2011. Final Report

Further information Kari Markus Tekes [email protected] Timo Simula Netcare Finland Oy [email protected] Tekes – Finnish Funding Agency for T...
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Further information Kari Markus Tekes [email protected] Timo Simula Netcare Finland Oy [email protected]

Tekes – Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation Tel. +358 10 191 480 Fax +358 9 694 9196 Kyllikinportti 2, P.O. Box 69 FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: [email protected] www.tekes.fi

March 2011

Tekes Programme Report 4/2011 Final Report

ISSN 1797-7347 ISBN 978-952-457-524-9

GIGA – Converging Networks programme 2005–2010

GIGA –Converging Networks programme 2005–2010 Final Report

Tekes Programme Report 4/2011 Helsinki 2011 3

Tekes, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation Tekes is the main public funding organisation for research and development (R&D) in Finland. Tekes funds industrial projects as well as projects in research organisations, and especially promotes innovative, risk-intensive projects. Tekes offers partners from abroad a gateway to the key technology players in Finland. Tekes programmes – Tekes´ choices for the greatest impact of R&D funding Tekes uses programmes to allocate its financing, networking and expert services to areas that are important for business and society. Programmes are launched in areas of application and technology that are in line with the focus areas in Tekes’ strategy. Tekes programmes have been contributing to changes in the Finnish innovation environment for twenty years.

Copyright Tekes 2011. All rights reserved. This publication includes materials protected under copyright law, the copyright for which is held by Tekes or a third party. The materials appearing in publications may not be used for commercial purposes. The contents of publications are the opinion of the writers and do not represent the official position of Tekes. Tekes bears no responsibility for any possible damages arising from their use. The original source must be mentioned when quoting from the materials.

ISSN 1797-7347 ISBN 978-952-457-524-9 Cover image Kari Lehkonen Page layout DTPage Oy

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Foreword

The telecommunications sector has changed a great deal during the GIGA programme. The business has moved in a large scale from manufacturing to innovations, software, and services. The continuous market growth declined in the downturn during 2008-9 downsizing, especially in the market expectations of the SMEs. However, the market recovered quickly and started to grow rapidly in 2010. Global mobile business increased 18.5% during 2010. Telecommunications is now one of the fastest growing industries worldwide, and the growth is mainly based on the mobile telephone and broadband-related services, where wireless technology is playing an important role. “Life goes mobile”. The Converging Networks programme (GIGA) was launched in June 2005. Its main objective was to promote the strong position of the Finnish telecommunications industry and research in technologies of wireless broadband communication with international co-operation and to contribute to international standardization. The other objective was to exploit new business opportunities in evolving global telecommunication markets. The evaluation of the results of the GIGA programme is currently ongoing. From the viewpoint of Tekes, however, we can express our satisfaction with the results. The interest of the companies exceeded our expectations. The assumption during planning was that about one-third of the Tekes industry funding for the telecommunications sector would be channelled through the GIGA programme. Due to the large interest of companies in participating in the programme, the GIGA programme exceeded the target volume. The GIGA programme started a new co-operation with foreign funding organizations leading networking seminars, researcher exchanges and co-funded projects. The programme was also actively co-organizing international telecommunication conferences in cooperation with the national organizations. The roadmap of telecommunication technology, business and services was updated in the last year of the programme. Several foreign technology and market studies were conducted during the programme as well. The success of the GIGA programme was the outcome of many personal contributions. First, Tekes would like to thank the chairs and the members of the management board for their valuable guidance during the programme. The discussions by

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the management board gave the programme an industrial direction and strengthened its relevance. The thematic groups in the programme provided companies and researchers a forum for discussion and joint learning. Their success is a result of a large number of committed people, both chairpersons and experts. Tekes would also like to express its gratitude to the programme coordinator Mr Timo Simula and Heikki Hänninen of Netcare Finland for their intensive efforts in co-organising programme activities together with the Tekes programme team. Helsinki, March 2011 Tekes – the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation

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Contents

Foreword......................................................................................................................................................................... 5 1 At the Conclusion of the GIGA programme............................................................................ 11 2 The GIGA Programme – Converging Networks................................................................... 14 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8

Background and Objectives.............................................................................................................................. 14 Operational Structure of the GIGA programme................................................................................... 15 Thematic Group Operations............................................................................................................................. 16 2.3.1 Objectives of the Thematic Groups in the GIGA programme........................................ 16 2.3.2 Building the Groups and Launching Activities........................................................................ 17 2.3.3 Activities of the Thematic Groups.................................................................................................... 18 Programme Strategic Actions.......................................................................................................................... 18 2.4.1 Project Funding........................................................................................................................................... 19 2.4.2 Operational Activities and Procedures......................................................................................... 20 Communications in the Programme........................................................................................................... 23 Midterm Evaluation................................................................................................................................................ 24 Examples of Results................................................................................................................................................ 24 Facts and Figures...................................................................................................................................................... 27

3 Thematic Group Reports....................................................................................................................... 28 3.1 Thematic Group 1: Wireless Access........................................................................................................ 28 Project Reports.................................................................................................................................................................... 29 Future Radio Access Concept: Technology and performance Assessment (FRACTA)............. 29 E!3187 CELTIC WINNER+ – Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio + (WINNER+), University of Oulu (CWC).................................................................................................................................... 33 E!3187 CELTIC WINNER+ – Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio + (WINNER+), VTT.................. 37 E!3187 CELTIC WINNER+ – Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio + (WINNER+), Elektrobit Wireless Communications Oy................................................................................................... 40 E!3187 CELTIC WINNER+ – Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio + (WINNER+), Nokia Siemens Networks.................................................................................................................................... 42 IMT-Advanced Evaluations (IMT-A)........................................................................................................................... 42 Packet Access Networks with Flexible Spectrum Use (PANU)................................................................. 44 NETWORKS of 2020 (NETS2020)................................................................................................................................. 46 Joint Advanced Development Enabling Energy Efficient Wireless Networks (JADE)............... 48 Advances in Wireless Access (AWA)......................................................................................................................... 51 Cognitive and Opportunistic Wireless Communication Networks (COGNAC)............................. 53 Wireless Broadband Communications (Wibco)............................................................................................... 58 Technologies for Wireless Converging Networks (TECWIN2).................................................................. 60 7

Multiradio Mobile Access (MaMA)............................................................................................................................ 62 Ubiquitous broadband Connectivity with IMT-A Radio technologies (UbiCAR)......................... 63 MIMO Techniques for 3G System Evolution (MITSE)...................................................................................... 66 MIMO Tecniques for 3G System and Standard Evolution (MITSE)......................................................... 68 advanced rAdio SysTems and Architectures (NASTA)................................................................................... 71 E!3187 CELTIC HOMESNET – Home Base Station: An Emerging Network Paradigm, Aalto University and VTT..................................................................................................................................... 74 E!3187 CELTIC HOMESNET – Home Base Station: An Emerging Network Paradigm, Nokia Siemens Networks.................................................................................................................................... 77 E!3187 CELTIC HOMESNET – Home Base Station: An Emerging Network Paradigm, European Communications Engineering Ltd......................................................................................... 78 dCOM – Direct Communication................................................................................................................................ 79 Concepts for Ultra Wideband Radio Systems (CUBS)................................................................................... 79 Ultra Wideband Program................................................................................................................................................ 82 Technologies for Antenna Array Front Ends (TAFE)........................................................................................ 84 Millimetre Wave Circuit Design Using Silicon Technologies (NASTEC).............................................. 87 Active Multi-Frequency Antennas for the Future (TAMTAM)................................................................... 90 Adaptation of Antennas to Usage Environments (AATE)........................................................................... 92 Multiradio Antennas.......................................................................................................................................................... 95 New LTE-antennas (NELA).............................................................................................................................................. 96 Reconfigurable Small Mobile Terminal Antennas – RESONATE.............................................................. 97 Configurable Terminal Platform (COPLA) 2007–2010................................................................................... 98 Advanced Access for Telecommunication, AATOS...................................................................................... 100 Advanced Techniques for RF Impairment Mitigation in Future Wireless Radio Systems (DIRTY-RF).............................................................................................................................................. 101 Future Nokia Radio.......................................................................................................................................................... 103 Professional Mobile Communications Terminals (Viranomaisradiokommunikaation terminaaliplatformin jatkokehitysprojekti)........................ 103 Platform technologies for IP radio access networks................................................................................... 104 L-Band Interference Measurements in Urban and Suburban Environment................................ 105 New communications technologies for Wireless M2M, Viola Systems, 4.1.2010...................... 105 Flexible Wireless Communication Systems (Flecos)................................................................................... 106 Distributed Decision Making for Future Wireless Communication (DIDES)................................. 108 3.2 Thematic Group 2: Seamless Networking...................................................................................... 110 Project Reports................................................................................................................................................................. 112 Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe), Aalto University...................................................................................................................................................... 112 Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe), TeliaSonera Finland Oy...................................................................................................................................... 115 Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe), Nokia Oyj........... 117 Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe), NetHawk Oyj....... 118 Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe), Oy LM Ericsson Ab................................................................................................................................................ 119 Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe), Secgo Software Oy............................................................................................................................................... 120 Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti), University of Helsinki.............. 120 8

Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti), Oy LM Ericsson Ab................... 125 Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti), TeliaSonera Finland Oy.......... 126 Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti), NetHawk Oyj................................ 127 WISEciti-Secinfra – Secure Network Infrastructure of Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens................................................................................................................................................ 128 Mobile Open Access....................................................................................................................................................... 130 E!2023 ITEA Easy Wireless (EW), VTT...................................................................................................................... 131 E!2023 ITEA Easy Wireless (EW), NetHawk Oyj................................................................................................ 134 E!2023 ITEA Easy Wireless (EW), Plenware Group Oy.................................................................................. 135 E!3187 CELTIC Easy Wireless 2 (EW-2), VTT........................................................................................................ 135 E!3187 CELTIC Easy Wireless 2 (EW-2), NetHawk Oyj................................................................................... 139 E!3187 CELTIC Easy Wireless 2 (EW-2), BaseN Oy........................................................................................... 140 Protocols for Future Wireless Networks (FWN)............................................................................................... 140 MeshNode - Wireless Mesh Technology............................................................................................................ 140 E!3187 CELTIC SCALNET – Scalable Video Coding Impact on Networks (SCALNET), VTT....... 141 E!3187 CELTIC SCALNET – Scalable Video Coding impact on Networks (SCALNET), Digita Oy, Sanoma Entertainment Oy, Maxisat Oy........................................................................... 144 Advanced Broadcasting Solutions 2006–2007.............................................................................................. 145 Interconnected Home Broadband Networks (InHoNets)....................................................................... 146 Mobile Multi-access Techniques (MMVP).......................................................................................................... 151 Management solutions for the wireless broadband services in the multiaccess networks (LaiLa).................................................................................................................................................... 153 Trustworthy Internet: Overlay Infrastructure for Trusted Computing and Communications (TrustInet).......................................................................................................................... 155 Future Mobility Middleware (Fuego Core 2007)........................................................................................... 158 Algorithms for Broadband Infrastructure (ABI).............................................................................................. 160 Broadband Ethernet Multi Service Networks (Laajakaistaiset Ethernet-monipalveluverkot, LEM)......................................................................... 164 Concilio Mobile Gateway Suite .............................................................................................................................. 165 Community Connect..................................................................................................................................................... 165 IPv6 compatibility............................................................................................................................................................. 166 3.3 Thematic Group 3: Network Support................................................................................................ 167 Project Reports................................................................................................................................................................. 168 Crosslayer Solutions and Network Support for Broadband Wireless (CrossNet) / VTT.......... 168 Crosslayer Solutions and Network Support for Broadband Wireless Access (CrossNet), Oulun yliopisto (CWC)........................................................................................................................................ 169 Crosslayer Solutions and Network Support for Broadband Wireless Access (CrossNet), NetHawk Oyj............................................................................................................................................................ 170 Crosslayer Solutions and Network Support for Broadband Wireless Access (CrossNet), Elektrobit System Test Oy................................................................................................................................. 171 GAP .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 171 Ultra Broadband Networks and Services (Ultralaajakaistaiset Verkot ja Palvelut, ULA)......... 175 Dependability evaluation methods for IP networks, phase 2 (IPLU-II)............................................ 175 Multi-Service Management Platform................................................................................................................... 177 Tellabs Next Generation Platform........................................................................................................................... 178

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Superior Transmission Management (SUMA)................................................................................................. 178 Router Solution for Intelligent Connectivity Protection........................................................................... 180 WLAN Quality Assurance Solution (verkkojen laadunhallinta)............................................................ 180 Creanord Echo Project – Platform for IP & Ethernet Network Service Delivery and Monitoring................................................................................................................................................................ 180 kiloMESH ............................................................................................................................................................................ 181 Meshenger & Firmware Development Project............................................................................................... 181 BaseN U.S. Expansion Phase II................................................................................................................................... 182 Product testing over converging networks (CNL-Products).................................................................. 183 Virtual Drive Test Solution (VDTS)........................................................................................................................... 184 Security Testing and Monitoring (TNT)............................................................................................................... 186 E! 2023 ITEA SERKET – SEcuRisation Keeps Threats: NetHawk tools in security system testing and sensor simulation..................................................................................................... 187 Securing intranets of the future.............................................................................................................................. 188 Benebit Networks Internal Security Solution (inGuard)........................................................................... 189 NIXU SLADE: Developing Secure DNS Software Appliance and Distribution System for Automated Security Updates.................................................................. 189 7signal – Enabling use of WLAN in critical networks................................................................................. 190 Iptune Virus Finder........................................................................................................................................................... 190 Protecting critical infrastructure data networks............................................................................................ 191 Growth with Tekes........................................................................................................................................................... 192 Quality of Experience Research Network (QERN), REMTEST.................................................................. 192 3.4 Thematic Group 4: Telecom Business................................................................................................ 196 Project Reports................................................................................................................................................................. 197 Dynamics of COmpetition and INnovation in the converging Internet and mobile networks (COIN)................................................................................................................................... 197 Modeling of Mobile Internet Usage and Business (MoMI, MoMI II).................................................. 199 Business Dynamics and Scenarios of Change (G-MDS)............................................................................ 204 Mobile Audience Measurements (MAM)........................................................................................................... 205 Locational Advantage in a Global Digital Economy................................................................................... 206 Next generator operator environment, NEON............................................................................................... 208 DVB-H LITE............................................................................................................................................................................ 210 Heikkojen signaalien analyysimenetelmä ja työkalu digitaalisen median palvelujen alalle........ 211 3.5 Thematic Group 5: Network Security................................................................................................. 212

Appendix 1 GIGA Programme Management Board............................................................................................................... 213 GIGA Programme Operational Working Group............................................................................................. 213

Appendix 2 Organisations participating in GIGA programme........................................................................................ 214 Companies............................................................................................................................................................................ 214 Research organizations................................................................................................................................................. 216

Tekes Programme Reports in English.................................................................................................218

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1 At the Conclusion of the GIGA Programme The following chapter contains greetings from the GIGA Management Board, compiled from interviews with most of the board members. The interviews were summarised in December 2010 by Ramboll Management Consulting. GIGA, Converging Networks, technology programme focused on promoting the leading position of the Finnish telecommunication industry in technologies for wireless broadband communication. GIGA’s total budget of 280 million Euros included Tekes funding (100 million) and corporate funding (150 million Euros). The programme, which was carried out between 2005 and 2010, was in many regards considered to be a continuation of the preceding NETS programme, which was a three and a half year Tekes programme.

