Peters, B. M. J. Lambregts, C. F. M. Bos

LNG is the Sustainable Fuel for Aviation .................................................................................................................................................... 371 Antonio Nicotra

The Use of Biogas Generated from Swine Manure as a Preliminary Agent of a Biogas Pipeline Project Development.................................................................................................................................................................................................... 395 Antonio R. Machado Jr., Ricardo Konishi

Promigas Non Banking Financing Case Study: An Inclusive Business.................................................................................................... 401 Aquiles Mercado, Silvia Adie

Managing Unaccounted for Gas (UFG) in the Distribution network: The Gas Malaysia Experience ................................................. 408 Awanqku Faizulemari Bin Awang Taj Udin

Developing a Globally Competitive Workforce for Gas Industry ............................................................................................................ 414 Ayush Gupta

From a Leading Organisation to Building a Learning Organisation ....................................................................................................... 422 Deepak V. Shastry, Ayush Gupta

Secure Gas Transportation and Distribution in Urban Areas Safety System of Gas Network and Urban Planning......................... 432 Aziz Belkhatir

Dual-Fuel ME-GI Engine Operation on Large LGN Carriers (Q-Flex and Q-Max Vessels)................................................................ 452 Bader Hassen Al-Mulla

Remote Reading of Smart Gas Meters......................................................................................................................................................... 461 Behzad Babzadeh, Mojtaba Sheikh Bahaee, Saeid Momeni

Global Gas Flaring Reduction in Key Countries ........................................................................................................................................ 470 Bent R. Svensson

Analysis on Geological Features and Development Potential of Coalbed Methane in China................................................................ 479 Fenjin Sun, Bo Wang, Qing Yang, Yanpeng Chen, Jiaosheng Yang, Yang Zhao

LNG in India ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 487 Carlos Barberan

Lessons Learned from Unbundling Experiences from the Perspective of a Transmission Company .................................................. 491 Cees Hut, N. V. Nederlandse Gasunie

Effects of Calibration on Gas Metering Reliability, and Impressive Results After Calibration ........................................................... 512 Cevat Ozarpa, Samet Gul, Serkan Keleser

Improve Energy Efficiency in LNG Production for Baseload LNG Plants ............................................................................................. 520 Chen-Hwa Chiu, Tat Tsang, Meredith Chapeaux, Christopher Chen

Diverging Gas Price Influences - Is a Global Gas Price Possible .............................................................................................................. 530 Chris Holmes

LNG Standardisation Road Map.................................................................................................................................................................. 543 Chris Thomas

Dunkerque LNG, Implementation of Creative Solutions for the Development of a New Major European LNG Infrastructure.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 546 Marc Girard, Catherine Jouny, Christophe Liaud

The Size of Market Zones in the Gas Market and European Context ..................................................................................................... 558 Christophe Poillion, Christian Hewicker

Development and Management of Sulige Gas Field with Low Permeability........................................................................................... 578 Jianqi Li, Minglu Zhang, Zhilun Yang, Chunyu Zhang, Guoshu Zou

LNG Market Entrants, Recent Market and Contractual Developments................................................................................................. 587 Cristina F. Ludena

SCC A Problem in the Industry and One Way to Manage It.................................................................................................................... 592 Daniel Falabella, Fabian Lara, Mariana Corsico

ECOENERGIA: Combined Cycle Associated to a Gas Pipeline Compressor Station in Argentina .................................................... 618 Rodolfo Moraga, Hector Frare, Benjamin Guzman, Claudia Trichilo, Guillermo Zanzoterra, Luis Gavella, Marcelo Cordoba

Introducing (GAS) Smart Meters in Europe: The Challenge of Standards ............................................................................................ 622 Daniel Hec, David Johnson, Catherine Vigneron

The Club of Major LNG Producing Countries: Transportation Trends................................................................................................. 630 David Chau

Reduction of Boil-Off Generation in Cargo Tanks of Liquid Natural Gas Carriers - Recent Developments of Gaztransport & Technigaz (GTT) Cargo Containment Systems ............................................................................................................. 645 David Colson, Nicolas Haquin, Matthieu Malochet

Natural Gas Vehicle Market in 2010 - 2020: Trends of Strategic Development ..................................................................................... 660 Eugene Pronin, Manuel Lage, Davor Matic

Successful Real-Time Optimization of Highly Complex, Integrated Gas System................................................................................... 672 Derek Gobel, Ron Cramer, Jan Briers, Frank De Boer, Kok-Lam Lai, Martijn Hooimeijer

Safety in European Gas Transmission Pipelines......................................................................................................................................... 691 D. Van Den Brand, R. Kenter

Understanding the Natural Gas Consumers of the Future - Results of an Empirical Investigation and Recommendations for the Gas Industry ...................................................................................................................................................... 721 Dominik Halstrup, Sebastien Groblinghoff, Gianfranco Walsh

New Processes for Second Generation Offshore Liquefaction Processes................................................................................................. 727 Dominique Gadelle, Tania Simonetti, Sylvain Vovard

Hybrid Heat Pump: An Efficient Gas Technology to Compete Against Electricity ............................................................................... 747 Frederic Pastier

Energy Saving by High Efficiency CHP - A New Natural Gas Value Eni'S Experience ....................................................................... 753 Egidio Adamo, Sarah Emma Durante

CIS Gas Demand ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 759 Tatiana Mitrova, Ekaterina Grushevenko

Corporate Education Inside the Major Integrated Company as the Technology for Developing Company's Human Resource Potential .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 787 Elena Kasyan, Vitaly Markelov, Tatyana Tokareva, Andrey Balobin, Sergey Shlyakhtin, Elena Volostnykh, Oleg Andreev

Analysis of Structure and Dynamics of Natural Gas Industrial Consumption ....................................................................................... 796 Elena Sennova, Valeriy Zamergrad, Alexey Zorya, Irina Kirshina

Promotion of Natural Gas Exploration and Non-Conventional Gas Development ................................................................................ 802 Mariano Ruiz, Emilio Nadra

Feasability Index for LNG Regasification Projects .................................................................................................................................... 820 Enrique Dameno

