2013. Motives and Means. Motives and Means (cont.)

12/5/2013 Motives and Means Europeans began to explore distant lands, motivated by religious zeal and the promise of gold and glory. Section 1 Moti...
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12/5/2013

Motives and Means Europeans began to explore distant lands, motivated by religious zeal and the promise of gold and glory.

Section 1

Motives and Means (cont.) • Five European powers, led by Portugal and Spain, engaged in an age of exploration. All rose to new economic heights. • Motives for European exploration include “God, glory, and gold” – Economic interests – Europeans wanted to expand trade and locate spices and precious metals.

Section 1

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Motives and Means (cont.) – Religious zeal – Explorers such as Hernán Cortés were interested in sharing the Catholic faith with native peoples. – There was an increased desire for grandeur, glory, and the spirit of adventure.

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A Race for Riches (cont.) • Portugal took the lead in European exploration under the leadership of Prince Henry the Navigator. • Portuguese ships traveled along the western coast of Africa, finding gold and other goods. • Vasco de Gama traveled around the Cape of Good Hope, the southern tip of Africa, and landed in India in 1498.

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A Race for Riches (cont.) • The Portuguese captured the important port city of Melaka on the Malay Peninsula, which enabled the Portuguese to control the spice trade that had been dominated by Arab traders. • The Portuguese used seamanship, guns, and treaties to control the spice trade. However, they did not have the people, wealth, or desire to expand their empire in Asia.

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A Race for Riches (cont.) • Christopher Columbus was an explorer who sailed for Spain. Columbus searched for a western route to Asia and landed at Cuba and Hispaniola in 1492. • The Spanish explorer Ferdinand Magellan sailed around the tip of South America and into the Pacific Ocean. Magellan is credited with being the first person to circumnavigate the globe.

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A Race for Riches (cont.) • In 1494, Portugal and Spain signed the Treaty of Tordesillas, separating control of the newly discovered lands. • John Cabot, a Venetian, explored the New England coastline of the Americas for England. • The writings of Amerigo Vespucci, a Florentine mapmaker, led to the use of the name “America” for the newly discovered lands in the western hemisphere.

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The Spanish Empire The great Aztec and Inca civilizations succumbed to the Spanish.

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The Spanish Empire

(cont.)

• The Spanish conquistadors established an overseas empire in the Americas. • In 1519 Hernán Cortés and his Spanish allies were welcomed into Tenochtitlán by the Aztec monarch Montezuma. The Spanish were expelled from the city one year later. • When the Spaniards left, smallpox devastated the Aztec capital. The Spanish returned and captured the city, and the Aztec Empire was destroyed.

Section 1

The Spanish Empire

(cont.)

• In 1530 Francisco Pizarro led an expedition into the Inca Empire. Like the Aztec, the Incas were no match for Spanish disease, guns, and horses. • Pizarro established a new capital for the Spanish colony at Lima. • The Spanish used a system of colonial administration called the encomienda system— the right of landowners to use Native Americans as laborers.

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The Spanish Empire

(cont.)

• Spanish landowners could use Native Americans for labor in return for protection and converting them to Christianity. • Native American political and social structures were torn apart and replaced by European systems of religion, language, and government. • The exchange of plants, animals, and disease between Europe and the Americas is known as the Columbian Exchange.

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European Rivals The Portuguese and Spanish found new rivals in the Dutch, French, and English for trading rights and for new lands.

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European Rivals

(cont.)

• The Dutch formed the East India Company to compete with the English and Portuguese for the Indian Ocean trade. • The Dutch also formed the West India Company to compete with the Spanish and Portuguese in the Americas. • By the early seventeen century, the Dutch established settlements in North America such as New Netherland.

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European Rivals

(cont.)

• In the 1600s, the French colonized parts of present-day Louisiana and regions of Canada. • The English began to settle the eastern seaboard of North America and islands in the Caribbean Sea. • In 1664, the English seized the harbor of New Netherland from the Dutch and renamed it New York.

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Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism The slave trade increased as enslaved Africans were brought to the Americas.

Section 2

Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism

(cont.)

• The nations of Europe created trading empires and established colonies in the Americas and in the East. • Colonies were an integral part of mercantilism, an economic theory based on gold and a limited amount of wealth in the world.

Section 2

Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism

(cont.)

• Colonies provided raw materials and markets for finished goods. • To bring in more gold, nations tried to have a favorable balance of trade and export more goods than they imported. • To encourage exports, governments granted subsidies and improved transportation systems.

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Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism

(cont.)

• Slavery had existed since ancient times, and African slaves served as domestic servants in Southwest Asia. • The demand for slaves changed dramatically with the introduction of sugarcane. Labor was needed to work the plantations where sugarcane was grown.

Atlantic Slave Trade, 1500–1600s

Section 2

Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism

(cont.)

• Slaves became an important commodity in the triangular trade that connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas. • As many as 10 million African slaves may have been brought to the Americas between 1500 and the late 1800s.

Atlantic Slave Trade, 1500–1600s

Section 2

Trade, Colonies, and Mercantilism

(cont.)

• One reason for the high number of exported slaves was the high mortality rate, especially during the Middle Passage, the journey across the Atlantic Ocean. • The slave trade devastated the population of African communities near the coastal regions. • Some African rulers, such as King Afonso, protested but were ignored by African and European slave traders. Atlantic Slave Trade, 1500–1600s

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Effects of the Slave Trade The slave trade led to depopulation, increased warfare, and devastation for many African states.