Board rates GIGA a success GIGA’s five main objectives were to promote the leading position of the Finnish telecommunication industry in technologies for wireless broadband communication, to strengthen basic strategic research and applied research in broadband communication, to generate new business opportunities in evolving telecommunication markets, to support the expansion of Finnish

SMEs into global markets, and to increase international cooperation and contribute to international standardisation. The programme’s management board felt that the objectives of the programme were well chosen and had been adjusted and updated as necessary throughout the programme. The board also felt that the objectives had been met successfully. The objectives of GIGA were drafted successfully using the existing strengths, complemented with new ideas. – Seppo Borenius

The board assigned additional concrete and focused objectives based on the five programme level targets. These objectives were monitored and evaluated throughout the programme. Working in the management board was rewarding. I believe we were able to fine tune the programme along the way. – Tapio Halkola

The interviewed board members were very satisfied with the board’s composition and agreed that the team included expertise in all of the relevant fields. In fact, many of the board members hoped that they would have had the opportunity to follow and guide the programme even more closely.

Networking is one of GIGA’s undoubted achievements The management board was unanimous in its opinion that the most promising results were achieved by creating new opportunities in evolving telecommunication markets by fostering the networking of the actors of the telecommunication cluster. According to Jussi Paakkari, one of the programme’s greatest accomplishments has been its ability to assemble all the key actors, individuals and topics around the same table. Paakkari agreed with several others that the programme was on the right track and all the key players were involved. There was also great interest in the programme, which was reflected in the high programme volume. According to the board members, the promising results in terms of creating new cooperation and deepening existing connections were partly due to the large programme volume and the wide range of projects and participants. As other board members noted, this kind of networking of a wide range of actors would not have been possible in a smaller and more focused programme. While cooperation is one of the funding criteria, the programme also invested in networking by facilitating thematic workshops and seminars, which the participants found to be wellorganised and extremely useful.

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In my opinion, the thematic groups were extremely successful. This is something that should be emphasised and duplicated to other programmes, if possible. – Tapio Halkola

One of GIGA’s objectives was to strengthen strategic basic research and applied research in broadband communication. It was stated that, with regard to this objective, some great results were undoubtedly achieved. While the Board Members agreed that the programme definitely brought together different actors, a few Members also questioned whether that was sufficient. As an example of a successful project in the focus area of wireless access, several interviewees mentioned Wireless World Initiative New Radio+ (Winner+). This consortium of 29 partners, coordinated by Nokia Siemens Networks, also contributed to the successful research made in the field of LTE technology. In my opinion, the progress in LTE and LTE-A technology research would not have been possible without this programme. – Jouko Sankala

SMEs mostly involved in the focus area network support While the management board was satisfied with the objectives and their realisation overall, a request was made for more active participation of SMEs in the programme. Although a great deal of effort was made to attract new SMEs, especially in two out of four focus areas (wireless access and seamless networking) the absence of smaller busi-

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nesses was obvious. There was greater SME participation in the third focus area, network support, but many board members were still disappointed with the passive approach of the SMEs. According to the board members, the efforts made to attract SMEs often go unnoticed because the same familiar companies show up. It was felt that small companies tend to believe that they do not have the resources to participate in activities such as the offered networking trips, since the payback is not immediate. The actors should make the choice whether to run next to the bike or ride it. – Jouko Sankala

It was also pointed out that smaller companies are forced to be more careful in their choices and focus on surviving on a day-to-day basis. Also, the tightened economic situation caused by the international financial crisis was mentioned as a setback for the more active participation of SMEs. Other reasons were also identified. One main reason for the absence of SMEs is the fear of bureaucracy. – Jonna Särs

The programme arranged several networking excursions and overseas networking trips in order to support the objective of encouraging the expansion of company businesses to global markets. In particular, the trips to USA were felt to have been extremely successful. At the same time, questions were also raised as to whether the same results could have been achieved by using some lighter processes. Accord-

ing to several board members, the productiveness of the trips is ultimately in hands of the participants. Whether the benchmarking trips are useful or not depends largely on the participating organisations and their own activity. – Jari Mieskonen

Some suggestions were also made to complement the orientation of the trips. It was felt that there should be more business orientation in the networking trips and that at least some of the trips were too research-oriented from the point of few of a few board members. The new US openings made in the programme aroused a lot of interest. Whether this proves to be the beginning of fruitful cooperation remains to be seen. – Tapio Halkola

Several successful tools for internationalisation According to the managing board, successes were achieved in advancing the national contribution to international standardisation. The programme succeeded in creating possibilities for new business operations, which can be an honourable accomplishment, especially with respect to the compact programme time period. The MERCoNe project (Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks) was given as an example of a project that was executed as a result of cooperation with several devoted partners over an extended period of time. While the results have been

promising in terms of standardising internet technologies, the project has also modelled new way of co-operating in a tight and equal community. Finland’s position at the forefront of internet standardisation is, in large part, GIGA’s accomplishment. – Raimo Vuopionperä

In addition, the surveys and roadmaps from abroad were seen as useful tools for introducing foreign markets to the programme participants. It was highlighted that the surveys made at the end of the programme, which introduced some less traditional countries, such as African and South American countries, were especially interesting.

Value networks turned out to be a future challenge While the three other focus areas proved successful, the ambitious goals set for the fourth focus area, evolution of value networks in telecommunication business, were not met. Only a few funding applications were received and the number of projects remained modest. As the chairman of the board, Kari Leppänen, summarised, the number of projects in this focus area was somewhat disappointing. While all board members found the focus area extremely important, there were suggestions that it should perhaps be integrated in the other projects, rather than separated as its own focus area. Mikko Valtakari said that the topic was and still is important but that it may have been mislabelled. For the future, steps could be taken to ensure the successful integration of the research on

value chain changes and their impact on business models into the technology programmes. While technologies are often developed together with other actors, topics related to value networks are often discussed only within the organization. – Kari Tilli

GIGA’s crucial role in the development of the national telecom-branch There was widespread agreement that the programme had had an impact on the trend and level of the development of the national telecom branch. However, it was also felt that it would be hard or even impossible to show the effects within this time span. Despite this, the Board Members unanimously concluded that it was worthwhile having conducted the programme. Tapio Halkola pointed out that the programme has strengthened the basis of this technological sector and that it has not been part of the ICT hype. Success in the telecom sector requires a lot of experience and knowledge. By creating the foundations with the help of research, the programme has enabled the regeneration of the branch. This has been essential in developing the next generation of mobile communication technology. From the point of view of VTT (Technical Research Centre of Finland), many indicators show that there is a notable need for research and development on the telecommunication branch. – Jussi Paakkari

The economic recession from autumn 2008 onwards presented some challenges for the programme. The main implication was that smaller companies in particular were unwilling to take part in the programme operations that involved investments in terms of time or other resources. Also, the investments to the research were cut back by many companies. Many of the interviewees agreed that GIGA has played a crucial part in maintaining the research, at least at a moderate level. Opinions varied with regard to how Finland has succeeded on international markets. Most of the interviewees considered the national situation to be still quite good and agreed that Finland is among the leading countries of the telecom sector. However, it was also stated that Finland has lost its position among the leading countries and that the investments in many other countries have been greater. A few interviewees were also concerned that Finland might lose the key players if the level of investments and research cannot be guaranteed. One topical issue that was of concern to some Board Members was the role of the ICT SHOK Tivit (Finnish Strategic Centres for Science, Technology and Innovation). It was seen both as a slight threat and a boost to the development of the telecom branch. The overall impacts of the created networks were expected to be seen after the programme. The best results were achieved in creating new cooperation networks within the telecommunications sector. – Mikko Valtakari

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2 The GIGA programme – Converging Networks 2.1 Background and Objectives The telecommunications industry became the prominent industry in Finland in technology as well as volume in the late 1990s and beginning of the 2000s. Over the last few years, manufacturing has moved to Asia and countries where production costs are cheaper. On the other hand, research and design knowhow has gained in importance, and the need for a work force has moved from manufacturing to R&D&I. At the same time, business in western countries has moved from manufacturing to innovation, software, and services. Finland has been recognized as one of the forerunners in telecommunications, as U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton noted: “Finland has emerged as a world leader in telecommunication, scientific research, and innovation” (6.12.2010). It can be also seen that many foreign telecommunication companies have established R&D&I facilities in Finland. Top foreign research and funding organizations, especially from the U.S. and China, are interested in cooperating with Finnish research organizations. Telecommunications is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide; the growth is mainly based on the mobile telephone and broadband-related services. There are already more than 5.3 billion mobile subscribers and 2 bil14

lion Internet users. Good telecommunications access has evolved from a luxury into a necessity, and citizens require a high standard of telecommunications access for both work and leisure. Therefore, the authorities have taken more decisive action to ensure a regionally equitable communications infrastructure. In Finland, the national plan of action is to upgrade the public telecommunications network to make a network supporting 100 Mbps connections available to most citizens by 2015. In the EU, the Digital Agenda sets ambitious targets for broadband, ensuring by 2013 basic broadband coverage for all EU citizens and by 2020 fast broadband coverage (at 30 Mbps) available to all citizens, with at least half of the European households subscribing to broadband access at 100 Mbps. Globally, ITU has defined the broadband goal as “to ensure that more than half of all the world’s people have access to broadband networks by 2015, and make access to high-speed networks a basic civil right”. Wireless technologies play an important role in meeting these challenges. For example, the EU has launched a 5-year policy programme to promote efficient radio spectrum management, ensuring that sufficient spectrum is made available by 2013 for wireless broadband. Wireless technologies will significantly contribute to bringing fast broad-

band connections especially to people in remote areas and to make innovative services available across Europe. GIGA programme goals were the development of broadband technologies, especially wireless broadband, the convergence of network technologies and services in a newly profound way driving various players into ever closer collaboration. In order to boost this collaboration, Tekes (the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation) launched GIGA – Converging Networks programme in 2005 with the vision: GIGA’s vision: “Converged networks: always on, optimal, reliable, everywhere, instant response, high delivery rate, affordable and secure access to services.” The objectives of the GIGA programme in the original plan were: •• To promote the strong position of the Finnish telecommunications industry in technologies of wireless broadband communication •• To strengthen the strategic basic research and applied research know-how in the field of broadband communication •• To exploit new business opportunities in evolving telecommunication markets

•• ••

To support the expansion of company businesses to global markets To increase international co-operation and to contribute to international standardization.

The GIGA programme was a combination of research and industrial projects working together for common goals. In addition to project funding, GIGA offered networking, seminars, market and technology surveys to its participants. Due to a much greater interest in the programme than originally planned, the five-year programme reached a budget totalling EUR 280 million. Tekes funding for the programme was about EUR 100 million.

•• ••

chitectures, multiradios, broadband antennas, smart antennas, HW- and SW-modules and components, filters, power amplifiers, software defined radio Access network structures Dynamic spectrum use: cognitive radio and networks, flexible spectrum use, etc.

Focus Area 2: Seamless Networking

The programme focuses on four areas of technology and telecommunication business opportunities.

Networks are converging and users’ terminals will roam from one operator network to another, seamlessly and independent of technology. Users would have the best connection for their needs as to bandwidth, quality, or price. Focus area key research themes were related to seamless co-operation of heterogeneous networks, trust, security, quality of service, mobility, crosslayer design, seamless services, and autonomic networks.

Focus Area 1: Wireless Access

Focus Area 3: Network Support

The programme objective was to contribute to Finland’s current and future position as the leading developer and user of wireless systems. Therefore, wireless access was considered as one of the most important topics to maintain and develop a high-level of knowhow in future wireless systems.

The network support area was considered as one potential business area for Finnish small and medium size companies and therefore very important for the programme. Key themes were testing, measurements, planning, optimisation, operation, control, billing, and security focusing on the whole life cycle of the network. Also understanding the global market and business opportunities was an important goal of this focus area.

Programme Focus Areas

The technologies included were: •• Wide-area networks: key research themes: 3.5G, 3.9G, 4G, WiMax, DVB-H, radio channel, MIMO, OFDM, HSDPA, HSUPA •• Short range communication: including millimetre wave technologies, UWB, WLAN, ZigBee, and Bluetooth •• Broadband terminals and base stations: for example, terminal ar-

Focus Area 4: Evolution of value networks in telecommunication business

The telecommunications business was facing challenges due to new applications, the increased use of the Internet, license-free frequencies, etc. Under-

standing the business evolution, value networks, and opportunities were considered very important to support technology developments in other focus areas. The main challenges were: •• Evolution of value networks in telecommunication business •• Forecasting the changes in value networks and business models due to VoIP, Internet TV, regulation, and use of license-free frequencies.

2.2 Operational Structure of the GIGA programme While the actual substance was created in R&D projects, programme management and coordination were executed by the Management Board and Programme Manager in collaboration with the Programme Coordinator. The Operational Working Group, formed by Tekes Technology Specialists, Programme Coordinator, Communications Manager and Programme Manager, has also played a major role in the daily practices of programme management.

Management Board Operations The management board consisted of members from telecommunication key players, industry, operators and research organizations. In addition, the board also had members from other funding organizations (Academy of Finland and Venture Capital). The management board had 15 members. The members of the management board and the operational working group are listed in Appendix 1. The issues handled in management board meetings included: •• Follow up and monitor the jointly defined programme objectives and the general progress of the programme 15

Figure 1. GIGA Management Board. From left: Kari Leppänen Nokia Oyj, Ari Hulkkonen Elektrobit Group Ltd, Jouko Sankala NetHawk Oyj, Raimo Vuopionperä Oy LM Ericsson Ab, Kari Tilli Tekes, Kari Markus Tekes and Jussi Paakkari VTT. Missing from the picture: Seppo Borenius Tellabs Oy, Sami Ala-luukko TeliaSonera Ab, Jonna Särs Nixu Oy, Jari Mieskonen Conor Venture Partners Oy, Mikko Valtakari Tempo Economics Ltd, Tapio Halkola Finnish Defence Forces, Matti Latva-aho University of Oulu and Juha Latikka Academy of Finland.

•• •• ••

Initiating new programme activities Definition of the funding criteria of research projects’ open calls Evaluate the strategic research projects.

The management board also initiated a midterm evaluation review for the programme to ensure the relevant direction of the research in the programme and to discover new operational opportunities for the programme. The management board held a total of 33 meetings. Usually, a meeting included one presentation on an actual topic, a summary of the funding situation and operational activities. There was active networking within the board. There was an average participation of 70%, which indicates that the members found the meetings useful. 16

2.3 Thematic Group Operations Thematic group activity is a voluntary and interactive working format among the industry and research organisations for promoting and supporting develop-

ment in the technology area, which is defined by the theme for each group.

2.3.1 Objectives of the Thematic Groups in the GIGA programme The thematic groups were an essential part of the programme structure. The main objective was to create a platform for open networking for the active participants and to support cluster formulation. The groups were established in the programme’s central subareas. Representatives of companies and research institutes participated in the activities of the thematic groups. The objectives and tasks of the thematic groups were to: •• Maintain a priority list of development goals •• Create and maintain the thematic group vision •• Arrange seminars, workshops and meetings •• Act as a forum for technical experts and business people •• Network between enterprises and research units •• Evaluate changes in technology and markets.

Figure 2. Thematic Groups.

2.3.2 Building the Groups and Launching Activities The initial formation of the thematic groups was carried out with a “bottom-up” approach. All GIGA participants and interested parties were invited to a joint thematic groups formation meeting (eight months after the programme had started). The objective of the initial meeting was to bring together a relevant number of interested participants to start activities. An individual thematic group was established for each focus area. Moreover, an additional thematic group was made for network security issues since it was felt that the subject was actually important for all other groups (Figure 2). Group1 – Wireless Access

The thematic group focused on wireless access, including wide area, local area, and technology enablers, the largest investments in the GIGA programme. The main objectives of the group were: •• Creation of the technology, business and regulatory vision of the field and its update •• Strengthen the ecosystem in Finland via the mutual exchange of suitable information •• Networking of the companies, research institutes and universities •• Dissemination of the research results (research organisations) •• Dissemination of the information by presentations of the companies/activities and by public seminars •• International co-operation, standardization •• Inform the participants about the important events of the field.