An Operator Approach to the Floating LNG: Process Selection and Risk Management ...................................................................... 840 Denis Chretien, Eric Jeanneau

West African Energy Market Integration: Natural Gas Success Factors and Challenges .................................................................... 851 Ukpohor Excel Theophilus

Enhancing Viability of New LNG Projects.................................................................................................................................................. 870 Farrokh Kamali

Evaluation of Feeding Istanbul European Side Natural Gas Distribution Network from TPAO Silivri Underground Storage Facilities During Peak Demands ............................................................................................................................ 892 Fatih Unluuysal

Development of Innovative Membrane for Offshore High CO2 Separation............................................................................................ 914 Faudzi Mat Isa, Abdul Sukor Ahmad, Fatimah Abdul Karim, Fadhli Hadana Rahman, Rick Peters

East of Suez Premium Markets: Laying a Vision for the Future.............................................................................................................. 920 Fereidun Fesharaki

Slope Stabilization for the Camisea Gas Pipeline System Using Foundation Structures Based on Deep Piles in Soft Soil.................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 929 Fernando A. Velasquez Martinez, A. Romero Acero

VOLUME 2 Commercial Training, Talent Development and Retention....................................................................................................................... 955 Flip Van Koten

Pipeline Damage Prevention.......................................................................................................................................................................... 964 Fokke De Jong, Hans Rusman, Ronald Zwart

Evaluation of Absorption Capacity of Nanoparticles and Non Nanoparticles of ZnO as Solid Agents able to Eliminate H2S .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 974 F. Navarro, Mideros Ilse, V. Alfredo

Benefits of GAHP Technology Applied to Natural Gas Grids: Results from Real Case Applications................................................. 987 F. Jamoletti, L. Tischer

Injection of Gases fom Renewable Sources into the Gas Grid in Germany - Potentials and Limits .................................................... 996 Frank Graf, Thomas Kolb

Building Together Strategic Human Capital, Through Analysis and Battle......................................................................................... 1013 G. Dam, A. Buijs

New Approach to Increasing the Energy Efficiency of A Large-Scale Gas Transportation System .................................................. 1015 Georgy Fokin

Modeling Hydrogeochemical Processes in the UGS Reservoir under the Project of Partial Replacement of Cushion Gas for CO2 ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1033 G. N. Ruban, A. A. Mikhaylovsky, A. Yu. Lopatin, S. A. Khan

Review the Case Study of Biogas Feed into the Natural Gas Grid in Iran ............................................................................................ 1037 Gholamreza Bahmannia

Investing in the Future................................................................................................................................................................................. 1048 Gido Brouns, Marco Poorts

Study on Underground Gas Storage in Europe and Central Asia.......................................................................................................... 1064 Gilles-Henri Joffre

Effect of Various Parameters on Natural Gas Measurement and Its Impact on UFG......................................................................... 1074 Gautam Chakraborty

Human Capital Development in a Period of Rapid Industry Growth - The Case of Trinidad and Tobago 1992-2008 ................... 1086 Gregory McGuire, Susan Campbell Nicholas

Studies of Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Gazprom: Accounting, Control and the Best Available Technologies for Emissions Reduction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1127 Alexander Ishkov, Gretta Akopova, Natalia Kruglova, Elena Kosolapova, Roman Teterevlev, Oleg Andreev, Anatoly Arabsky, Dirk Sohn, Juergen Vorgang

Management Best Practices Optimizing Gas Sales in Campos Basin - Brazil ...................................................................................... 1144 Guilherme T. Castro

Demands and Challenges of UGS Construction in China for the Next Two Decades .......................................................................... 1153 Guosheng Ding

Gas Market Globalization: Perspectives and Limits ................................................................................................................................ 1158 Sid Ahmed Hamdani

Reduction of Methane Emission to the Atmosphere that Influence Global Climate Through Biogenic Gas Utilization in Recent Big River Mouths, with Particular Case in Indonesia ......................................................................................... 1183 Hananto Kurnio, Lili Sarmili, Purnomo Raharjo

Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage: Perspectives on Cost and Economics....................................................................................... 1194 Haroon S. Khesgi, Robert B. Hirsch, Michael E. Parker, Gary F. Teletzke, Hans Thomann

Highly Efficient and Clean LNG Plant Concept ....................................................................................................................................... 1211 Heinz C. Bauer

Technology and Modeling Serving Customer Satisfaction Developing a Flexible Offer in Underground Gas Storage ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1219 O. Lelong, P. Hennebelle, F. Darthenay

Positioning, Profiling and Promoting New Gas Appliances .................................................................................................................... 1228 Henk Ensing

Pipeline Integrity Management System: A Colombian Model for Developing Countries ................................................................... 1235 Hernando Gutierrez De Pineres, Marianella Ojeda

Istanbul Natural Gas Network Risk Mitigation System (IGRAS) .......................................................................................................... 1247 Hikmet Biyikoglu, Veysel Turkel, Murad S. Seralioglu

Increasing Spread of Micro CHP and Improvement of Added Value as Secure Power Supply System............................................ 1258 Hiroaki Ishida, Shunsaku Nakai, Junichi Fujita, Kazuto Tokuda, Toshiyuki Hayashi, Kenichi Fukuda

Development and Realization of Large Scale LNG Storage Tank Applying 7% Nickel Steel Plate................................................... 1268 Hiroshi Nishigami, Masaki Kusagawa, Maki Yamashita, Tomoya Kawabata, Takahiro Kamo, Kazushi Onishi, Syuichi Hirai, Naokazu Sakato, Masahiko Mitsumoto, Yukito Hagihara

Demonstration Study of a 70MPA Hydrogen Refueling Station............................................................................................................. 1286 Hisatoshi Ito, Mikio Nakagawa, Masakatsu Morioki, Koji Okada, Yoshito Umeda

Prediction on 3D Distribution of Natural Gas Reservoir by Stochastic Simulation of Seismic-Petroleum Accumulation Unit........................................................................................................................................................................................ 1301 Hongjun Zheng, Xueshan Yong, Zhenglin Cao, Fan Zhao, Qingyang Li