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Effects of the Slave Trade (cont.) • Effects of the slave trade in Africa: – depopulated areas – increased warfare – loss of the strongest and youngest men and women

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Effects of the Slave Trade (cont.) • Benin was transformed from a brilliant society into a brutal, war-ravaged region following the introduction of slavery. • The use of enslaved Africans was widely accepted until the Society of Friends began to condemn it in the 1770s. • The French abolished slavery in the 1790s; the English abolished slavery in 1807; and slavery continued in the United States until the 1860s.

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Section 2-End

Colonial Empires in Latin America The Portuguese and Spanish built colonial empires in Latin America and profited from the resources and trade of their colonies.

Section 3

Colonial Empires in Latin America

(cont.)

• In the 1500s, Portugal controlled Brazil, while Spain’s colonial possessions included parts of North America, Central America, and most of South America. • The area of Central and South America became known as Latin America, and a unique social class system emerged.

Colonial Latin America to 1750

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Colonial Empires in Latin America

(cont.)

• Colonial Latin America Social Order: – Peninsulares: Spanish and Portuguese officials born in Europe; they held all important government positions. – Creoles: Descendants of Europeans who were born in Latin America; they controlled business and land. – Mestizos: The offspring of European and Native American intermarriage.

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Colonial Empires in Latin America

(cont.)

– Mulattoes: The offspring of Africans and Europeans. – Conquered Native Americans and enslaved Africans.

Section 3

Colonial Empires in Latin America

(cont.)

• Europeans utilized the Native Americans as labor. They used the encomienda system and mita to sustain a viable labor force. • Gold and silver from the colonies offered immediate wealth to the Europeans. Products, such as tobacco, sugar, and animal hides were traded to Europe in return for finished products.

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Colonial Empires in Latin America

(cont.)

• To control their colonial possessions in the Americas, Portugal and Spain used governor-generals to develop a bureaucracy and carry out imperial policies. • Catholic missionaries were also instrumental in converting and maintaining order within the colonial territories. • The Catholic Church provided an outlet other than marriage for women. Many nuns like Juana Inés de la Cruz, urged convents to educate women on subjects beyond religion. Section 3

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EARLY EXPLORATION of West Africa, India, and the Americas • Motivated by religious zeal, gold, and glory, Europeans began to explore distant lands. • The Portuguese sailed east around Africa to India. • Spanish ships sailed west to the Americas. • Spanish conquistadors seized lands ruled by the Aztec and Inca. • Diseases introduced by Spanish explorers killed much of the Native American population. • By the late 1600s, the Dutch, French, and English entered the rivalry for new lands and trade.

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AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE of Europe, Asia, and the Americas • Before the new exploration, the primary market for enslaved Africans had been Southwest Asia. • The demand for plantation laborers in the Americas greatly increased slave trade. • Enslaved Africans were part of the triangular trade between Europe, Africa and Asia, and the Americas. • In Africa, the slave trade led to increased warfare, depopulation, and the deterioration of society.

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COLONIAL EMPIRES of Latin America • The Portuguese and Spanish profited from their colonial empires in Latin America. • Peninsulares were the top social class, followed by creoles, mestizos and mulattoes, and finally enslaved Africans and Native Americans. • Catholic missionaries spread across the Americas to try to Christianize Native Americans.

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conquistador a Spanish conqueror of the Americas

Vocab1

encomienda a system of labor the Spanish used in the Americas; Spanish landowners had the right, as granted by Queen Isabella, to use Native Americans as laborers

Vocab2

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Columbian Exchange the extensive exchange of plants and animals between the Old and New Worlds, especially during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries

Vocab3

overseas movement or transport over the sea; land beyond the sea

Vocab4

percent a part of a whole divided into 100 parts

Vocab5

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colony a settlement of people living in a new territory, linked with the parent country by trade and direct government control

Vocab6

mercantilism a set of principles that dominated economic thought in the seventeenth century; it held that the prosperity of a nation depended on a large supply of gold and silver

Vocab7

balance of trade the difference in value beween what a nation imports and what it exports over time

Vocab8

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subsidy government payment to encourage or protect a certain economic activity

Vocab9

plantation a large agricultural estate

Vocab10

triangular trade a pattern of trade that connected Europe, Africa and Asia, and the American continents; typically, manufactured goods from Europe were sent to Africa, where they were exchanged for enslaved persons, who were sent to the Americas, where they were exchanged for raw materials that were then sent to Europe

Vocab11

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Middle Passage the journey of enslaved persons from Africa to the Americas, so called because it was the middle portion of the triangular trade route

Vocab12

transportation means of travel from one place to another

Vocab13

primary most important

Vocab14

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peninsulare a person born on the Iberian Peninsula; typically, a Spanish or Portuguese official who resided temporarily in Latin America for political and economic gain and then returned to Europe

Vocab15

creole a person of European descent born in the New World and living there permanently

Vocab16

mestizo a person of mixed European and Native American Indian descent

Vocab17

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mulatto a person of mixed African and European descent

Vocab18

mita a labor system that the Spanish administrators in Peru used to draft native people to work in the Spanish landowners’ silver mines

Vocab19

labor people with all their abilities and efforts

Vocab20

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draft to select for some purpose; to conscript

Vocab21

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