All these objectives were addressed to some degree by the thematic group activities. However, most attention was paid to the vision, networking, and disseminating information. The main purpose of the vision and roadmap work was to get a common shared understanding that could facilitate further work in the area. Group 2 – Seamless Networking

The original vision of the thematic group was to establish broadband trusted end-to-end connection for mobile terminals. Five years ago, GPRS was the main IP connection type with mobile phones; it lacked both adequate bandwidth and coverage for most purposes. Now the situation is different. Smart phones with HSPA and Wi-Fi technologies provide users with megabit bandwidth and a good user experience. In a few years, the phone will become an Internet browsing device for most users. The other aim of the thematic group was to provide a convergence of networks with quality, safety and reliability addressing also malicious users and applications in structured/unstructured, fixed/mobile, licensed/unlicensed networks. Unfortunately, this aim has been progressing slowly. In the convergence part of the vision, users’ terminals would roam from one operator network to another seamlessly and independent of technology. Users would have the best connection for their needs, whether that be bandwidth, quality, or price. The other long-lasting research topic in the thematic group is Quality of Service. In this domain, the problems have traditionally been solved by over-

provisioning, i.e., increasing hardware and communication links. However, the exponential growth of mobile data during recent years cannot be solved by over-provisioning for much longer. It is expected that QoS mechanisms are to be deployed to some extent in the radio networks. This will both cut down the ever-increasing hardware expenses and improve user satisfaction. Group 3 – Network Support

The thematic group focused on area termed Network Support Systems and Services (NSSS). The area includes networks Operations Support Systems (OSS) and Business Support Systems (BSS) and Customer Relationship Management (CRM). The main objectives of the group were: •• Market and business opportunity study of the NSSS focus area •• Assist SME companies to find new business opportunities and go global •• Networking of the companies, research institutes and universities •• Dissemination of the research results (research organisations) •• Dissemination of the information by presentations of the companies/activities and through public seminars •• Inform the participants about important events of the field. All of these objectives were addressed to some degree by the thematic group activities. However, most of the focus was on the market study, networking, and disseminating information. The main purpose of the market study was to get a definition and division of the NSSS (Network Support Systems and

17

Services) market, its size and growth by market areas. It also included a list of the Finnish players, fact sheets of major global players, and recommendations for business opportunities for Finnish companies. The market study was done by SWOT Consulting as an external consultant and published in autumn 2008 (http://www.tekes.fi/programmes/Giga/Documents). Group 4 – Telecom Business

The main purpose of the group work was to increase the understanding of the changes in business models and value networks. The group followed a scenario working method in order to create a coherent picture of convergence and industry change drivers. The work identified hundreds of business drivers, limitations and challenges, and summarized the work in two scenarios – verticals (positions in industry specific value chains and present business models) and horizontals (positions in cross-sectional value chains, customer groups and changing business models). The findings and conclusions of the major scenario effort were a starting point for a research project conducted with the objective of clarifying the business context and its effects on business models and the corresponding mechanisms for creating value. The report, Business Dynamics and Scenarios of Change, was published in autumn 2010 (http://www.tekes.fi/programmes/Giga/Documents). Group 5 – Security

The network security working group’s main task was developing and maintaining a roadmap for the years 2007– 2020. The starting point of this work is the GIGA roadmap developed in 2006– 18

2007. The goal is to enhance it, taking into account comments by the working group members. The working plan for the roadmap was the following: (1) Carry out a threat analysis session, classify results, make a comparison to other roadmaps; (2) Include technological and business trends; (3) Iterate threat analysis; (4) Suggest alternative trends and (milestones) for network security (end of 2007); (5) Suggest a working plan for a more detailed analysis (possibly a contract project); (6) Carry out a more detailed analysis; (7) Interpret and disseminate results (Spring 2008) Operational Procedures

Each thematic group had “key persons”, a thematic group chairman, an expert from the industry of research, and a Tekes/GIGA representative whose responsibility was to organize the meetings and write the minutes. Each group held kick-off meetings where the group members collectively decided on the topics they would focus on in group activities. There are short reports from each thematic group at the beginning of each focus area project collections (paragraphs 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5). These reports provide details of the activities and experiences of the groups. The names of the active members of the groups are also listed. Participation in the group work was not restricted to the participants of the GIGA programme. Instead, it was understood that having all the interested parties joining in the thematic activities would benefit everyone.

2.3.3 Activities of the Thematic Groups Group meetings, which were organised about once every two to three months

(they varied from once a month to three times a year) formed the main operational activity of the thematic groups. The meetings brought together the active participants and the group’s mailing lists included several hundred email addresses. The meetings were organized at Tekes headquarters and on the participating organizations’ premises, often using the videoconferencing facilities to minimize the time spent and the cost for the participants. The meetings included presentations and discussions on issues of interest to the group at that time. In addition, the groups organized seminars and visits. In the thematic groups’ vision study, the NETS Programme “ROADMAP for Network Technologies and Services” was used as a starting point. The vision was first updated in 2007 by “Update of GIGA-VAMOS Technology Roadmap 2007–2015”, prepared by SWOT Consulting Finland. To continue the vision, the thematic groups started to draw up a more detailed vision for the short-term (year 2010) and long-term (year 2015 and beyond). External support was called for because the voluntary work turned out to be too timeconsuming. As a conclusion of the vision work, the document “Roadmap for Communication Technologies, Services and Business Models 2010, 2015 and Beyond” was summed up and written by VTT in cooperation with the thematic groups. The roadmap is available on the GIGA webpage (http://www.tekes. fi/programmes/Giga/Documents).

2.4 Programme Strategic Actions The programme virtually consists of projects supporting the objectives of

Table 1. The strategic actions to reach the objectives of the GIGA programme.

Strategic Actions 1. Intensification of strategic research 2. Strengthen the core competencies of industry (Large companies) 3. Research projects applying new technology 4. Development of new innovative products (SME) 5. Support of new business activities for SME’s 6. Extension of technology and market insight

••

7. Forecast telecom business models and value chains 8. Thematic groups, seminars and dissemination 9. Extension of international cooperation 10. Extension of national cooperation

the programme and run by mutually independent organizations. The other important part of the programme is operational activities to produce added value for the participants. The strategic actions to reach the GIGA programme objectives were defined in the beginning in cooperation with the management board. Table 1 shows the strategic actions as defined by the programme plan. Strategic actions from 1 to 4 are targeting the research and company projects and strategic actions from 5 to 10 consist of operational activities and procedures.

2.4.1 Project Funding Strategic action 1, “Intensification of strategic research”, was carried out in the programme with the objective that the quality of research in universities and research organisations reaches world class in selected subareas that support the long term vision. In addition, strong basic information of critical and generic communications technologies is created. This plan was executed by choosing six (6) strategic

projects in two main calls (years 2006 and 2008). Strategic projects were funded for three years. The selected projects were: •• FRACTA (Future Radio Access Concept: Technology and performance Assessment): The objectives of the FRACTA project were to study the European 4th genera­ tion wireless communication system and to develop methods for the technology and performance assessment of future adaptive radios with realistic operating conditions. The project was tightly connected to the large WINNER EU project including all key players from Europe. •• NASTEC (Millimetre Wave Circuit Design Using Silicon Technologies), Aalto University: The objectives were to show that nanocale (65-nm) Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology is feasible for millimetre wave integrated circuit design. •• TrustInet (Trustworthy Internet: Overlay Infrastructure for Trusted

••

••

Computing and Communications), Aalto University: The TrustInet strategic research project will study how the trustworthiness of the Internet can be heightened by adding a slim overlay infrastructure on top of existing IP networks. The light overlay infrastructure builds a new kind of network layer platform for the above services. ABI (Algorithms for Broadband Infrastructure), VTT and Aalto University: The general objective of ABI was to obtain fundamental results on various algorithms related to future broadband networks, including the development of new solutions. COGNAC (Cognitive and Opportunistic Wireless Communication Networks), Oulu University (CWC) and VTT: The main goal of COGNAC was to develop fundamental techniques for future cognitive and opportunistic networks that utilize a wide variety of resources with improved efficiency. DIRTY-RF (Advanced Techniques for RF Impairment Mitigation in Future Wireless Radio Systems), Tampere University of Technology and Aalto University: The main objectives were to build waveform and link and system-level understanding (analysis) of the most essential impairment effects through proper component and signal modelling, as well as to devise sophisticated digital signal processing (DSP) techniques that can be used in transmitters and receivers to reduce the effects of such radio electronics imperfections.

The projects have achieved very good results, many publications and theses. 19

Some of the results have also been noted in international forums. More information on the project objectives and results are shown in project reports in paragraph 3. Strategic actions from 2 to 4 are targeting the research and company projects in order to strengthen the core competencies of industry (action 2), applied research in universities and research organisations (action 3), and to generate new business opportunities in evolving telecommunication markets (action 4). Some examples of the project results are presented in paragraph 2.7 and detailed results of each project in paragraph 3.

2.4.2 Operational Activities and Procedures The strategic actions from 5 to 10 in the table were intended to be implemented through the programme operational activities producing the added values for the programme projects and other interested parties. These activities are described in details in the following chapters. Strategic Action 5: Support of new business activities for SMEs

As SMEs are mostly based on highly innovative technology rather than effective business skills, the GIGA programme initiated a study on the type of training SMEs would need in order to ensure that R&D would be turned into a profitable global business. SME road show activations: •• Executions in 2006 in Oulu, Turku, Tampere and Helsinki area in cooperation with other Tekes Programmes (VAMOS and Verso). Repeated in Oulu 2008. 20

SME growth by internationalisation programme: •• SMEs to US markets (2007) •• SMEs to Russian markets (2008). Both internationalisation activities were made in cooperation with Fintra. The objective was to provide SMEs insight market knowledge, aid in networking with potential partners, and provide potential sales leads. Both programmes executed (included training sessions in Finland) tailor-made consulting days and one-week sales trips to the actual markets. To summarise the experience: both programmes were seen as very useful by the companies. For example, some of the companies got the business leads they sought, as whereas some companies got realistic grasp of the actual cost of entering the markets, and subsequently decided to postpone their market entry. Network Support Systems and Services market study

The main purpose of the market study was to get a definition and division of the Network Support Systems and Services market, its size and growth. The market study was done by SWOT Consulting as an external consultant and published in autumn 2008. One of the main objectives of the study was to offer a comprehensive view of the business potential for Finnish SME companies. The study also included a detailed list of Finnish players and fact sheets of major global players. Business Dynamics and Scenarios of Change

NSSS study was later complemented with a Business Dynamics and Scenarios of Change study with the objective

of clarifying the business contexts and their effect on business models, especially from the SME point of view. Business Training Programme for Academic Research Teams

Two different programmes were executed. Each programme contained four training sessions and additional related homework. Training had special emphasis on strategy and presentation skills. The objective was to train researchers to evaluate the business potential of their research projects and then to formulate the strategy and communicate the business proposition effectively to potential investors. The programme was viewed by the participants as very useful and effective. Strategic Action 6: Extension of technology and market insight

One of the major objectives of the GIGA Technology Programme was to provide new and relevant information on technologies and related business to the programme participants. The acquisition of such international information is often beyond the capacity of a single SME. In order to offer such information, the GIGA programme acquired studies in China, Japan, South Korea, the U.S.A., Russia, Kenya, and Brazil. The studies were suggested and specified by the management board, which saw the importance of such information. The studies were carried out by the local office of Finpro, Tekes, or a local company. They were presented at specially organised seminars. The studies are available on the GIGA website. The following studies are available: •• China (completed years 2006 and 2007) •• Japan (completed years 2006, 2007, and 2009)

•• •• •• •• ••

South Korea (completed year 2006) U.S.A. (completed years 2006 and 2007) Russia (completed year 2007) Kenya (completed year 2010) Brazil (completed year 2010).

The roadmaps prepared within the programme also gave an outlook for technologies and business opportunities in telecommunication. The roadmaps, “Update of GIGA-VAMOS Technology Roadmap 2007–2015” and “Roadmap for Communication Technologies, Services and Business Models 2010, 2015 and Beyond”, are available on the GIGA webpage (http://www.tekes.fi/programmes/Giga/Documents). Strategic Action 7: Forecast telecom business models and value chains

The telecom business and value chains evolution considerations were carried out mainly by the “Telecom Business” thematic group. The group chose an iterative way to progress in order to address the objectives by the thematic group activities. The field-specific presentations provided the stepping stones for intensive scenario working in the group. This work was further enhanced by a research project in five areas of ICT business ecosystems. The main purpose of the group work was to increase the understanding of the changes in business models and value networks. The group followed a scenario working method in order to create a coherent picture of convergence and the industry change drivers. The work identified hundreds of business drivers, limitations and challenges, and summarized the work in two scenarios – verticals (positions in industry-

specific value chains and present business models) and horizontals (positions in cross-sectional value chains, customer groups, and changing business models). The findings and conclusions of the major scenario effort was a starting point for a research project conducted with the objective of clarifying the business context and its effects on business models and corresponding value creation mechanisms. The report, Business Dynamics and Scenarios of Change, was published in autumn 2010 (http://www. tekes.fi/programmes/Giga/Documents). Strategic Action 8: Seminars and dissemination

In order to promote collaboration and better awareness between the research and industry projects in the programme, GIGA organised two common workshops (GIGA Results Promotions and Exhibitions in years 2007 and 2008) for the research and industry projects. The experience was good and has encouraged this kind of practice as a regular part of Tekes technology programmes. It was obvious that the exchange of information helps research groups and companies to position themselves to find opportunities for collaboration. In addition, the programme organised other seminars on interesting topics in the course of the program. Some of the seminars also raised a lot of interest from participants not on the GIGA mailing list. Some projects and organisations (University of Oulu/CWC, VTT) organised their own seminars which presented GIGA project results. •• Standardisation and regulation workshop (2007) in cooperation with Ficora •• Broadband seminar (2009) •• Future Broadcast (IP-TV, etc.) (2009).

Strategic Action 9: Extension of international cooperation

International collaboration is regarded as a very important factor for the final success of R&D&I. Therefore, the programme wanted to support actions that help the programme participants find reliable international partners. GIGA programme actively sought new means of initiating collaboration, so apart from bringing together advanced research groups, the programme established cooperation between national funding bodies. Offering international partners an opportunity to cooperate with the key players in Finland and at the same time bilateral cooperation with local funding organization, the programme was able to establish networked research and continual process of generating ideas for novel research. The goals for the international cooperation in the programme were set rather high, but they were largely met. In most of the research projects funded by GIGA, there was close cooperation between Finnish and foreign research groups. The most important frame for funding cooperation was the EUREKA CELTIC cluster, and within that cluster, the Spanish and French ministries. Notable new funding cooperation was established with the U.S. National Science Foundation in the form of bilateral researcher exchange funding. The latest funding cooperation was started with the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China, and as the result, two research-oriented projects were funded in the field of future telecommunication technology, cost and energy efficiency. FiDiPro – the Finland Distinguished Professor Programme enables distin21

Table 2. Goals for international cooperation.

Goals for International Cooperation To deepen the international cooperation to the level of concrete cooperation (e.g. exchange of the researchers, co-funded collaborative projects) targeting in the beginning the research field To use the existing nerworks and to crate new networks to form, for example, a bilateral frame contracts between the countries (MoU) TO increase information sharing by organising international and bilateral seminars To follow the broadband communication technology and market development in the selected geographical areas To contribute to standardization in international forums

guished researchers, both international and expatriates, to work and team up with the 'best of the best' in Finnish academic research. FiDiPro is led and financed by the Academy of Finland and Tekes. Three FiDiPro professors (Japan and U.S.A.) are working on projects funded by GIGA, and this seamless interaction between different cooperation frameworks benefits all participants.