International Quality Standard Principles Development and Application for Practical Technical Regulation of the Industry Safety Conditions of Gas Distribution Systems Created Under Russian Projects................................................................ 1309 Gennady Sarychev, Igor Tutnov

Estimation of Gas and Petroleum Reservoir Parameters Using and Integrated Approach Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 1319 Hesam Komari Alaei, Seyed Iman Pishbin

Approach for the Implementation of AMR System for Gas Meters in France - GrDF AMR Project ............................................... 1329 Isabelle Drochon, Pascal Vercamer

Replacement of Electric Power by Natural Gas in the Manufacture of Rigid Pipes ............................................................................ 1362 Andre Ferraz, Ivan Rocha, Ricardo Konishi, Willian Lehmkuhl

Substitution of Electricity by Natural Gas in Textile Stamping Machines: A New Technology ......................................................... 1370 Ivan Rocha, Ricardo Konishi, Walter Piazza, Amir Oliveira, Rafael Catapan

Unconventional Gas Monetisation: GTL - An Attractive Option?......................................................................................................... 1383 Mike Phillipson

The Analysis of Acoustic Wave Propagation Characteristics in a Buried Pipe by External Impact.................................................. 1390 Jaepil Koh, Sangyup Jang, Shinkyu Oh

Aeroderivitive Combined Heat and Power Fundamentals and Applications........................................................................................ 1396 James Dicampli, Jerry Jose

Optical Measuring Technologies for Detecting Fugitive Emissions........................................................................................................ 1425 Jim Drago

Advances in USA Air Pollution Rules - Enhanced Leak Detection and Repair .................................................................................... 1435 Jim Drago

Use of LNG as Alternative to Mitigate the Energy Crisis in the Western Venezuela........................................................................... 1449 Javier Hernandez, Sabrina Di Scipio

Gas Quality Harmonisation: The European Situation............................................................................................................................. 1456 Jean Schweitzer, F. Cagnon

Competency Matrices, The Tool to Securing Sufficient Expertise to Operate Gas Transmission Systems Safely and Adequately?................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1470 Barbara Jinks, Jeanet Van Dellen

Montoir LNG Terminal Development: Matching European Gas Market Needs by Enhancing the Maritime Compatibility ................................................................................................................................................................................................ 1484 Jean-Marc Le Gall, Thomas Pierre, Olivier Marcel

UGS: A Resilient Business at the Crossroads of Gas and Electricity ..................................................................................................... 1510 Jean Marc Leroy

Driving Forces for Changes of Natural Gas Market Structure in the Atlantic Basin: A Prospective Approach.............................. 1511 Jeanne Liendo, Marco Gonzalez

Development of Safety Management Processes: Feedback, Analysis of Human and Organisational Factors, and Creation of a Simulator to Enhace Collective Competences in Operational Activities ........................................................................ 1523 Jean-Yves Pollard

Emergency Zone Planning for a City Distribution Gas Network ........................................................................................................... 1535 Jen Jo Wang, Thomas Rey

Introduction to Korean NGV Industry and Hydrogen Blended CNG Project for Coping with EURO 6 Emission......................... 1544 J. O. Han, Y. C. Lee, J. M. Chae, J. S. Lee, S. H. Hong

Simulation and Practice of the Gas Storage in Low Quality Gas Reservoir.......................................................................................... 1552 Jerzy Stopa

Using Gas Storage to Manage the Production of Natural Gas ................................................................................................................ 1562 Piotr Kosowski, Jerzy Stopa, Stanislaw Rychlicki, Slawomir Hinc

Penetrating New Markets for LNG - New Suppliers, New Target Markets, New Products................................................................ 1574 Jesco Von Kistowski, Stephanie Zirl

Valve Rule Configuration for Gas Network .............................................................................................................................................. 1588 Mingqing Yan, Junjian Yu, Jun Li, Cheng Liao, Sui Ke

The Importance of Energy Efficiency Projects in Offshore Petroleum Production Facilities............................................................. 1603 Joao L. P. Maia

Managing Geotechnical Risk in Andean Pipelines: Monitoring, Computational Modelling and Assessment .................................. 1612 John Malpartida Moya

Innovation and Partnerships in Gas........................................................................................................................................................... 1623 John Gallagher

North East Asia Gas Market ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1633 John Harris

The Successful Deployment of Heavy Duty Vehicles Powered by Natural Gas: The Result of Cooperation Between Stakeholders in The Natural Gas Vehicles Market .................................................................................................................................. 1634 Jonathan Burke, Laurence Lemay, Nadege Leclercq

The Impact of Renewable Energy on Natural Gas Consumption for Power Generation .................................................................... 1652 J. Wempe, M. S. Nijboer, R. Van Staaten

Brazil Gas Market - Towards a Liberalisation? An Overview of the Evolution of the Market, Its Regulation and the Industry Organization ........................................................................................................................................................................... 1675 Cynthia Silveira, Jorge Delmonte

Contributing to a Correct Allocation of the Calorific Power, A Way to Diminish Unaccounted for Gas ......................................... 1700 Jorge Doumanian, Daniel Herbalejo

Unaccounted for Gas Diminishing Applying Artificial Neural Networks, A Tool to Fight Against Frauds & Thefts ..................... 1707 Jorge Doumanian, Guillermo Lanzillotti

Meter Testing Methodology for Diminishing & Control of Unaccounted for Gas ............................................................................... 1716 Jorge Doumanian, Guillermo Lanzillotti

Theft Mitigation in the Automotive Market.............................................................................................................................................. 1726 Jose Carlos Oliver, Luiz Carlos Dutra, Ricardo Fujii

Impact of Meter Reading Cycles and Consumption Allocation Procedures on the Unaccounted For Gas ....................................... 1754 Jose Francisco Quinta Catela Pequeno, Lilian Berterreche De Menditte

Learning, Knowledge Management and Human Resources Strategic Planning .................................................................................. 1773 Juan Martin Encina, Fabiana Grosman, Gabriela Olmedo, Jose Barbero

ESCOBAR LNG: A Challenging Regasification Enterprise on the River Parana - Argentina .......................................................... 1788 Juan Jose Rodriguez, Carlos Weis