The GIGA programme was internationally active especially toward the U.S.A. The collaboration with U.S. research funding organizations was brought to a new level. The programme organized three collaborative research workshops with the U.S. Department of Defense and one with the National Science Foundation. The workshops took place both in Washington D.C. and Helsinki. Based on these gatherings, sever-

Figure 3. Signature of Sino-Finland ICT Collaboration Framework.

22

al researcher visits and collaborative research projects were initiated. In conjunction with the workshops, the GIGA programme offered the participants versatile visit programs to introduce potential collaborations. The programme has also introduced the participants to non-Finnish research funders to establish direct contact between Finnish research and international funding cooperation. GIGA programme participants have been active in European Framework Programme and have also received direct project funding from U.S. funding bodies. The GIGA programme wanted to ensure the international relations in all directions that benefit the programme participants. As a continuation of the former NETS programme, GIGA had right from the start an active collaboration with the Japanese research community. Two networking workshops for Finnish and Japanese researchers were organized in Finland to enable them to introduce their ideas and discuss further collaboration. These discussions led to several collaborative research projects. The programme has had bilat-

Figure 4. GIGA-DoD Workshop on Wireless Communication in Washington DC.

forts into increasing the collaboration between organisations inside the programme projects with good results.

2.5 Communications in the Programme

eral discussions with the Shanghai Wireless Research Center about potential research collaboration between Chinese and Finnish research units. Interesting possibilities have emerged and the discussions will continue. Participation in conferences and exhibitions

In order to provide the opportunity for the participating universities and companies, the GIGA Programme set up stands at various conferences and exhibitions organized in Finland and specially invited SMEs to exhibit their new products. The opportunity to participate in the exhibitions was warmly welcomed by the participating companies. The practice was considered a good and inexpensive way to make new customer contacts. The international conferences that the GIGA programme supported both financially and as co-organizer were: •• EU IST2006 in Helsinki •• PIMRC’06 Helsinki •• WPMC’08 Saariselkä •• EUREKA Celtic Event 2008 in Helsinki.

Strategic Action 10: Extension of national cooperation

The goal of this action was to increase national cooperation, especially in the field of strategic research. The Academy of Finland’s mission is to finance highquality and innovative research aiming at new scientific breakthroughs. Since the Academy did not have its own programme in the same field, there was no close cooperation on the programme level. On the other hand, there is continuous cooperation and communication between the organizations. The academy also had representative on the GIGA management board. In addition to that, the Academy open competition funded telecommunication projects were activated to participate the thematic group meetings in order to network with GIGA projects. Cooperation with the other Tekes programmes has been carried out by organizing common activities , training, workshops and seminars especially with VAMOS, Ubicom and Verso programmes and Future Internet SHOK. The GIGA programme has also put ef-

The main objective of communication in the GIGA programme was to promote the services, benefits and results of the programme to the selected target groups based on the communications strategy. The communication strategy was written in the beginning of the programme and updated annually. The main communications channels of the GIGA programme were the website and the GIGAnews e-mail newsletter. The website was updated regularly and the newsletter was delivered on average once a month. The website consisted of all relevant programme information, news, seminars and presentation material. In addition, it included special pages for the thematic groups. The GIGAnews newsletter was used for specific announcements such as promoting GIGA seminars. The newsletter was found useful for that purpose. New members subscribed to the newsletters mailing list on the GIGA website. The list had approximately 700 subscribers. In addition, printed advertisements and digital banners were used to promote the most significant seminars on main target publications and websites. A separate co-operative MediaWiki, “GIGAwiki”, was established for each thematic group. Writing and commenting the roadmap was made mainly using this platform. 23

Some of the seminars were organised in cooperation with other Tekes programmes, especially with the mobile programme VAMOS and the ubiquitous ICT programme Ubicom or other cooperative parties like the Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority FICORA. A significant number of the seminar presentations were webcast. The GIGA programme provided business and communications training for participating research projects in cooperation with Tekes’ Ubicom programme. The media followed the GIGA programme via the M-Brain service and manually. Approximately 80 media “hits” were achieved during the programme. GIGA-related articles appeared in Finland’s biggest daily newspaper Helsingin Sanomat, regional newspapers like Kaleva and EteläUusimaa, technology reviews like Tekniikka & Talous, Prosessori, Tietoviikko, Tietokone, ITviikko and Digitoday and financial reviews like Kauppalehti and Taloussanomat. In 2010, the GIGA programme started cooperation with Netprofile PR Office in order to promote and disseminate the most important results of the programme. A total of ten business and research cases, including a programme summary, were meticulously selected and processed to brief presentations. Several cases were offered to selected media around the GIGA Final Results Promotion seminar.

2.6 Midterm Evaluation In order to ensure the right direction and good results, and to update the plan and objectives for the GIGA Programme, the Midterm Self Evaluation 24

was organized in the spring of 2008 in cooperation with the management board. The evaluation was partly based on the ZEF enquiry that was sent to the projects, key persons from the thematic group, and the management board. The review was supported by two external evaluators, who made the evaluations of the project results and how they fell on the programme objectives, and how the operational activities and procedures gave the intended added value to the participants. As a result of the evaluation, it was concluded that the projects support very well the objectives of the programme, and they have achieved remarkable results from the point of view of science, applied research and business. Also programme activation, networking, vision and thematic group work was seen as being very useful to the participants. On one hand, the share of SME projects was considered quite small, which on the other hand reflects well on the role of SMEs in the telecommunication business in Finland. As a general conclusion, the programme is still going in the right direction and well-balanced with the Tekes objectives. Recommendations for the second half of the programme were: •• Green Wireless ICT, increase the energy efficiency of the terminals and networks •• More effort to future wireless broadband technologies, IMT-A •• Gigabit short range communications; the trend is to go to smaller cells with large bandwidth •• Mobile ad-hoc networks •• Security •• Test platforms •• Innovative growing companies •• Vision work in the thematic groups.

The programme plan and objectives were updated following the recommendations.

2.7 Examples of Results The research projects at universities and VTT have achieved world-class results, which shows that foreign countries are willing to cooperate and start co-funding activities with Finnish partners. One internationally recognised result of the research projects is cognitive radio. Oulu University made the first cognitive radio phone call in the beginning of 2010. This demonstration VoIP call over a cognitive network also won the demo contest in MobiCom 2010 in Chicago. The results of cognitive radio/network research have also been reported in many other international forums and have contributed, in cooperation with Finnish industry, to “ITU-R Requirements and Implementation in Standards”. Figure 5. Cognitive radio WARP (Wireless Open-Access Research Platform) platform (University of Oulu).

In the programme, several national and international collaborative actions and projects were launched as a result of networking. For instance, the

Figure 6. Mercone project common live testbed.

“Mercone” project was initiated among its participants: Aalto University, Helsinki University, Ericsson Research, Nokia, NetHawk, TeliaSonera, and Secgo Software. This project achieved remarkable results in control between different networks (Figure 6). Another good example of an international collaboration project was the EUREKA Celtic project Winner+ (Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio), which included wide national and European collaboration. The aim of the project was to develop, optimise, and evaluate IMT-Advanced compliant technologies by integrating innovative and cost-effective concepts and functions from a technical, standardisation, and regulatory perspective. The project had a significant role in the evolution and evaluation of future wireless broadband technologies. Celtic Core Group honoured to the project Celtic Excellence Award in Gold for its outstanding

performance and results in Celtic-Plus Event 2011. One example of SME projects is 7signal. The project objectives included the development of versatile technology for wireless broadband quality monitoring and a commercial WLAN product based on the platform. Other objectives were to study the markets, to pilot and launch the solution, and to prepare for international market access. The project result was a globally unique product for business-critical WLAN service quality assurance. The project included wide cooperation with key partners: VTT, Convergens, Desigence, PT-Controlnet, Constant, Jopaco Electronics, Papula Nevinpat, and S1 Design Sami Kuusisto. The piloting and first customers were Porvoon Energia and Setera. The Red Herring Global Top 100 2008 Award was granted to 7signal. Good results have also been achieved in the area of “new business

Figure 7. 7signal was granted the Red Herring Global Top 100 2008 Award.

creation based on academic research”. The aim of the Aalto University COIN research project was to improve the techno-economic understanding of the national mobile and wireless services market. The project focused on measuring the usage of mobile services and adoption of mobile applications, as well as on a forward-looking modelling and analysis of selected technology and 25

Figure 8. JRC-IPTS calculations based on PATSTAT data (April 2009 release). Priority patent applications to the EPO, the 27 Member States National Patent Offices and the USPTO. Inventor criterion. 180

ITC applications per million inhabitants

regulatory scenarios, including handset bundling, emerging radio technologies (WiMAX, DVB-H), virtual operators, and mobile VoIP. As one result of the project, a new company, Zokem Ltd, was founded. Zokem has established a marketleading position in the field of on-device measurements, measuring consumer behaviour and activities in different contexts and locations, tracking application usage and changes in consumption patterns. The products of the company also enable more technical measurements, such as dropped calls, network coverage, and signal strength, and they provide the possibility to ask real-time questions from the mobile audience through mobile pop-up questionnaires. The company now offers the analyses of consumer behaviour to operators, terminal manufactures, service providers, and advertisers using a SaaS business model. The company has started a cooperation with many potential international partners and has a cus-

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tomer roster that includes names like Google and Telefonica. The programme projects have generated in total more than one thousand patent applications especially in the field

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of future wireless technologies. Some large company projects have created close to one hundred patent applications a year. On average, Finland is very active in this field. The number of ICT

Figure 9. “These statistics have been created in order to understand who and where is doing IETF work in terms of drafts and RFCs.” [IETF – Document Statistics]

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patent applications per million inhabitants or per GDP for Finland is much higher than both the EU average and the U.S. values: Finland’s ratio was 148 ICT patent applications per million inhabitants in 2006, while the U.S. ratio was 110 and the EU average was 44 (see Figure 8). Standardisation has also been one of the programme goals. In many cases, the Finnish proposals in different standardization forums (IEEE, ETSI, 3GPP, IETF, etc.) have been based on the project results. Several projects and organizations have been contributing to LTE standardization and evaluation. In the past few years, Finland has been the third most active contributor to the IETF work in terms of drafts and RFCs (Request for Comments).

2.8 Facts and Figures The total programme volume was EUR 279 million, which consisted of EUR 41 million for research projects (universities and research organisations) and EUR 238 million for industrial projects. Tekes funding to the projects totalled EUR 99 million. The total volume in the original GIGA programme Plan was EUR 240 million. The volume increased significantly from the original plan due to the high activity of industry in the programme. The total public research spending has remained approximately at the budgeted level. In the focus areas, Wireless Access was the most popular both in industry and university projects, representing approximately 50% of the total volume. In this focus area, the share of large companies was very high, which reflects well on the interest and R&D investments of the Finnish telecom industry. On the other hand, in many cas-

Figure 10. Distribution of GIGA project volumes over the focus areas.

Industry projects

es the content of the projects partially touched on the other focus areas as well. Secondly, the Telecom Business focus area was clearly the smallest, but it supported the other focus areas well and has had some very good results. The total number of funded industry projects was 78, of which 39 were SME (small and medium size enterprises) projects and 39 were large company projects. Most of the SME projects were in the Network Support focus area (24 SME projects), which was considered a business area with good potential for Finnish SME companies. The volumes of SME projects were much smaller than the large company projects. The SME Tekes funding was about 15% of the total GIGA industry funding (on average 48% of the project budget). On the other hand, the large companies’ share of the telecommunications turnover in Finland is more than 95%. The average Tekes funding for large companies was 27% of the project volume. At the same time, large companies’ subcontracting to SMEs, univer-

Research projects

sities, and research organisations was close to 24% of the project budgets. Therefore, the actual Tekes funding for large companies was about 3.5% of the project budgets. Ten research projects (universities, VTT) shared detailed research plans with non-Finnish partners, and almost every project had a researcher exchange with Finland. The typical duration of a researcher exchange was from a couple of weeks to one year, and the most common cooperation partner was a university from the U.S.A. The GIGA programme funded seven project entities in coordinated bilateral or multilateral cooperation with other national funding organizations. In the course of the programme, the national cooperation between the universities and research organisations increased a lot. At the end of the programme, almost all research projects were executed in cooperation with two research organisations. A list of organisations participating in the projects in the GIGA programme is in Appendix 2. 27

3 Thematic Group Reports 3.1 Thematic Group 1: Wireless Access Focus of the Group The thematic group focused on wireless access, including wide area, local area and the technology enablers, the largest parts of investment in the GIGA programme. The main objectives of the group were: •• creation of the technology, business and regulatory vision of the field and its update •• strengthen the ecosystem in Finland via mutual exchange of suitable information •• networking of the companies, research institutes and universities •• dissemination of the research results (research organisations) •• dissemination of the information by presentations of the companies/activities and by public seminars •• international co-operation, standardization •• inform the participants about the important events of the field. All these objectives were addressed to some degree by the thematic group activities. However, most focus was paid to the vision, networking and disseminating information.

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Group’s Cluster/Networks in Finland

Other Activities and Results

The persons actively involved to the work of the thematic group were: Mikko Uusitalo (Nokia Research) Chair 2009– 2010, Kari Kalliojärvi (Nokia Research) Chair until end of 2008, Ari Hulkkonen (Elektrobit Wireless Communications), Pekka Pirinen (University of Oulu, CWC), Marja Matinmikko (VTT), Pertti Vainikainen (Aalto University), Timo Bräysy (University of Oulu, CWC), Pertti Järvensivu (VTT), Henrik Asplund (Aalto University), Mervi Ranta (Aalto University), Pekka Wainio (Nokia Siemens Networks), Jaakko Saijonmaa (EADS), Timo Simula (Netcare Finland), Mikko Jalonen (University of Turku), Jarkko Paavola (University of Turku), Mikko Kärkkäinen (Aalto University) and Kari Markus (Tekes). In addition several experts visited the thematic group meetings to present their activities in the field representing over 20 different organizations. We also want to thank all these persons for their contribution to the thematic group work.

The thematic group had 16 meetings organized in the Helsinki area and in Oulu hosted by VTT, Nokia, Nokia Siemens Networks, University of Turku, the Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority and Tekes. The main activities of the thematic group were to create and update the technology vision and roadmap, to organise the thematic group seminar and to follow up on the technology development with presentations by group members and experts from the field.

Group Vision and Roadmap Main purpose in vision and roadmap work was to get a common shared understanding that could be facilitating further work in the area. The vision was collected by VTT as an external consultant and published in fall 2010 (http://www. tekes.fi/u/GIGA-Roadmap2010.pdf ).

Seminars

The thematic group organized a thematic group 1 kick-off meeting 6.11.2006 including 15 presentations of ongoing projects. The thematic group participated also in organizing public seminars on 1.4.2008 and 20.10.2009 under the title “GIGA Results Promotion”. The seminars aroused very wide interest and had more than 100 registered participants. Presentations at meetings

•• ••

”IMT-Advanced current status”, Juha Laurinaho, Nokia ”GIGA-VAMOS roadmap”, Mikael von Hertzen, SWOT Consulting Finland

••

•• ••

••

••

••

••

•• •• •• •• •• •• ••

••

••

”UWB, from the technology point of view”, Matti Hämäläinen, CWC Oulun yliopisto ”UWB, from the application point of view”, Harald Kaaja, Nokia ”Millimetrewave technology, from the technology point of view”, Mikko Kärkkäinen, TKK ”Millimetrewave technology, from the application point of view”, Timo Karttaavi, VTT ”WiMAX Now and in the Future”, Jarmo Mäkinen, Nokia Siemens Networks ”Spectrum Sharing in WINNER”, Pekka Pirinen, CWC Oulun yliopisto ”Ajankohtaista regulaatiosta ja standardeista”, Timo Leppinen, Ficora ”Ajankohtaista taajuusreguloinnista”, Petri Lehikoinen, Ficora ”User Needs and Services”, Mervi Ranta and Henrik Asplund, TKK ”Cognitive radio and flexible spectrum use”, VTT, CWC and Nokia ”Software Defined Radio”, Mikko Uusitalo, Nokia ”Mesh networks”, Timo Bräysy, CWC ”Mesh networks”, Ari Paganus, Meshcom Technologies Oy ”Broadband Terminal Radios and Basestations, terminal architectures” and ”HW and SW modules and components”, Mikko Uusitalo, Nokia ”Matkapuhelimet ja RF-säteilyn mahdolliset terveysvaikutukset”, Maila Hietanen, Työterveyslaitos ”Roadmap for Network Technologies and Services 2010, 2015 and beyond”, Pekka Ruuska, VTT

In addition we had a possibility to visit Nokia Siemens Networks Showroom to see very interesting presentations and demos. We would like to thank NSN for this nice opportunity.

Conclusion In general, the thematic group activities attracted good participation and made a clear contribution to the objectives set. The participants felt that this is a unique group in Finland in its field and it included the most important national players both from the company and research sides. The thematic group members participated actively in the creating technology vision, which was considered especially valuable by the group members.

Project Reports Future Radio Access Concept: Technology and performance Assessment (FRACTA) Project Duration

1 March 2006 to 28 February 2008 VTT Telecommunication Laboratory and Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) of University of Oulu has a long experience on advanced research. This research project is a continuation to the research projects such as Future Radio Access, FUTURA – one of the Tekes NETS programme’s spearhead projects, HARAMA, HARAVA, HASIM, HARMON and AWICS. The projects concentrated on single-user and multi-user receivers for CDMA systems, radio channel estimation, synchronization and detection algorithms as well as multi-user detection, interference suppression, turbo

and space time coding, adaptive radio links and multi-carrier modulation. During last ten years CWC has been active in different framework programmes of the European Community for research, technological development and demonstration. Such EC funded projects include FRAMES, ULTRAWAVES, PULSERS and WINNER. FRAMES-project (Future Radio widebAnd Multiple accEss Systems, ACTS project 090) was an important cooperation between academy and industries providing the definition for UMTS, the European 3rd generation mobile communication system. Telecommunication Systems research field of VTT has about 20 years experience on the theory of telecommunication systems, digital base band signal processing algorithms and protocols, and their implementation architectures and technologies. Extensive amount of radio interface and mobile communication system R&D has been carried out in close collaboration with the Finnish industry. The R&D work is focusing on methods and algorithms needed in realisation of multimedia communication, wireless services, architectures and implementation technologies of telecommunication network elements and terminals. The earlier and current relevant research projects at VTT Electronics include EU projects WINNER (2004–2009), AMBNET (2004– 2009), PHOENIX (2004–2006), WINDFLEX (2000–2003), PULSERS (2004– 2009), STINGRAY (2002–2003) and ADRIATIC (2001–2004), Tekes projects WANET (2001–2003), TAFE (2004–2007), NOCARC (2001–2003) and SCIFI (1999– 2002) and Finnish Academia projects ARCHIE (2001–2004) and AWICS (2004– 2007).

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The FRACTA project was tightly connected to the large WINNER EU project that aims at creating radio interface and network concept for 4G mobile communication systems. VTT’s focus areas in WINNER are methods for spectrum estimation and flexible usage, system specification and architecture design and demonstration of air interface concept. AMBNET is also a large EU project focusing on design of wireless network architectures and protocols. VTT’s focus in this project was mobility management. AMBNET and WINNER are closely connected as both projects are part of so called Wireless World Initiative. PHOENIX project develops concepts and methods for cross-layer optimisation of OSI layers. WIND-FLEX, PULSERS and STRINGRAY developed methods for fast and adaptive OFDM and UWB based radio interfaces. STINGRAY contributed also to the early version of WiMax standard (IEEE802.16a). In WANET project VTT developed an adaptive air interface and MAC/DLC techniques for 3G+ systems. Within the TAFE project VTT has close cooperation with Berkeley Wireless Research Center (BWRC) with the common goal to find technologies (compensation of nonlinearities, adaptive antennas, CMOS electronics, LTTC packaging) for fast (1 Gbit/s) 60 GHz radio front-end with adaptive antenna array. In ADRIATIC, NOCARC and SCIFI projects VTT developed new computing architectures and design methods for telecommunication products. AWICS and ARCHIE projects had more theoretical approaches focusing on theories of wireless system cross-layer design and wireless system channel estimation.

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Description of the Objectives The objectives of the FRACTA project were to study the European 4th generation wireless communication system and to develop methods for the technology and performance assessment of future adaptive radios with realistic operating conditions. The project included extensive research to achieve the objectives in the following fronts: •• Radio channels. Due to new and higher carrier frequencies the multi-antenna radio channel characteristics, in which future wireless access networks are applied, remain unknown. However, the detailed knowledge of the MIMO radio channels is crucial for the design and optimization of future radio access systems–both at link and system levels. Therefore, the wireless channel were measured in relevant indoor and outdoor environments at frequencies in the range 3–5 GHz, and the corresponding statistical channel models will be implemented in a hardware emulator. •• Transceivers. The advanced multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transceiver algorithms were selected, analyzed, and simulated in different MIMO modes in general purpose computers. The algorithms developed and specified at CWC and VTT in earlier and on-going research projects, e.g. the European Commission WINNER (IST-2003507581), gave the baseline for the algorithm selection and further development for the adaptive MI-

••

••

••

MO radio link. Focus was given to those algorithms which support best the optimised system concept in terms of complexity, performance and cost. As the first assumption, the reference performance was obtained using those multi-antenna concepts which had been developed in the WINNER project. Algorithms. The algorithms in selected MIMO modes for the adaptive MIMO radio link will be designed and optimised for implementation through bit-true modelling, and corresponding architectures will be designed. To support the design and to facilitate forward-looking technology estimation, methods will be developed for the estimation of technologyindependent algorithm complexities and mapping of it on technology-dependent estimation model. Implementation. The bit-true algorithms and architectures for the adaptive MIMO radio link will be implemented in the MIMO-OFDM test platform, which can be reconfigured by software defined DSP/ FPGA technology. Evaluation. The performance of the implemented MIMO radio link will be evaluated through real-time simulation of communication performance in the MIMOOFDM test platform. The parameters of the technology-dependent estimation model will be updated with the concrete values extracted from the implementation.

Methods or Processes Used In Task 1, the EU project Winner was explored to clarify the most interesting areas which has been out of the project scope, to research those further in FRACTA and to form a basement for future wireless communications. At the same time FRACTA demonstrator specifications were defined together with Elektrobit Ltd, which has been the key contributor for Winner project demonstrator task. In Task 2, the radio channel measurements of FRACTA were conducted in Oulu University campus area as well as in the city center of Oulu in years 2006 and 2007. Three different scenarios were measured: outdoor-to-indoor, indoor and transition scenarios. In addition, Multi-BS and distributed antenna systems (DAS) were measured both indoors and outdoors. Micro cell deployment was the approach in outdoors and thus the base station antennas were assumed to be well below the rooftop level (roughly at 2–6 m height). The outdoor-to-indoor case was measured in the vicinity of the Tietotalo building. The mobile station moved inside the building while the base station was placed outside the building e.g. on a mast near the surrounding building. Indoor measurements were measured in the premises of CWC in the fourth floor of Tietotalo. The environment was a typical office environment with long corridors and small office rooms. In addition, large indoor halls in the main building of the university were covered. Transition scenarios were measured outside in the University campus area. The campus area offered different types of scenarios to measure for example moving from LOS to NLOS around

the corner, moving to inner courts, going inside a building etc. Also the campus offered urban-like environment and a possibility to measure both micro and macrocell scenarios. The measured radio channel data was in special format understood by the post-processing software. In order to run the data on Propsim or in link level simulator, the data had to be converted to impulse response format, i.e., IRdata. On the post-processing software PPS, there was an option to export the data as IR-files. IR MAT-file included the impulse responses for the measurement route together with the measurement information (settings etc.) and the GPS info. In Task 3, a detailed study of the spatial schemes that had been investigated in WINNER was provided. These schemes included open loop transmit diversity, open loop spatial multiplexing and transmit beamforming. The frame error rate performance (FER) and spectral efficiency performance of several interesting non-adaptive and adaptive MIMO-OFDM techniques were evaluated. Particular interest was to find out the most suitable spatial modes for a practical adaptive 2 x 2 MIMO-OFDM systems with limited feedback. In addition, the performance of the effective SINR (ES)-based adaptive MIMO-OFDM systems was studied in spatial channel model extended (SCME) as well as in measured radio channels. The channel measurement data used in the link level simulations was extracted from Task 2. A major assumption of the adaptive MIMO-OFDM study was that the adaptation was based on the limited feedback information. In order to study the frame error rate (FER) and spectral ef-

ficiency performance of various nonadaptive and ES-based adaptive MIMOOFDM systems, extensive Monte Carlo computer simulations were performed. A link level simulator was developed for this purpose in Matlab. The simulations concentrated on non-adaptive and adaptive MIMO-OFDM systems using turbo coding as a channel coding. In the aforementioned simulations, feedback link was assumed to be error- and delay-free. In addition, channel estimation was assumed to be perfect. However, simulations with imperfect feedback link and with channel estimation are ongoing. These results are planned to be published later on through a conference paper and a journal which are currently in preparation. Task 4 describes the Algorithm and Architecture Design. Those were specified in two phases, firstly for enabling demonstrator specification and secondly for bit-true modelling. A theoretical model, bit-true modelling, was developed for quantization effects. The bit true models of the specified algorithms and architectures were also defined. Simulation results were compared with the theoretical model as well as word lengths of all parameters were calculated in this task 4. In Task 5 the specific modes and related set of transceiver algorithms for a link demonstrator were selected to be implemented on the hardware based MIMO-OFDM evaluation platform. The implementation and real-time HW based performance validation of selected base band algorithms allows for reliable performance verification of the selected adaptive MIMO radio link concepts in the real mobile radio environments.

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Task 6 evaluates the performance of the implemented adaptive MIMO radio link, and adjusts the implementation characteristics estimation model with the results of the demonstrator implementation. Based on the work in task 5, concept performance evaluation will be carried out by running extensive simulations in MIMO OFDM platform using different channel models. Radio link performance is evaluated against the specific MIMO radio channel characteristics, including the delay and angular dispersion of the channel impulse response. Analysis of the performance results in different MIMO modes may reveal opportunities for further optimisations. Lighter performance evaluation will first be done for the demonstrator v1 to drive the v2 specification, and a complete evaluation at the end of the project for the demonstrator v2.

Results FRACTA project was actually planned to last for three years. For management convinience it was decided to merge with Celtic project Winner+ starting from 1st of April 2008. Therefore results described below are after two years effort. The goal of the proposed project FRACTA was to implement and demonstrate the most innovative features of the WINNER 4G air-interface which are out of the scope in WINNER phase II. By doing so, the Finnish participants would have both the latest knowhow on the 4G air-interface technologies implementation aspects as well as would be recognised globally as one of the leading developers of 4G technologies. Obtaining of realistic propagation characteristics for several scenarios including out-to-in, indoor, transition sce32

nario and distributed antenna systems, the realistic channel characteristics were provided in a form of measured channel impulse responses as well as in a form of stochastic channel model. The SCME-based simulation results showed that the most appropriate spatial modes for a practical 2 x 2 adaptive system with limited feedback were fixed-beam beamforming (FBBF), fixed-beam space-time block coding (FB STBC) and fixed-beam spatial multiplexing (FB SMUX). They had moderately good performance and sufficiently low implementation complexity. The performance of three various adaptive systems, denoted as adaptive beamforming diversity and multiplexing (ABDM), adaptive beamforming and multiplexing (ABM) and adaptive diversity and multiplexing (ADM), were evaluated through SCME- and measurement data-based simulations. The simulation results showed clearly that all the three adaptive systems provided a significant gain in spectral efficiency compared to non-adaptive systems in NLOS and LOS channels of SCME while maintaining the required FER performance. The ABDM and the ABM had similar FER and spectral efficiency performance. The ADM had almost similar performance to the other systems but with lower implementation complexity.

The channel measurement databased simulation results showed that each adaptive system provided a significant gain in spectral efficiency in NLOS channel as in LOS channel at medium and high SNR region. In addition, it was noticed that ABDM and ABM had higher spectral efficiencies as ADM in NLOS and LOS channels in low SNRs. Thus, ADM and ABM are attractive solutions for a practical low complexity 2 x 2 MIMOOFDM system with limited feedback. New VHDL components has been implemented for Modulator / Demodulator, 2x2 LMMSE MIMO decoding and 2x2 LSE MIMO decoding. Some changes has been made to earlier system VHDLs to make it work with new LMMSE/LSE MIMO modes and double bit rate. Functionalities of all VHDL components are verified with bit-true test vectors (FRACTA D4.2) i.e. same inputs have been used in fixed-point Matlab model and in VHDL simulator resulting exactly same outputs. Therefore, it can be assumed that the actual measurement results with FPGA board would be same as in fixed point Matlab system simulations. Complexities of MIMO decoding models are small enough to fit in XC2V6000 FPGA together with channel estimation -tracking, as seen in Table 1. Further optimization is possible, if additional resource saving is needed.

Table 1. Decoding algorithms with channel estimation tracking in XC2V6000 FPGA.

18x18 multipliers

Block RAM

LUTs

Alamouti

124 ( 86 %)

17 (11 %)

15163 (22 %)

2x2 LSE

144 (100 %)

28 (19 %)

47509 (70 %)

2x2 LMMSE

144 (100 %)

28 (19 %)

49572 (73 %)

Alamouti is for reference only, implemented in earlier projects

New measured radio channel models from CWC were loaded to C8 radio channel simulator. Reference measurement with original Alamouti MIMO mode measured in N‑LOS channel. Unfortunately, there is no measurement results for LSE or LMMSE yet, because of problems with hardware which are expected to relief when new demonstrator platform is available in Q2/2008.

Publications The following publications were published, accepted, prepared or in preparation during the period 1 March 2006 to 29 February 2008. X. Lu, P. Silvola, M. Juntti: “Lattice Reduction based Detection algorithms in High Correlated MIMO-OFDM system” IEEE PIMRC, Helsinki 2006. J. Ylitalo: “Fixed-beam MIMO concept”, IEEE PIMRC, Helsinki 2006. M. Alatossava, H. Penannen, V.-M. Holappa and J.Ylitalo: “The Impact of Noise Setting on Estimated Radio Channel Parameters and BER", WPMC, Jaipur, India 2007. J. Kyröläinen: “Dual-Polarized Antenna Array for MIMO Radio Channel Measurements” FINSIG’07, Oulu, 2007. J. Kyröläinen: “Dual-Polarized Antenna Array for MIMO Radio Channel Measurements” Master’s thesis, University of Oulu, 2007. H. Pennanen: “Performance evaluation of adaptive MIMO-OFDM systems with limited feedback.” Master’s thesis, University of Oulu, 2007. H. Pennanen, J Leinonen, J Ylitalo: “Transmission adaptation for broadband wireless MIMO-OFDM systems with limited feedback.” FINSIG’07, Oulu, 2007.