Isotropic Techniques to Monitor Gas Releases at Diadema UGS - Argentina ...................................................................................... 1809 Juan Jose Rodriguez, Alejandro Simeoni, Hector A. Ostera, Pedro Santistevan, Hugo Huitrago

MEDGAS: The New Direct Gas Link Between Algeria and Europe Via Spain ................................................................................... 1826 Juan A. Vera, S. A. Medgaz

Building Skilled Workforce - A Shared Future ........................................................................................................................................ 1845 Juniwati Rahmat Hussin

Forecasting Gas Markets - New Disciplines Needed this Century.......................................................................................................... 1852 Karen Sund, Dragos Talvescu

Development of Highly-reliable Gas Sensor for Domestic Use Gas Alarm Working on Batteries ..................................................... 1862 Katsuhiro Sasaki, Toyohisa Kabayama, Masatoshi Asakawa, Yasushiro Gomi, Hisao Ohnishi, Toshiro Nakayama, Yasuharu Dangi, Hiroshi Ishida, Takahiro Banno

Investigation of Potential Cases to Produce Substitute Natural Gas from Low Grade Coal .............................................................. 1868 Katsuhiro Sasaki, Masataka Masuda, Takaaki Asakura, Takashi Yamada, Yoshitaka Konishi, Masatada Kobayashi, Takeshi Aoki, Keiichi Utsumi

Development of a Residential Combined Heat and Power System Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells....................................................... 1879 Katsuki Higaki, Minoru Suzuki, Shin Iwata, Yoshitaka Kayahara, Kenji Kurita, Kouichi Kuwaba, Atsushi Takumi, Shigeru Ogino

Developing Advanced Metering (The Ubiquitous Metering System) ..................................................................................................... 1887 Kenichiro Yuasa, Yasuhiro Fujii

VOLUME 3 Automatic Scheduling System of LNG Storage Operation Using Mathematical Programming......................................................... 1902 Kenji Tsuzaki, Kaoru Kawamoto, Tomohito Okamura, Tomokazu Ueda, Keisuke Kawata, Takahito Tanabe, Kouhei Harada, Atsushi Nitanda, Toshihiro Nitta

Adoption of Frequency Control of LNG Pumps ....................................................................................................................................... 1908 Kenji Uchida, Emi Tawada, Koichiro Tsugane, Naohiro Sakou

Productivity Impairment Forecast of Gas Wells in Latin America Due to Condensation................................................................... 1912 Padua Kleber

Current Status of Mixed LNG Storage Technology Development ......................................................................................................... 1924 Masatada Kobayashi, Kazuo Koyama, Kunihiko Ebato, Kazuaki Nagai, Shuji Yamamoto

Development of a New Model of Residential PEM Fuel Cell CHP System............................................................................................ 1929 Kunihiro Nishizaki, Toshiya Omura

Will There Be A Two-Tier LNG Contract Pricing Mechanism In Asia?............................................................................................... 1935 Kyoichi Miyazaki, Majed Limam

Analysis and Assessment of Natural Risks for Unified Gas Supply System Facilities of Russia Using Promising Geoinformation Technologies ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1947 Lada V. Vlasova, Galina S. Rakitina, Sergey I. Dolgov

Management of Fugitive Emissions at Above-Ground Natural Gas Transmission, Storage and Distribution Facilities ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1956 Lloyd Chiotti

Vehicle Conversion to Dual Gasoline/CNG From 150 to 100,000 in Years in Peru.............................................................................. 1970 Luis Fernandez Perez

SeCuRi® SAT - Network Survey Without a Guide.................................................................................................................................. 2001 Lutz Hornschemeyer, Hermann Sewerin

Yolbil Emergency Call Project.................................................................................................................................................................... 2004 A. S. Bursagaz, M. Sukru Ozden

Optimal Gas Sourcing Strategy for Retailers in Open Markets - Oil-Index Contracts Vs. TTF in the Netherlands....................... 2031 Mahmoud Hamada

Biomass Gasification as an Opportunity for Gas Companies ................................................................................................................. 2041 Merc Perrin, Olivier Guerrini, Guillaume Peureux, Julien Duclos

The LNG Oversupply that Never Occurred: The Global Consumption of 42 MTA of QATARGAS LNG...................................... 2051 Marcellus Catalano

Power Generation and Natural Gas Market in Venezuela ...................................................................................................................... 2058 Marco Gonzalez

Smart Gas Meter & Middleware for Energy Efficient Embedded Services.......................................................................................... 2066 M. Piovano, T. Carretero, R. Jane, A. Wankelmuth, A. Lofti, C. Lorentz, K. Landwehr

Optimisation of Natural Gas Plant - Gains in Profitability, Stability and Energy Efficiency ............................................................. 2089 Mario Campos, Marcos Gomes, Antonio Souza, Andriano Barros

Carbon Capture and Storage Options for Power Generation in South Eastern Europe..................................................................... 2121 Damir Pesut, Mario Tot, Robert Bosnjak

Gas Storage is Energy Storage.................................................................................................................................................................... 2130 Markus Mitteregger, Siegfried Kiss

Combustion Control Based on Flame Ionization ...................................................................................................................................... 2142 Martin Kiefer, Ulrich Maas, Sungbae Park, Xiaochuan Pian, Gordy Kollmann, Gijs Olde Loohuis, Danny Leerkes, Henk Kalk, Detlef Markus, Tim Langer

Micro CHP .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2156 Martin Wilmsmann, Steggen Luttgens

Changing the Game - Case Study of State of the Art Exploration of an Aquifer Storage Site in Germany and Impact of High Resolution Data on the Initial Development Plan Based on Vintage Data ................................................................. 2175 Martin Zuhlke, Volkmar Neumann, Markus Stower, Marlies Engelmann

Promotion of Utilization of Renewable Energy for Biogas/Natural Gas Dual Fuel Engine................................................................. 2186 M. Tsujishita, H. Kawakami, M. Fujino, M. Komatsu, Y. Moshizuki

Burner Development of Solutions Proposed by Gas Company............................................................................................................... 2199 Masahisa Koisumi, Masataka Yabushita, Takao Ichikawa