M. Alatossava, A. Taparugssanagorn, V.-M. Holappa and J.Ylitalo: “Measurement Based Capacity of Distributed MIMO Antenna System in Urban Microcellular Environment at 5.25 GHz” IEEE VTC Spring, Marina Bay Singapore 2008. M. Alatossava: “Empirical Wideband MIMO Channel Characterization in an Outdoor to Indoor Propagation Scenario and in a Distributed Antenna System” Licentiate thesis, University of Oulu, 2008. H. Pennanen, J Leinonen, M Latva-aho: “Enhanced link adaptation techniques for MIMO-OFDM systems with limited feedback – A channel measurement based evaluation.” submitted to WPMC, Saariselkä, 2008. H. Pennanen, J Leinonen, M Latva-aho: “Performance evaluation of adaptive MIMO-OFDM with imperfect feedback in measurement based channels.” in preparation to international conference. H. Pennanen, M. Alatossava, J Leinonen, M Latva-aho: “Performance evaluation of MIMO-OFDM systems with limited feedback using measurement based channels” in preparation IEEE Transaction on Vehicular Technology. Project Volume

Project Director (CWC)

Prof. Matti Latva-aho University of Oulu [email protected] Project Director (VTT)

Technology Manager Kyösti Rautiola VTT Technical Research Center of Finland [email protected]

E!3187 CELTIC WINNER+ – Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio + (WINNER+), University of Oulu (CWC) Project Duration

1 April 2008 to 30 June 2010 Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio (WINNER+) project was started 1.4.2008. This report collects the results obtained by the Centre of Wireless Communications, University of Oulu during the lifetime of the project, i.e., covering the period 1.4.2008–30.6.2010. During its lifetime, WINNER+ project has been involved in Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme. In addition to Tekes, the project was partially funded by the Centre for Wireless Communications.

EUR 1 007 000 Project Participants

The project was carried out by VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Oulu. Other partners: the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. The project was funded by Tekes. Project Manager

Team Manager Mika Rautio VTT Technical Research Center of Finland [email protected]

Description of the Objectives The support of broadband services for mobile and wireless applications towards IMT-Advanced is a key trend for future radio access technologies. The WINNER+ project addresses these challenges from a technical, standardisation and regulatory perspective. Based on the basic system concept, which was developed in the WINNER and WINNER II projects withing the EU FP6 research

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programme, the aim in this project was to develop, optimise and evaluate IMTAdvanced compliant technologies by integrating innovative and cost-effective additional concepts and functions and providing an evolution path towards further improved performance of IMT-Advanced. This project is mobilising manufacturers and operators in Europe and the research community including Centre for Wireless Communications of University of Oulu for a collaborative research effort. The objectives of the project can be summarised as follows: •• Research, system integration and evaluation of innovations in areas with high potential of exploitation in IMT-Advanced •• Harmonization of innovations in the pre-standardization phase •• Contribution to standard organizations of technology elements suitable to IMT-Advanced, •• Participation in the evaluation of selected technology proposals •• Utilisation of strong ITU-R Channel by using the WINNER brand •• Evaluation and demonstration of selected key technologies.

Methods or Processes Used During the lifetime of the project, CWC was active in 2 work packages of WINNER+, namely WP1 (Innovations) and WP5 (Trials). In addition, CWC contributed to the system concept development work in WP2. The objective of the Work Package 1 is to propose and describe innovations and the related updates of the system concept. The Task 1.1 proposes advanced RRM concepts, including distributed self-optimising, auton-

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omous, traffic and service aware RRM algorithms designs. The Task 1.2 finalises the flexible spectrum usage related functionalities to provide a set of functionalities usable in IMT-Advanced technologies. The Task 1.3 investigates the integration of two innovative transmission techniques into the system concept: Peer-to-Peer communication and Network Coding. The Task 1.4 focuses on advanced multiple antenna schemes and their implications for the system concept. The task is dedicated to conventional antenna deployments, and concentrates on the optimisation of system aspects of advanced antenna schemes, such as inter-working with RRM and feedback schemes design. The Task 1.5 addresses coordinated antennas systems, where geographically remote antennas can be fruitfully exploited in close cooperation. This activity involves joint transmission/reception by either distributed base station antennas or several access points (base stations and/ or relays), and interference avoidance through access points coordinated transmission. WP 5 focuses on validation of the developed concept with hardware based prototypes. The work consists of implementing selected functionality of the concept on a software defined radio (SDR) platform utilised by the Work Package partners, measuring and analysing the system and link performance both in laboratory and real environments, and analysing the upper layer system performance with computer simulations performed by the Work Package partners. In addition to the system and link level performance validation, radio channel model-

ling is carried out to fine-tune, update and validate the radio channel models for IMT-Advanced and to provide the needed models for laboratory emulation to be used as part of the system validation. Furthermore, showcases are prepared and conducted in this work package.

Results The WINNER+ consortium contributed to the development of IMT-Advanced candidate technology proposals by providing technical content through the partners to organisations such as in 3GPP, 3GPP2, IEEE. Innovations have been produced in the areas: radio-resource management, including active management of interference, heterogeneous network deployment including relaying as integral part, in combination with antenna concepts, spectrum sharing and its flexible usage, multi- and broadcast capabilities, exploitation of peer-to-peer links between user terminals and incorporation of network coding. The research work was based on preceding work in the FP6 WINNER and WINNER II projects and further developed the system by additional innovative concepts. The optimisation and evaluation were performed by means of analytical evaluations as well as link and system level simulations and demonstrations of key functionalities. Beyond that, parts of this concept were incorporated to candidate IMT-Advanced technology proposals. A demonstrator was developed to illustrate key new functionalities. These activities have taken into account the requirement for IMT-Advanced and the results of WRC-07 that was held in October/November 2007.

CWC was particularly active in WP1 during the lifetime of the project. For example, the research in T1.4 focused on practical multiuser MIMO strategies for cellular TDD systems. The task proposed a practical uplink MIMO scheme for TDD systems to coexist with downlink Tx-Rx zero-forcing so that the locally available CSI of the BD channel is used by the terminals in the uplink transmission. T.15 focused on coordinated multi-cell processing, which can efficiently exploit the available spatial degrees of freedom in a multi-user multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) multi-cell channel. A generalised method for joint design of linear transceivers with coordinated multi-cell processing subject to perBS/antenna power constraints was proposed. The method can accommodate a variety of scenarios from coherent multi-cell beamforming across a large virtual MIMO channel to singlecell beamforming with intercell interference coordination and beam allocation. Decentralised coordinated multicell beamforming approaches were also studied during the second half of the project. In WP5, participated in building a demonstration platform, which was used in many public events to demonstrate the functionality and performance of different multi-antenna signal processing algorithms. Channel models for relay channels were parameterised based on measurements carried out in an outdoor to indoor propagation. In addition, WINNER II channel model was updated to 3D channel model, i.e., to cover also the elevation domain in addition to the angular domain.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 April 2008 to 30 June 2010. Journal Articles

P. Komulainen, A.Tölli, M. Latva-aho & M. Juntti, “Downlink Assisted Uplink Zero-Forcing for TDD Multiuser MIMO Systems”, Eurasip Journal on Wireless Communications & Networking devoted to the 3GPP Long-Term Evolution System, Sep 2009. A. Tölli, H. Pennanen, and P. Komulainen, “Decentralized Minimum Power Multi-cell Beamforming with Limited Backhaul Signaling”, IEEE Trans. on Wireless Comm., accepted for publication, 2010. A. Osseiran, E. Hardouin, A. Gouraud, M. Boldi, I. Cosovic, K. Gosse, J. Luo, J. F. Monserrat, T. Svensson, A. Tölli, A. Mihovska, S. Redana, M. Werner and W. Mohr, “The Road to IMT-Advanced Communication Systems: Stateof-the-Art and Innovation Areas Addressed by the WINNER+ Project”, IEEE Communications Magazine Special Issue on ‘Next Generation 3GPP Technologies’, Vol. 47, No. 6, pp. 38–47, June 2009. Conference Articles

M. Bennis, J. L. Ambel and A. Tölli, “NonCooperative Operators in a GameTheoretic Framework”, PIMRC’08. P. Komulainen, A. Tölli, M. Latva-aho and M. Juntti, “Downlink Assisted Uplink Zero-Forcing for TDD Multiuser MIMO Systems”, WCNC’09. A. Tölli, H. Pennanen and P. Komulainen, “SINR Balancing with Coordinated Multi-cell Transmission”, WCNC’09.

M. Bennis, C. Wijting, S. Abedi, J. Lara and S. Thilakawardana, "WINNER spectrum sharing with fixed satellite services”, VTC’09, Barcelona, Spain. A. Tölli, H. Pennanen and P. Komulainen, “On the value of coherent and coordinated multi-cell trasmission”, International workshop on LTE Evolution (ICC’09), Dresden, Germany. A. Tölli, H. Pennanen and P. Komulainen, “Distributed Coordinated Multicell Transmission Based on Dual Decomposition”, Globecom 09, Hawaii, USA, Dec 09. A. Tölli, H. Pennanen and P. Komulainen, “Distributed Implementation of Coordinated Multi-cell Beamforming”, PIMRC09, Tokyo, Japan, Sep 09. A. Tölli, H. Pennanen and P. Komulainen, “Beamformer Design and Resource Allocation for Centralised and Distributed Coordinated Multi-point Transmission” Invited paper, WPMC’09, Sendai Japan, Sep 09. P. Komulainen, A.Tölli, M. Latva-aho & M. Juntti, “Channel Sounding Pilot Overhead Reduction for TDD Multiuser MIMO Systems”, 5th IEEE Broadband Wireless Access Workshop co-located with GLOBECOM 2009. E. Suikkanen, L. Hentilä and J. Meinilä, “Wideband Radio Channel Measurements around 800 MHz in Outdoor to Indoor and Urban Macro Scenarios” Future Network & Mobile Summit 2010. H. Pennanen, A. Tölli and M. LatvaAho, “Decentralized base station assignment in combination with downlink beamforming”, SPAWC’2010 Marrakesh, Morocco, Jun 10.

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E. Suikkanen, A. Tölli, M. Latva-aho, “Characterization of Propagation in an Outdoor-to-Indoor Scenario at 780 MHz”, PIMRC’10. H. Pennanen and A. Tölli, “Decentralized Coordinated Multi-cell Beamforming for Sum Rate Maximization”, to appear in 44th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, Pacivic Grove, CA, USA, November, 2010. P. Komulainen and A. Tölli and M. Juntti, “CSI Signaling for Decentralized Coordinated Beamforming in TDD Multi-cell MIMO Systems”, to appear in 44th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, Pacivic Grove, CA, USA, November, 2010. M. Boldi, P. Komulainen, M. Olsson, H. Pennanen, N. Seifi, T. Svensson, A. Tölli, T. Wild “Coordinated MultiPoint Systems for IMT-Advanced in the Framework of the WINNER+ Project”, FNMS’09. A. Osseiran, E. Hardouin, M. Boldi, I. Cosovic, J. F. Montserrat, A. Tölli “Radio Innovation Areas for IMT-Advanced & Beyond: WINNER+ System Concept”, FNMS’09. J. Vihriälä, M. Bennis, I. Cosovic, A. Osseiran, A. Saul “Flexible Spectrum Use for IMT-Advanced: WINNER+ Spectrum Concept”, FNMS’09. P. Komulainen (editor), A. Tölli, H. Pennanen, M. Bengtsson, Florian Röhmer, Bin Song “CSI Acquisition Concepts for Advanced Antenna Schemes in the WINNER+ Project”, FNMS’10. A. Osseiran, E. Zinovieff, M. Boldi, J. Vihriälä, J. F. Montserrat, A. Tölli “Refined Radio Innovation Areas for IMT-Advanced within the WINNER+ Project”, FNMS’10.

36

The total numbers literal outputs produced during the WINNER+ project are given in the following table. WP1+WP2

WP5

S

Journals

Published

3

Conferences

Published

20

2

22

Inventions

Accepted

0

0

0

M.Sc. Theses

0

0

0

Doctoral Theses

2

0

2

Internal reports

4

4

8

Public Deliverables

9

3

12

38

9

47

TOTAL

3

The total number of person months realised during the project are given in the following table.

Person months

WP1+WP2

WP5

S

Planned (P)

70

35

105

Realised (R)

72

29

101

M. Boldi, H. Pennanen, A. Tölli, et al, “Coordinated Beamforming for IMT Advanced in the Framework of WINNER+ Project”, FNMS’10. J. Vihriälä & M. Bennis, “Spectrum Technologies for IMT-A”, FNMS’10. Afif Osseiran, Mauro Boldi, Jose F. Monserrat, Jaakko Vihriälä, Antti Tolli, Alexandre Gouraud, “Radio Enabling Techniques for IMT-Advanced (4G) and beyond: WINNER+ Project”, EuWIT’10. Project Volume

EUR 1 080 000

Project Participants

The Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland was part of a larger consortium consisting of leading manufacturers, operators, universities and research centres in Europe. Other Finnish partners were Elekrobit, NSN and VTT. The project was mostly funded by Tekes, part of the expenses covered by CWC. Project Manager

Dr. Antti Tölli University of Oulu Tel. +358 (0) 44 5000180 [email protected]

E!3187 CELTIC WINNER+ – Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio + (WINNER+), VTT Project Duration

1 March 2008 to 31 June 2010 Winner+ project has been involved in Tekes Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Description of the Objectives The project focused on innovative concepts and technologies suitable for IMTAdvanced building on the research results in the FP6 WINNER and WINNER II projects and the actual status of discussion in ITU-R. The innovations have been optimised and evaluated by simulations within the overall WINNER+ concept. Beyond that, parts of this concept were expected to be incorporated to initial or later candidate IMT-Advanced technology proposals. A demonstrator has been developed to illustrate key new functionalities. The objectives of the project can be summarised as follows: •• Research, system integration and evaluation of innovations in areas with high potential of exploitation in IMT-Advanced •• Harmonization of innovations in the pre-standardization phase •• Contribution to standard organizations of technology elements suitable to IMT-Advanced •• Participation in the evaluation of selected technology proposals •• Strong contribution to ITU-R WP5D building on active past participation •• Evaluation and demonstration of selected key technologies.

VTT has participated most strongly in contributing to standardization as well as evaluation and demonstration of selected key technologies.

Methods or Processes Used As the WINNER+ project has been targeting IMT-Advanced, the technological state-of-the-art was already well presented by the results of the FP6 project WINNER (Phase I and Phase II). WINNER has developed a system concept, aiming to advanced performance as expected for IMT-Advanced. In addition, WINNER contributed strongly to the IMT-Advanced process of ITU-R, first through the preparatory work to WRC07 and later ITU circular letter on IMTAdvanced. Technology-wise large parts of the WINNER concept were already been integrated in the 3GPP LTE standards. However, the WINNER+ system concept were targeting further steps ahead than the first release of the LTE standard, e.g. the WINNER+ system concept targeted to be operated on wideband carriers up to 100 MHz in the frequency bands identified for IMT. The highly adaptive, multi-carrier-based WINNER radio interface was designed so that the system deployment was possible for very different environments ranging from wide area deployments to indoor deployments and cell sizes. This was presenting significant differences in end-user terminal mobility. In order to facilitate successful operation with so wide ranging requirements, novel technology components like relaying technologies and spectrum technologies including spectrum sharing and flexible spectrum use have been included in the WINNER system concept.

The starting point for the WINNER+ concept was LTE, with additional innovative features from WINNER II. Due to the breadth and depth of technology contributions in the developed basic system concept, this was used as the starting point for the research work in this WINNER+ project. Having a concrete technology standard as LTE as the basis to build upon will ensure that results from the project can be exploited in standardisation. Still, key technologies and innovations were also taken up by other system concepts and standardisation bodies, e.g. 3GPP2 and IEEE. VTT´s Winner+ FPGA development has been done using EB4Gv2 platform with VirtexIIPro FPGAs. The platform is used to run a real-time 2x2 MIMO-OFDM system together with real RF-parts and C8 channel emulator. The work in Winner+ has been concentrating on baseband which is implemented in platform FPGAs. The trade-off between the computational effort, complexity and performance has been key criteria for the design. Studied algorithms have been implemented with VHDL and measured with a BER detector in the platform.

Results VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland produced the following project/ laboratory reports: •• Deliverable D3.1 “IMT-Advanced: requirements and evaluation criteria”, May 2009 •• Deliverable D3.2 “Aspects of WINNER+ Spectrum Preferences” May 2009 •• Deliverable D3.3 Strategies and technologies for spectrum utilisation and sharing aspects of IMT, (editor) March 2010.

37

Figure 1. The project demonstrator system built in this project.

••

Further, remarkable sections have been produced in to WINNER+ Deliverable5.1 and Deliverable 5.2 (VTT as an editor) as well as to WINNER+ Internal Report 5.1 and Internal Report 5.3.

Technical Design&Implementation documents and devices (software programs, CAD files, layout schemes, FPGA implementations): Real-Time 2x2 MIMO-system implementation based on earlier SISOsystem. This MIMO-system consists of LMMSE and LSE MIMO-decoders and MIMO channel estimator. Also LLR optimization logic was designed and implemented. This greatly improves the 38

performance of FEC decoder based on channel estimation. Further LDPC codec and LLR improving narrow word length LDPC decoder were designed and implemented. All those build blocks were measured against BER figures. Results proved that the selected algorithms actually work in fully real-time FPGA system with realistic IMT-A radio channels in a similar way than in simulations. It was noticed that the most difficult IMT-A channels require more sophisticated MIMO decoding and MIMO channel estimation algorithms. The measured BER performance figures and FPGA complexity estimations can be used as a reference for further development.

Project results were seen to be between moderate to good. Excellent level could have been reached if algorithm specific support was been there more constantly. Now it happens that implementation specialist were forced to figure out all those algorithm design challenges as well. And that was often time consuming. Also the demonstrator platform was not capable enough to consist of all those needed IP blocks which were in the end of the project ready and available. FPGA chips were simple too little in terms of logic port amount. This risk was anyhow almost inevitable cause of technology leaps within FPGA during last few years. On 2008, when the basics of designed platform were

created, the technology was not mature enough to support IMT-A development requirements needed on year 2010. Still, bearing in mind the background mentioned, project was seen to success with honours, implemented complex MIMO/OFDM blocks worked fine and proved the system performance to be outstanding compared to earlier 3G technology based systems.

In addition, the following output is based on the work carried out in VTT Winner+ project:

Project Volume

Diploma thesis: Evaluation of 4G system research capable computing platforms, Korpi Juha, University of Oulu 2008. Diploma thesis: Channel estimation implementation in sophisticated MIMO antenna system, Takalo-Mattila Janne, University of Oulu 2009.

Project Participants

Publications

The total numbers of literal outputs that are originated in the Winner+ project are given in the table below. The amount of publications is relatively low due to nature of this research work carried by VTT; the target was to design and implement the demonstrator so instead of publications this work group produced millions of lines of state-of-the-art VHDL code.

The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 March 2008 to 31 Jun 2010. Editorship of following CEPT ECC PT1 contributions:

ECC PT1 (08)061 VTT, Nokia, Nokia Siemens Networks “Proposal for including the services and spectrum related matters into Annex 6 (Submission Guidelines & Templates for details of submission)”, 14.–16.5.2008, Dublin. ECC PT1 (08)098 VTT, Nokia, Ericsson, Nokia Siemens Networks “Considerations for revision of recommendation ITU-R M.1036-3”, 16.–18.9. 2008, Paris.

Publications

EUR 1 150 000

The project was carried out by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in co-operation with the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.    The project was funded by Tekes. Project steering group consists of representatives from Tekes, Nokia, NSN, Elektrobit, Nethawk, CWC and VTT. Project Manager

Mr. Mika Rautio VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Tel. +358 (0)40 7702476 [email protected]

2008

2009

1

1

4

3

2010

Total

Theses Dr. Lich. Tech. M.Sc.

2

International

Editorship of following ITU-R WP 5D contributions

Books

ITU-R 5D/225 Finland "Modification Proposal for “Submission Guidelines & Templates for Details of Submission”, 24.6.–1.7.2008, Dubai. ITU-R 5D/311 Finland “Considerations for revision of recommendation ITU-R M.1036-3”, 8.–15.10.2008, Seoul. Invention report: ”More accurate BER calculation with larger SNR values by utilizing pseudo-random data generalization and double calculation of errors”, Roivainen Jussi, VTT 2009.

Journal papers

Chapters in books Conference papers National Journal papers Conference papers Laboratory reports

5

12

TOTAL

14

39

E!3187 CELTIC WINNER+ – Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio + (WINNER+), Elektrobit Wireless Communications Oy Project Duration

••

•• ••

1 April 2008 to 30 June 2010 Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio (WINNER+) project continues work that started already in 2004 in the WINNER-project aiming to develop a mobile communications concept meeting future’s requirements for broadband wireless access. EB’s role in this work has been to define and evaluate radio channel models for IMT-A and other B3G systems. In addition to the radio channel modeling work, EB has implemented selected WINNER functionality into EBRACE software defined radio platform together with its strategic partners the University of Oulu (CWC) and the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT). In addition to the concept verification and performance evaluation, the implementation has then been used during the years to demonstrate the WINNER concept in various events including World Wireless Research Forum (WWRF) meetings, IST 2007 and the World Radiocommunications Conference in Genova, Switzerland.

Description of the Objectives WINNER+ focused on LTE-A base technologies. LTE (3G long term evolution) was selected as starting point for IMT-A concept development. EB’s WINNER+ scope: •• Evaluation of selected WINNER functionality

40

••

Adopting and porting the key functionality of the WINNER concept into the new evaluation environment Running trials and demonstrations Radio channel issues including verification of the WINNER-channel models and creating additional channel models and understanding. Public demonstrations.

Results 2008

During the 1st project year, EB focused on two main activities: 1. Building the emulation and demonstration environment for the trials activities 2. Radio channel measurements, analysis modeling work including development of the technologies needed to carry out the mentioned technology areas 2009

In 2009, EB’s team continued the development of the EB-RACE and OTA (OverThe-Air-Testing) concepts that were the key components in the demonstration activity in WINNER+ project. In addition to EB itself, the EB-RACE platform was utilized by both VTT and CWC in WINNER+ project and it was used to demonstrate the WINNER air interface, for example, during the Celtic Event in April in Spain. The radio channel research was continued in collaboration with other projects to study, for example, the applicability of polarization in MIMO-mobile terminals.

2010

The last period of the WINNER+ project started in January and ended at the end of June, 2010. The most of the work focused in completing the on-going activities and in various demonstrations. Figure 1 shows the layout and actual photo from the WINNER+ demonstration held during the Celtic Event.

Standardization work and publications EB has been very active in international standardization working with radio channel issues. The main forums attended include, for example, ITU-R WP5, WiMAX Forum, CEPT/ECC, COST2100, CTIA, 3GPP RAN1 and 4. In addition, a number of publications have been made, for example: P. Kyösti, J-P Nuutinen, J. Kolu, M. Falck, “Channel Modelling for Radiated Testing of MIMO Capable Terminals,” ICT-MobileSummit 2009, Santander , 10–12 June 2009. Tommi Laitinen, Pekka Kyösti, Jukka-Pekka Nuutinen, Pertti Vainikainen, "On the number of OTA antenna elements for planewave synthesis in a MIMOOTA test system involving a circular antenna array", EuCAP 2010, Barcelona, Spain, April 2010 (accepted). Pekka Kyösti, Jukka-Pekka Nuutinen, Tommi Jämsä, "MIMO OTA test concept with experimental and simulated verification", EuCAP 2010, Barcelona, Spain, April 2010 (accepted). J.-P. Nuutinen et. al., "Experimental Investigations of OTA System", TD(09)753, COST2100 Action, Braunschweig, February 16–18, 2009, Germany.

Figure 1. The RACE-OTA demonstration concept. Celtic Event 2010.

Tommi Laitinen, Pekka Kyösti, Jukka-Pekka Nuutinen, Pertti Vainikainen, "On the number of OTA antenna elements for planewave synthesis in a MIMOOTA test system involving a circular antenna array", EuCAP 2010, Barcelona, Spain, April 2010.

Jani Kallankari, Sami Laukkanen, Miia Nurkkala, Jukka-Pekka Nuutinen, Ales-sandro Skannavini, "Test Plan for OTA Throughput Comparison Measurements in a Fading Channel Environment", COST 2100 TD (09) 964, Vienna, Austria, September 2009. P. Kyösti, J-P Nuutinen, P. Heino, “Reconstruction and measurement of Spatial Channel Model for OTA”, TD(09) 860, COST 2100, Valencia, Spain, June 2009. P. Kyösti, J-P Nuutinen, T. Jämsä, D. Reed, R. Borsato, “Requirements for Chan-nel Models for OTA Multi-antenna Terminal Testing”, COST 2100 TD(09)859, Valencia, Spain, May 2009. Michael D. Foegelle, Jukka-Pekka Nuutinen, Pekka Kyösti, Juhamatti Malm, "Experimental Investigations of MIMO Performance of IEEE802.11n device in MIMO OTA test system", COST 2100 TD (09) 972, Vienna, Austria, September 2009. Jukka-Pekka Nuutinen, Pekka Kyösti, Aaron Byman, "Effect of channel model simplification on throughput in MIMO OTA", COST 2100 TD (09) 971, Vienna, Austria, September 2009. Pekka Kyösti et. al., "Proposal for standardized test procedure for OTA testing of multi-antenna terminals", TD(09) 766, Braunscweig, Germany, February 2009.

Pekka Kyösti, Jukka-Pekka Nuutinen, Tommi Jämsä, "MIMO OTA test concept with experimental and simulated verification", EuCAP 2010, Barcelona, Spain, April 2010. P. Kyösti et.al., “OTA Testing for Multiantenna Terminals”, COST 2100 TD (08) 670, Lille, France, October 2008.

41

E!3187 CELTIC WINNER+ – Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio + (WINNER+), Nokia Siemens Networks Project Duration

1 April 2008 to 30 June 2010

Description of the Objectives The support of broadband services for mobile and wireless applications towards IMT-Advanced, with excellent user experiences, are key trends for future radio access technologies, providing deployment scenarios with reduced operator’s CAPEX and OPEX. The WINNER+ project addresses these challenges from a technical, standardisation and regulatory perspective. The work done in NSN Finland consisted of WP1 (Innovations) task 1.2 (Spectrum) and self organization. The objective of WP1 was to propose and describe innovations and the related updates of the system concept. The objective of the spectrum task was to study flexible spectrum use related functionalities.

Methods or Processes Used Technical work of NSN/Finland consisted of flexible spectrum use for LTE-Advanced, concentrating on interference avoidance for self organized femtocells. The research used both link level, and system level simulations. Both simulators were implemented with Matlab. The link level simulator had three cells, and the system simulator had 19 cells with three sectors in each. Both flat and selective fading were used. The objective of the simulations was to verify the applicability of the concept.

42

Results

Deliverables

The simulations showed that the developed interference avoidance scheme works as expected. The interference from the femtocells to the macro system was negligible, whilst providing good throughput in femtocells. Typical sum throughput in the system increased by 170 % when open access was used. Explicit modelling of intercell and inter-layer interference ensured that the proposed concept works in real networks with only transmit power limitation to control interference between femtocells. Since the macro network was considered the primary user, no effort was made to manage macroto-femto interference.

J. Vihriälä et al., D1.2, Initial Report on System Aspects of Flexible Spectrum Use. J. Vihriälä et al., D1.6, Intermediate Report on System Aspects of Flexible Spectrum Use. A. Osseiran et al., D2.1, Preliminary WINNER+ System Concept. T. Svensson et al., D1.9, Final Innovation Report. A. Osseiran et al., D2.2, Enabling Techniques for LTE-A and beyond. Book chapters

A chapter on spectrum sharing is under preparation for the book Mobile and Wireless Communications for IMT-A & beyond, to be published in 2011.

Publications The following publications were published during the period April 2008 to 30 June 2010.

IMT-Advanced Evaluations (IMT-A)

Conference papers

Project Duration

J. Vihriälä, M. Bennis, I. Cosovic, A. Osseiran, A. Saul, ”Flexible spectrum use for IMT-Advanced: WINNER+ spectrum concept,” ICT-MobileSummit 2009, Santander, Spain. J. Vihriälä, M. Bennis, A. Saul, ”Spectrum technologies for IMT-A,” FNMS 2010, Florence, Italy. A. Osseiran, M. Boldi, A. Gouraud, J. Monserrat, A. Tölli, J. Vihriälä, ”Radio innovations for IMT-Advanced (4G) and beyond: WINNER+ system concept,” EuWiT 2010. A. Osseiran, M. Boldi, A. Gouraud, J. Monserrat, A. Tölli, J. Vihriälä, ”Refined radio innovations for IMT-Advanced withing the WINNER+ project,” FNMS 2010, Florence, Italy.

1 August 2009 to October 2010 IMT-A project has been involved in Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme. This project was established to participate in the work packet of Celtic Winner+ project, which concentrated International Mobile Telecommunication Advanced (IMT-A) evaluation process led by International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

Description of the Objectives Winner+ was an external evaluation group of the IMT-A evaluation process of ITU, where the performance of candidate IMT-A technologies were reviewed with respect to ITU’s requirements set for the IMT-A technologies. The main

goal of the project was to obtain system level spectral efficiency results using the simulation guidelines defined by ITU and provide the result to ITU through the Winner+ project. The aim of the project was also to obtain system level simulator which can be utilized as a research tool in several other projects in CWC. The development of the system simulator was the most challenging part of the project. The CWC’s wide expertise in different specific telecommunication areas, such as channel modelling, advanced multi antenna methods, link adaptation, resource allocation, link to system level interfaces, etc, was utilized to build up the simulator fulfilling the requirements.

Methods or Processes Used The spectral efficiency of Long Term Evaluation Advanced (LTE-A) networks were studied according to simulation guidelines defined by ITU. The cell average spectral efficiency and cell edge user spectral efficiency were of particular interest. Four different scenarios including indoor hot spot, urban micro, urban macro and rural macro environments were considered. Our simulations focused on time division duplex (TDD) based downlink transmission. The main enhanced technology components used in the systems include multi-user multi antenna methods, intra-site coordinated multipoint (CoMP) transmission and space-time-frequency proportional fair scheduling. In order to obtain realistic spectral efficiency results, signaling overhead, feedback delay and periodicity, effective bandwidth, channel estimation and retransmissions were taken into account in simulations.

Results The most important contributions were the spectral efficiency results of the LTE-A based network, which were included to the Winner+ evaluation report submitted to ITU. We provided also our channel calibration results and system level calibration results of the LTE release 8 based system to Winner+ project. The other external evaluation groups in ITU process showed great importance and interest in the calibration results provided by Winner+ partners. System level simulator which was developed in the project will be important research tool in several other projects in CWC. Simulation results indicated that advanced multi-user multiple antenna techniques combined with a proper space-frequency-time scheduling are crucial to achieve the required spectral efficiency results in urban micro and urban macro scenarios. In ITU specific indoor and rural macro scenarios the requirements can be achieved with simpler single user multiple antenna methods. The intra site CoMP transmission can provide slight improvement for the cell edge performance.