The Role of Natural Gas in the Residential Market after "The Great East Japan Earthquake" - Changing Customers' Mind and Gas Company Strategy.......................................................................................................................................... 2216 Masaki Tsukuda, Fumio Murazeki, Kazuko Imai, Takao Koyama

Development of High Performance and High Energy Saving System for Industry Furnaces............................................................. 2228 Masaya Kondo, Yoshihiro Kokura

Menasa's Gas Supply & Demand: The Greater Middle East Paradox? ................................................................................................ 2244 Mehdi Chennoufi

Vibroseis Harmonic Noise Cancelling By Time Varying Filtering With Reference ............................................................................. 2257 Foudil Babaia, Mourad Mender, Chouaib Benchabana

Managing Fugitive Emissions of Gas Transport: Economically Feasible While Reducing the Environmental Impact ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2272 Menno Bekker, Floris De Groot

The Talend Pipeline, The Oil and Gas Industry and New Media ........................................................................................................... 2292 Michael Kahn, Andrew Lee

Field Experience with a Novel Pipe Protection and Monitoring System for Large Offshore Pipeline Construction Projects .......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2301 Michael Magerstadt, Gunther Blitz, Carlos E. Sabido

Accounting of System Reliability in the Development of the Russian Unified Gas-Supply System Infrastructure.......................... 2307 Mikhail Sukharev, Alexander Karasevich, Alexey Serebryakov, Igor Tverskoy

Production of "Green Natural Gas" Using Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cells (SOEC): Status of Technology and Costs..................... 2314 M. Mogensen, S. H. Jensen, S. D. Ebbesen, A. Hauch, C. Graves, J. V. T. Hogh, X. Sun, S. Das, P. V. Hendriksen, J. U. Nielsen, A. H. Pedersen, N. Christiansen, J. B. Hansen

Managing Integrity of High Pressure Gas Pipeline: Root Cause Analysis and Hydrogen Induced Crack (HIC) Direct Assessment of Weldment Crack on 30" Gas PipelineMohd Nazmi Bin Mohd Ali Napiah, Zaabah Bin Abdullah, Shaidi Bin Ah "City Layout - Gas" Software..................................................................................................................................................................... 2321 Morzen Sabzpooshani, Tarsim Ariana

Geochemical Characterization of Discovery New Gas-Condesates Reservoir on Golfo de Venezuela Basin, Offshore Venezuela ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 2340 Moises Pirela, Adriana Perez, Irenio Berrios

Overview on Iran CNG Industry Status, Opportunities and Threats.................................................................................................... 2353 Keyvan Sharifi, H. Ali. Gougerdchian

New Concept to Develop and Optimise Drilling Well Gas in Salted Area............................................................................................. 2365 Yazid Fathi, Nadia Haddoum-Kherfellah

Optimization of Gas CO2 Sequestration in the TAGS Algerian Reservoirs ......................................................................................... 2374 Ahmed Hadjadj, Haddoum Nee Kherfellah

The Innovation Behind the CNG/Petrol Bi-Fuel-Hybrid Vehicle........................................................................................................... 2386 Akihiro Yamada, Naoko Fukutome, Takashi Ishida

Development of New Calorific Value Adjustment System for Wide Range Operation ....................................................................... 2399 Naoya Iwata, Nobuyuki Sakakibara, Kazuo Ito, Kanetoshi Hayashi, Isho Yamaguchi, Shin Kawamura

Fugitive Emissions at Gas Distribution Networks: Mitigation Options................................................................................................. 2415 Natalia Kruglova, Vladimir Klimenko

How Liquefaction Technology is Evolving as the Game Changes Towards Unconventional Gas Monetisation .............................. 2424 Benoit Laflotte, Audrey Laval, Nathalie Millot, Fara Rasolondraibe

The Upgrade of SNAM RETE Gas Telecontrol Systems ......................................................................................................................... 2434 Gloria Bruni, Nicola Battilana

Educational System in the Field of UGS .................................................................................................................................................... 2451 Nikita E. Barsuk, Maria P. Khaydina, Artem E. Arutiunov, Georgiy N. Ruban

Development of Coalbed Methane in Russia: First Results and Prospects............................................................................................ 2456 Nikolai Storonskiy, Vladimir Khryukin, Ekaterina Shvachko

Effects of the Large-scale Earthquake and Tsunami on an LNG Receiving Terminal ........................................................................ 2465 Nobuhiko Takei, Minoru Makino, Toshihiro Meguro, Shohei Nishida, Hidetoshi Osajima

Drawing Young Talent to the Natural Gas Industry................................................................................................................................ 2473 Noelia Denisse Chimale, Gustavo Fabian Acosta

Evaluation of Analysis Technologies for Gas Diffusion ........................................................................................................................... 2479 Nozomi Okamoto, Hisatoshi Ito, Ryuichi Tominaga, Hibiki Ryuzaki, Koichi Nishimura, Hideki Okamoto

Combined-cycle Plants as Back-up for Wind Power................................................................................................................................ 2498 N. Afonso Moreira

Trends on Gas Industrial Utilization.......................................................................................................................................................... 2507 N. Afonso Moreira

New Technologies and UGS Development in Russia ................................................................................................................................ 2514 O. E. Aksyutin

The Large Scale Development Concept with Regard to Innovative Systems of Production and Distribution of Methane-Hydrogen Fuel as an Effective Alternative Energy Source..................................................................................................... 2524 O. E. Aksyutin, Aleksandr G. Ishkov, Valery G. Khloptsov, Varazdat A. Kazaryan, Anatoly Ya. Stolyarevsky

Gas Market of China.................................................................................................................................................................................... 2538 Oleg Ivanov, Natalia Boronkinova

A Prototype of CNG Cartridges Powered Scooter: A Solution for a Sustainable Mobility Into City Centers.................................. 2552 Olivier Bordelanne, Patrick Subreville, Gerard Colling, Philippe Liegeois, Micheline Montero, Liem Cao-Thai

Comparative Study of the Inherent Risks of CNG and Diesel Buses/HDVs/Garbage Trucks in Tunnels......................................... 2563 Olivier Bordelanne, Philippe Liegeois, Micheline Montero, Gilles Durand, Corinne Berthelot

Adding Value to Plant Performance .......................................................................................................................................................... 2580 Olivier Denoux, Jean-Michel Maillet, Christian Malacan

Magellan Project........................................................................................................................................................................................... 2591 Oscar Jose Sardi, Jorge Lacasta, Diego Merlo

Analysis of the Metrological Performance of Diaphragm Gas Meters in a City Distribution Network............................................. 2606 P. Del Gaudio, W. Paramonti, R. D'Alessio, M. Dell'Isola, G. Ficco, P. Vigo, A. Viola

Low Power Modulating Boiler: A New Gas Technology for a Still Better Energy Efficiency............................................................. 2617 Frederic Pastier

An Analysis of the Impacts of the Production of Unconventional Gas in the North American Petrochemical and Fertiliser Industry ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 2623 Patricia Santos, Alice Ramos, Bernardo Kortchmar

Better Water Production Forecasts for Enhanced Performances .......................................................................................................... 2648 P. Egermann, F. Pepin, N. Sellam, E. Freitag

HSE Management in Natural Gas Distribution........................................................................................................................................ 2662 Paula Cristina Andrade, Joao Paulo Villela

Advanced Process Control Implementation Challenges and Success on Mega LNG Trains .............................................................. 2667 Pawandeep Singh

Fostering Local and Wide Area Efficiency by HomePower .................................................................................................................... 2675 Peter Flosbach, Alexandro Kleine, Jens Matics

Impact of Nord Stream on Parallel Gas Transmission Infrastructure in Slovakia .............................................................................. 2685 Peter Toth, Rastislav Nukovic

Impact of Hydrogen Admixture on Installed Gas Appliances ................................................................................................................ 2701 Petra Nitschke-Kowsky, Werner Wessing

Niche and Retail LNG, Future Growth Markets for LNG ...................................................................................................................... 2722 Philip Olivier

Direct Production of Bio-Methane through Biomass Gasification and Grid Injection ........................................................................ 2732 Philippe Buchet, Marc Perrin, Veronique Mambre, Olivier Guerrini, Guillaume Perreux

How to Use in Complementary Ways, Renewable and Natural Gas Solutions in Order to Improve Efficiency and Sustainability of Energy Master Plan of Industrial Plants ...................................................................................................................... 2757 Philippe Buchet, Willem Ploem, Aksel Hauge Pedersen, Toshikuni Ohashi

Contribution of the Exploration Activity in Gas Reserves Renewal ...................................................................................................... 2794 Rabih Lounissi, Sissani Agounizera

The Rise of Small-Scale LNG/FLNG Projects as an Alternative Approach to Sustain Global Gas Supply ...................................... 2798 Raj Rattanavich, Stephen Thompson

Developing Technical Capability of PETRONAS' Pipeline Engineers .................................................................................................. 2808 Mohd Nazmi Bin Mohd Ali Napiah, Zaabah Bin Abdullah, Mohd Ashri Bin Mustapha, Raja Zahiruddin Bin Raja Ismail, Mohd Nazri Bin Mohd Zain, Shaikh Abdullah Bin Shaikh Othman

Oportunities of Waste Heat Recovery at Natural Gas Transmission Systems ...................................................................................... 2813 Rastislav Nukovic, Marcel Hesko, Milan Kostan

Reducing the Impact of Performance of Maintenance Activities on the Ozone Layer ........................................................................ 2826 Rastislav Nukovic, Anton Zelenaj, Peter Toth, Viktor Mihalik

Merging Natural Gas with Solar Power Generation: Evaluating the Potential of Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2834 Remi Bourgeois, Herve Gasq, Mathieu Hess, Josef Petek, Peter Pechtl

VOLUME 4 Offshore LNG Transfer: The Hard Link................................................................................................................................................... 2844 Renaud Le Devehat, Laurent Poidevin, Barend Pek, Dave Thomson, Jos Van Eekeren

Misreading of Conventional Diaphram Domestic Gas Meter ................................................................................................................. 2867 Rene Hermkens

Options for Natural Gas Vehicles in the UK Transport Energy Roadmap ........................................................................................... 2885 Martin Brown, Robert Judd

Organizational Assessment of Local Distribution Companies ................................................................................................................ 2897 Rodrigo Herve Quaranta Cabral

The Impact of Fiscal Systems in World Gas Reserves ............................................................................................................................. 2904 Rodrigo Lucchesi, Alexandre Szklo

Impediments to Improved Market Access for LNG ................................................................................................................................. 2913 Roger Bounds, Satinder Pal Singh

Improving Natural Gas Trading in Emerging Markets: Gas Exchange as Market Driver in the CEE Region ............................... 2925 Roland Lajtai, Balazs Szabo, David Giltner

The UK Mains Replacement Methodology and Its Role in Reducing Leakage Repairs ...................................................................... 2968 Rosemary McAll

Conceptual Approaches to Development of Gas Fields on Russian Artic Shelf.................................................................................... 2979 R. M. Ter-Sarkisov

Building a New System of Natural Gas International Cooperation for Northeast Asia....................................................................... 2985 Runmin He

Home Smart Metering ................................................................................................................................................................................. 3003 Saeid Momeni

Restructuring Process of Turkish Natural Gas Market and Today ....................................................................................................... 3008 S. Murad S. Seralioglu, Veysel Turkel, Kuddusi Atalay

The Effects of Proffesional Training Management on Organizational Performance of a Natural Gas Distribution Company and the Concept of Intellectual Capital.................................................................................................................................... 3017 S. Murad, S. Seralioglu, Faruk Surer, Numan Aksoy, Seyit Ceri

Energy Services - A New Challenge for Domestic & Small Commercial Market................................................................................. 3027 Sarah Emma Durante, Michael Hermann, Egidio Adamo

Effects of Carbon Capture on Gas Fired Power Plant............................................................................................................................. 3030 Sari Siitonen, Leena Pirhonen

Development of Natural Gas Hydrate (NGH) Supply Chain .................................................................................................................. 3040 Satoo Nakai

Spread of GHP and Future Development.................................................................................................................................................. 3050 Satoshi Niigawa, Yuma Furuhashi, Toshinari Sakai

Challenges of Privitisation in National Iranian Gas Industry................................................................................................................. 3074 Sedighe Sadat Seyedali Rute

Europe Needs Oil Indexation More than Ever.......................................................................................................................................... 3086 Sergei Komlev

Gaseaous Helium Storage in Salt Caverns: Influence of Physical Properties ....................................................................................... 3097 S. A. Khan, A. I. Igoshin, V. B. Sokhranskiy

Combined Application of In-Line Inspection Magnetic Technologies for Detection of Stress Corrosion Cracks in GAZPROM "Yambourg - Elets-1" Gas Pipeline ..................................................................................................................................... 3107 Viktor Kanaykin, Boris Patramanskiy, Vladimir Loskutov, Sergey Popov

Innovative Electric Exploration Techniques Applied to Pipeline-Related Problems: Engineering, Geological Risks Assessment, Localization and Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................. 3113 Mikhail Epov, Oleg Aksyutin, Yuri Manstein, Sergey Menshikov

Gazprom's Underground Gas Storages: The European Focus ............................................................................................................... 3120 Alexander Medvedev, Vladimir Khandokhin

Application of Advanced Technologies for Evaluation of Underground Natural Gas Storage Wells' Integrity and Operational Safety at "Latvijas Gaze" as Facilities ................................................................................................................................. 3125 Adrians Davis, Gints Freibergs, Ivars Scerbickis, Sergey Vlasov, Sergey Egurtsov

"Asia - Gas Market No. 1?" Variety, Challenges and Potential ............................................................................................................. 3131 Shigeki Sakamoto, John Harris, Nazlee Bte Abdul Aziz, Oleg Ivanov

Energy Policies for Natural Gas in China & India: A Case of Cooperation or Competition .............................................................. 3134 Shivika Mehta, Mrinal Madhav

Development of Innovative Technologies for Biogas Production and Purification .............................................................................. 3148 S. Osumi, T. Kume, J. Tsubota, H. Sakamoto

Emergency Services and Technology Development to Respond to Gas Leaks on Customers' Premises ........................................... 3159 Sosuke Yahata, Hajime Kojima, Hiroki Kikuchi

Lessons Learned from the Optimization of the Suchohrad-Gajary Storage Object ............................................................................ 3169 Stanislav Bilik, Jozef Levoca, Jan Wallner, Lubomir Olsovsky, Dusan Hudecek, Jan Beno

Potential of Gas Hybrid Systems ................................................................................................................................................................ 3188 Stefan Bargel, Werner Webing

Turn Renewables Gas (And Other Energy Commodities) Into a "Weather Derivative" in Europe? ............................................... 3200 Stefan Judisch

The Policies for the Large-scale Deployment of Smart Gas Meters in some European Countries and Draw Policy Implications, in Particular for Italy ........................................................................................................................................................... 3202 Guido Cervigni, Matteo Di, Stefano Cagnoli, Mattia Sica, Francesco Vitolo

An Outlook for Energy and the Role of Natural Gas ............................................................................................................................... 3212 Steve Briggs

Exports of LNG from North America: Commercial, Legal and Regulatory Considerations in Launching a New LNG Export Project ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 3217 Steven R. Miles, Thomas E. Holmberg

Gas Safety Margin Informed by Records Verification and Maximum Allowable Operating Pressure Validation.......................... 3235 Sumeet Singh

Coal Bed Methane Exploration and Production....................................................................................................................................... 3289 M. Banerjee Sunjay, Aarif Jamal, Rakesh Kumar

Shale Gas Exploration and Production...................................................................................................................................................... 3297 Sunjay Sunjay

The Golden Age of Gas: Opportunities and Challenges for LNG as a Fuel for the 21st Century ....................................................... 3306 Susan L. Sakmar

Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies for Distributed Energy Systems in Near-to-mid and Long-term Perspectives ................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3358 Susumu Nishio, Takuto Isshiki, Hiromichi Kameyama, Ziqiu Xue

Experience of Designing Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines in Super Challenging Geological and Environmental Conditions of Eastern Siberia and the Far East ....................................................................................................................................... 3369 Svetlana Dzyuba, Anatoly Chepkasov, Sergey Savchenkov

Implementing Maintenance Programs for Ageing Pipelines: GRTG's Experience.............................................................................. 3376 Abderrahmane Taberkokt

Never Say Never, North American GTL on the Horizon......................................................................................................................... 3390 Jeff McDaniel, Tad Dritz

Enhancement of LNG Facility Maintenance Methods............................................................................................................................. 3397 Takahiro Suematsu

The Accomplishment of 100% Utilisation of LNG Cold Energy ............................................................................................................ 3405 Takayuki Yamamoto, Yukio Fujiwara

Characteristics of Volcanic Gas Reservoir and Practices of Development Technologies in Xushen Gas Field................................. 3424 Zhengshun Xu, Baocai Fang, Ping Shu, Rui Shao, Xiang Gao, Tao Gao

Evolution of the Methods to Guarantee Security of Gas Supply and Demand on Different Stages of Gas Markets Development.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3434 Tatiana Mitrova

Different Levels of Biogas Purification for its Effective Utilization........................................................................................................ 3446 Hidekazu Nakajima, Toshikuni Ohashi, Shojiro Osumi, Tatsuo Kume

Status Report: Impact of Gas Quality Variation on Gas Appliances in Japan ..................................................................................... 3450 Hidekazu Nakajima, Toshikuni Ohashi, Tatsuo Kume

Construction Project of Undersea Natural Gas Transmission Pipelines Across ISE Bay ................................................................... 3453 Tetsuji Kitano, Eiichiro Sato, Katsushi Nakabeppu, Fumiharu Hayashi, Takuro Kosaka, Yoshihiko Nakazono, Yoji Nakano, Akinobu Shinyashiki

Defining Smart Gas Grids - A Min/Max Approach ................................................................................................................................. 3466 Timothy J. Cayford, Esther E. Hardi

Debottlenecking of UGS LAB 3, Synergy Effects on Interconnected Storages UGS Lab 3 and Reservoir GajaryBaden ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3482 Tomas Ferencz, Stanislav Maron, Vladimir Lorenc, Svetlana Ondruskova

Natural Gas in Japan's Post-Fukushima Energy System and Its CO2 Emissions Reduction Potential ............................................. 3490 Tomohito Okamura, Kaoru Kawamoto, Yumi Yoshida, Michinobu Furukawa, Hiromichi Kameyama, Yasuhiko Urabe

Relevance of Pricing for Gas Trade with India......................................................................................................................................... 3508 V. Damodaran

Impact of Russian Gas Prices Providing Equal Profitabilty of Domestic and Export Supplies on the Gas Industry Development.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3524 Vasiliy Smirnnov, Petr S. Tarasov

Setting Up Electronic Data Bases of Global CO2 Sequestration Projects .............................................................................................. 3529 V. Yu. Khvostova, S. A. Khan

Development and Application of High Strength Pipes for Gazprom's Trunk Gas Pipelines .............................................................. 3544 Vlada Rusakova, Tatiana Lobanova, Andrey Arabey, Vladimir Bespalov, Taymuraz Esiev

The Prospects of Biogas Production and Use in the Russian Federation............................................................................................... 3553 Vladislav Karasevich, Vladimir Averianov, Serguey Shilnikov, Vladimir Koldomasov

Integration of Gas Markets in the Asia Pacific Region - Russia's Role.................................................................................................. 3560 Vyacheslav Kulagin

Development of Mobility with CNG in Switzerland ................................................................................................................................. 3569 Walter Lange, Rene Bautz

Building a Strong Natural Gas Network in Northwestern Europe......................................................................................................... 3580 Walter Peeraer

A Study on the Natural Gas Marketing Strategy of CNPC..................................................................................................................... 3586 Wei Li, Wenman Xu, Jinming Zhang, Jianchao Tan

Research Progress on Gas Interchangeability in China........................................................................................................................... 3595 Qi Wang, Wenxue Gao, Zijun Zhao, Qin Luo, Li Zhou

Protecting the Baltic Sea's Environment - Nord Stream's Exemplary Environmental and Social Management During Permitting and Construction ......................................................................................................................................................... 3622 Werner Zimiq, Bruno Haelg

Development of 1bpd GTL Pilot Plant Using Natural Gas...................................................................................................................... 3630 Woo Sung Ju, Seung Ho Lee, Youngsoon Baek

The Conception for Policy System on Unconventional Natural Gas Development in China............................................................... 3632 Yanzhi Duan

LNG Supply Chain Design and Optimization at Qatargas...................................................................................................................... 3638 Yitbarek Redda, Amr El-Abed, Jannes Regterschot, Willem Scholten

The Study and Practice of the Unconventional Gas Simulation in China ............................................................................................. 3651 Yongping Li, Yunhong Ding, Yongjun Lu, Yonghui Wang, Xin Wang

Study on the Effect of Shale Swelling and Dispersion Characteristics on Shale Gas Fracturing ....................................................... 3658 Yong-Qiang Fu, Li-Xin Zeng, Fa-Ming Ma, Lin Huang, Cheng-Hui Huang, Ya-Rui He

The High Efficiency CO2 Separation Using Chemical Looping Combustion and Oxy-Fuel Combustion ......................................... 3667 Yoshifumi Nakashima, Kazuya Takemura, Tomoya Fujimine, Masaru Takei, Jun Izumi, Norio Miura

New Fitting for Stainless Steel Flexible Gas Pipes .................................................................................................................................... 3680 Yoshihiro Atarashiya, Takaaki Inotani, Yasushi Fujinnawa

Introduction and Development of Trenchless Technology to Reduce the Environment Impact of Gas Construction Work .............................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3690 Yoshihiro Saito, Takaya Hayashi, Atsushi Suganuma

The Potential of Natural Gas Exploration in East Tarim Basin ............................................................................................................. 3700 Yuhong Lu, Wenjing Yang, Zhongyao Xiao, Ling Qian, Baoshou Zhang, Qing Zhao

Research on Next-Generation Technologies for Improving the Safety of Gas Pipelines ..................................................................... 3709 Yuji Higuchi, Tetsuya Kibayashi, Yoshikazu Hashimoto, Takayuki Fushimi, Toshiaki Adachi, Masaru Tsunasaki, Toshiaki Furuno, Eiji Okamura, Takahiro Oota

Quantitative Risk Evaluation of Strategy Planning for Oil and Gas Development .............................................................................. 3718 Jialiang Lu, Yuping Sun, Qiaojing Li

Legal and Methodological Basis of Gas Distribution Systems' Operating Reliability.......................................................................... 3727 Yuriy Yarygin, Alexander Sherstobitov, Alexander Sergeev

Improvement of the Production Process Management System in Gas Distribution Organization on the Basis of Modern GIS Technologies ........................................................................................................................................................................... 3737 Yuriy Yarygin, Alexander Sherstobitov

Innovative Methods and Technologies to Improve Operational Reliability and Safety of Gas Distribution Systems in Russia......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3742 Yuriy Yarygin, Alexander Sherstobitov

Prospecting and Exploration of Hydrocarbon Fields by Earth Remote Sensing Methods.................................................................. 3751 Nail A. Gafarov, Yuri B. Baranov, Maxim A. Vanyarkho, Denis M. Filatov

Application of 3D Seismic Exploration Technique in Evaluating and Optimizing Favorable Areas for Salt Cavern Gas Storages.................................................................................................................................................................................................. 3754 Yusheng Zhang, Lei Zhang, Yuxiao Zhang, Yongmei Shao

Obstruction in Salt Cavern: Solution is Dissolution................................................................................................................................. 3764 Matthieu Keime, Yvan Charnavel, Gunter Lampe, Helge Theylich

Pretreatment of Acid Gas in Feed for Petronas Floating LNG Facility................................................................................................. 3775 Zainab Kayat, Mark Schott, Shain Doong, Ron Subris, David Farr

Author Index