Publications The following publications were accepted or submitted during the period 1 August 2009 to October 2010. Harri Pennanen, Tuomas Haataja, Jouko Leinonen, Antti Tölli and Matti Latvaaho: ”System Level Evaluation of TDD based LTE-Advanced MIMO-OFDMA Systems”, BWA (GLOBECOM), Miami, Florida, USA, 2010, (accepted).

Harri Pennanen, Tuomas Haataja, Jouko Leinonen, Antti Tölli and Matti Latvaaho: ”Space-Frequency Scheduling in TDD based LTE-Advanced MIMOOFDMA Systems”, VTC Spring, Budapest, Hungary, 2011, (submitted). In addition, IMT-A project has contributed results to the following Winner+ reports: Winner+ project: “Final Evaluation report from WINNER+ on the IMT‑Advanced proposal in documents IMT-ADV/6, IMT-ADV/8 and IMT-ADV/9, 2010 available at http://www.itu.int/md/ R07-IMT.ADV-C-0022/en. Winner+ project: “D4.2 Final conclusions on end-to-end performance and sensitivity analysis”, project deliverable, 2010, available at http://projects.celticinitiative.org/winner+/deliverables_ winnerplus.html Project Volume

EUR 235 674 Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.    The project was funded by Tekes, and CWC. Project Manager

Dr. Jouko Leinonen University of Oulu Tel. +358 (0)8 553 2968 [email protected]

43

Packet Access Networks with Flexible Spectrum Use (PANU) Project Duration

1 January 2006 to 31 December 2009 PANU project was continuation to Networks of the Future (NETS) technology programme’s spearhead project FUTURA (Future Radio Access, http://www. tekes.fi/fi/document/43227/nets_final_ pdf ). PANU was started in 2005 when it received Tekes funding outside the technology programmes. During the years 2006–2009 PANU was included in Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Description of the Objectives PANU project aimed at supporting the building of unique knowledge for the project partners and Centre for Wireless Communications on future wireless packet access networks utilizing flexible spectrum use and resource sharing techniques. The project supported the collaborating parties in designing new system concepts as well standards, terminals, base stations and other network elements for them. The main target system concepts were IMTAdvanced and beyond 4G systems. The results were expected to be documented as high quality publications, theses, and inventions.

Methods or Processes Used Research and development of modern high capacity wireless networks requires thorough understanding of multiple layers and their interconnections in the protocol stack. Therefore, PANU research topics covered all lower layers up to network layer, including cross-layer design. Main research are44

as have been flexible spectrum use, radio resource management for MIMO-OFDM(A) systems, and enhanced radio networking. In these research areas conventional cellular network structures were extended to mixed network topologies including, e.g., opportunistic direct device-to-device communications, relay links, distributed antenna systems, femtocells, and ad hoc/mesh networking. Detailed research plans for the topics and tasks were updated and accepted for each project year. The progress of research was presented in the technical steering group on monthly basis. There the company representatives closely monitored the achieved results and gave direct feedback to the researchers. In addition to these technical meetings other results dissemination seminars were organised. They included lectures at other partners’ facilities, annual project results seminars, and open workshops with invited speakers. Research methods comprised mainly mathematical analysis and comprehensive computer simulations, depending on the topic. Moreover, field measurements were done in the channel modelling topic. The assumptions and system models reflected the interest of industrial partners. Research innovations were written in invention reports, and eventually published in journal and conference papers and academic theses.

Results New information on the advanced wireless packet access networks was gained in several research topics. For example, new methods for resource sharing between operators were developed and studied. Significant potential gains were shown to be achievable via investigat-

ed algorithms. Fixed and mobile relay enhanced cellular topologies were modelled and their performance evaluated. Adaptive MIMO-OFDM multiantenna systems were studied, optimised, and developed thoroughly both from the theoretical and practical perspective. New radio resource management and control algorithms were created taking into account imperfect or limited feedback. Direct device-to-device communication option was implemented in NS2 LTE simulation environment providing gains over normal cellular mode in favourable conditions. Fair routing protocols for wireless mesh networks were developed and evaluated. Smart ad-hoc wireless network MAC protocol solutions were proposed on top of IEEE 802.11 standard. Measurements for outdoor-indoor propagation model were conducted in 5.25 GHz frequency band and the corresponding channel and path loss models were analysed and extracted from the measurement results. The created models turned out to be fairly consistent with their WINNER II counterparts. The impact of phase noise in TDM-switched MIMO channel was elaborated and ways to mitigate phase noise were introduced. International co-operation was active throughout the project duration. Close collaboration with Rice University, USA was continued and deepened due to appointment of Behnaam Aazhang as a FiDiPro professor. Research exchange was carried out to Aalborg University (jointly with European Network of Excellence NEWCOM), Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, Supélec Paris and the University of Maryland. In addition, the project contributed to WWRF and COST2100 forums

and WINNER+ planning. PANU had also visibility in the IEEE PIMRC’06 and WPMC’08 conferences (organised by CWC). In accordance with the IST 2006 event PANU set up an open workshop in Helsinki. In 2007, the open workshop was organised together with MITSE project in Oulu and in 2008 and 2010 popular public GIGA project seminars were arranged by CWC in Oulu with significant PANU contribution.

Publications The following list provides a cross-section of some major outputs produced in the project. U. Celentano and S. Glisic, “Characterization of the link layer service capacity of adaptive air interfaces with imperfections,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 2643–2646, Oct. 2006. M. Codreanu, A. Tölli, M. Juntti, and M. Latva-aho, “Joint design of Tx-Rx beamformers in MIMO downlink channel,” IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 4639– 4655, Sept. 2007. A. Tölli, M. Codreanu, and M. Juntti, “Cooperative MIMO-OFDM cellular system with soft handover between distributed base station antennas,” IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 1428–1440, Apr. 2008. A. Taparugssanagorn and J. Ylitalo, “Characteristics of short-term phase noise of MIMO channel sounding and its effect on capacity estimation,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurements, vol 58, no. 1, pp. 196– 201, Jan. 2009. J. Lehtomäki, I. Suliman, K. Umebayashi, and Y. Suzuki, “Teletraffic analysis of direct communication with clustering,”

IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences, vol. E92-A, no. 5, pp. 1356–1362, May 2009. K. Ghaboosi, M. Latva-aho, Y. Xiao, and Q. Zhang, “eMAC – a mediumaccess control protocol for the next generation ad hoc networks,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 4476–4490, Oct. 2009. M. Bennis, S. Lasaulce, and M. Debbah, “Inter-operator spectrum sharing from a game theoretic perspective,” EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Prosessing, vol. 2009, Article ID 295739, 12 p. P. Komulainen, A. Tölli, M. Latva-aho, and M. Juntti, “Downlink assisted uplink zero-forcing for TDD multiuser MIMO systems,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2009, Article ID 894726, 11 p. J. Määttä and T. Bräysy, “A novel approach to fair routing in wireless mesh networks,” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, vol. 2009, Article ID 379059, 13 p.

M. Codreanu, “Multidimensional adaptive radio links for broadband communications”. Doctoral thesis. ACTA Universitatis Ouluensis C Technica 284, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Nov. 2007, 157 p. A. Taparugssanagorn, “Evaluation of MIMO radio channel characteristics from TDM-switched MIMO channel sounding”. Doctoral thesis. ACTA Universitatis Ouluensis C Technica 286, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Dec. 2007, 180 p. A. Tölli, “Resource management in cooperative MIMO-OFDM cellular systems”. Doctoral thesis. ACTA Universitatis Ouluensis C Technica 296, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Apr. 2008, 196 p. K. Ghaboosi, “Intelligent medium access control for the future wireless networks”. Doctoral thesis. ACTA Universitatis Ouluensis C Technica 335, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Oct. 2009, 211 p. J. Leinonen, “Analysis of OFDMA resource allocation with limited feedback”. Doctoral thesis. ACTA Universitatis Ouluensis C Technica 337, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Oct. 2009, 121 p.

The total number of literal outputs originating from the PANU project during 2006– 2009 is collected to the following table. Publications

2006

2007

2008

2009

Total

Journal articles

12

7

11

9

39

Conference articles

26

25

27

22

100

Invention reports

8

11

14

7

40

M.Sc. theses

0

4

2

1

7

Doctoral theses

0

2

1

3

6

Reports

1

5

1

1

8

Other publications

4

1

0

0

5

TOTAL

205

45

The project was carried out by the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.    The project was funded by Tekes, Nokia, Nokia Siemens Networks, Elektrobit, the Finnish Defence Forces (2006), and CWC.

velopment and evolution of future cellular communication systems beyond IMT-Advanced (IMT-A) and their integration with other communication and data networks. The main emphasis is on evolving wireless network topologies, such as relay based and deviceto-device connections, and on distributed algorithms performing automated network management tasks on networks with such novel topologies. The research is carried out in close cooperation with the best Chinese universities and research institutes in the field to enable smooth application of
 the technology in evolving standards.

Project Manager

Methods or Processes Used

M. Bennis, “Spectrum sharing for future mobile cellular systems”. Doctoral thesis. ACTA Universitatis Ouluensis C Technica 347, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, Nov. 2009, 86+95 p. Project Volume

EUR 4 300 720 Project Participants

Dr. Pekka Pirinen Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu Tel. +358 (0)8 553 2857 [email protected]

NETWORKS of 2020 (NETS2020) Project Duration

1 September 2009 to 15 November 2010 During the reporting period of NETS2020, the project has been part of Tekes Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme. The project will continue as a part of Tekes general research projects for the next two years till the end of August 2012.

Description of the Objectives The project is a joint strategic wireless communication system research project with Aalto University / School of Science and Engineering and University of Oulu covering the future de-

46

During the reporting period three different research topics have been started, namely, radio resource management for co-ordinated multimode transmission in relay networks, data gathering in wireless sensor and heterogeneous networks associated with distributed source coding, and self-organization in dynamic networks. Figure 1 and Figure 2 show example scenarios of the considered research topics. Since one of the major goals of the project is to collaborate with Chinese universities and research institutes, a lot of efforts have been invested to initiate the international research collaboration. Since the beginning of the project, several teleconferences have been organized together with Chinese research partners for collaboration. In June 2010 the official signing ceremony and kickoff workshop was held in Shanghai. As a result of SINO-Finland consortium agreement, in future the research collaboration with Chinese partners will have even more pronounced role in the

project. The developed novel technologies rely heavily on mathematical methods, e.g. linear algebra and convex optimization theory. The performance of the developed methods will be also evaluated by computer simulation in practically relevant scenarios. To demonstrate the performance gains obtained by the developed methods compared with the existing technologies, in year 2011 the project will start to develop system level simulator in which different developed methods will be compared to existing solutions.

Results The radio resource management research topic has focused on development of the precoder design and linking strategies based on the channel conditions for relay based communication. Some initial results have been already obtained and the results will be submitted for publication in early 2011. In data gathering in wireless sensor and heterogeneous networks associated with distributed source coding research theme, the cross-layer optimization over application, network, and physical layers is addressed. The results submitted for publication will be submitted in early 2011. The self-organization for dynamic networks topic has focused on investigations of distributed power allocation across multiple channels, at multiple transmitter-receiver pairs, on mobile relaying in the UL, and on femtocell power managements. One conference paper has been published, and one conference and two journal papers have been submitted for publication based on the results.

Figure 1. Example scenarios for radio resource management in relay communications and data gathering in wireless sensor networks.

Figure 2. Example scenarios for self-organization in femtocelss and distributed power allocation.

Publications The following publications have obtained during the period 1 September to 16 November 2010. F. Ahmed and O. Tirkkonen, ``Local Optimum Based Power Allocation Approach for Spectrum Sharing in Unlicensed Bands,'' Proc. 4th Internat.

Workshop Self-Org. Systems; Lect. Notes in Computer Science 5918, p. 238–243, Dec 2009. C.-H. Yu and O. Tirkkonen, ``Multiple Relay Selection with Stochastic Geometry,'' submitted to IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communication, Oct 2010.

C.-H. Yu and O. Tirkkonen, ``Device-toDevice Communication Underlaying Cellular Networks Based on Rate Splitting,'' to be submitted to IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communication (pending TEKESproject approval), Nov 2010.

47

Z. Zheng, J. Hämäläinen, Y. Yang: 'Practical Resource Scheduling and Power Control Optimization for LTE Femtocell Networks', submitted to 8th International Workshop on MultiCarrier Systems & Solutions 2011 (MCSS 2011), November 2010. Z. Zheng, J. Hämäläinen, Y. Yang: 'On Uplink Power Control Optimization and Distributed Resource Allocation in Femtocell Networks', submitted to IEEE VTC Workshop (BeFemto), November 2010. Project Volume

Aalto University EUR 122 891 (estimated at 15.11.2010, salaries 39 020, HSK 24 192, YK 56 259, travel 3 419) University of Oulu EUR 124 876 (estimated at 25.11 2010, salaries 44 048, HSK 22 024, YK 58 804) Project Participants

The project was carried out together by the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, and Aalto University School of Science and Engineering, Espoo, Finland.    The project is funded by Tekes, Nokia, Nokia Siemens Networks, Ericsson Finland, Elektrobit, Nethawk, CWC and Aalto University School of Science and Engineering. Project Manager

Mr. Juha Karjalainen University of Oulu Tel. +358 (0)8 553 7637 [email protected]

48

Joint Advanced Development Enabling Energy Efficient Wireless Networks (JADE) Project Duration

1 January 2010 to 31 December 2012 The JADE project is funded by Tekes under GIGA programme and consists of four consortium members in Finland, namely, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Nokia, Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) and Elektrobit. Moreover, the JADE project is also conducted under the Sino-Finland Collaboration Framework, which is initialized by Ministry of Employment and the Economy at Finland and Ministry of Science and Technologies at China from June 2010. Currently the Chinese partners of the JADE project are Shanghai Research Centre on Wireless Communications, and Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications.

Description of the Objectives Estimated by Gartner, the use phase of Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) equipment is responsible for 2% of the annual carbon emissions in the world, which is comparable to the energy consumption of the whole aviation industry. Due to the ever-increasing network traffic in the ICT sector, the energy consumption of ICT increases by a rate of 16%-20% per year. There is a strong need to develop energy efficiency solutions for the ICT industry in order to maintain its sustainable growth. The study showed that the energy consumption of the mobile industry keeps the same growing pace of the

ICT sector. The evolution of cellular systems foresees new services, higher data rate, more efficient use of spectrum, as well as drastically increasing of energy consumption. From 2G to 3G, the power consumption of the base station (BS) has been multiplied by a factor of five. It is expected that a 4G system will surpass its 3G counterpart on energy consumption due to ten times the data rate it promises. It is critical to study the energy efficiency problem in the 4G system. The objective of this project is to investigate the energy consumption problem in International Mobile Telecommunications (IMT)-Advanced systems with an aim to develop novel solutions leading to significant energy efficiency improvement. As the energy consumption problem spans in every layer of the network stack and appears in different forms among heterogeneous networks, the energy efficiency must take into account all layers, including application, network, and link layers. This project uses advanced technologies at the link and network level to improve the energy efficiency of IMTAdvanced systems. The main research theme of the project is shown in Figure 1, in which spectrum and energy efficiency, system and spectrum coexistence, terminal and network cooperation, and self-organizing techniques are main foci of the project. The advanced approaches like cognitive radio (CR), relay, and layered structure are applied to improve energy efficiency of air interfaces, and enhance interconnection and coexistence of wireless access networks as a whole.

Figure 1. Research theme of JADE project.

Sp

ect r

um

Sel

&e ne

f-o r

rg y

ga

eff icie

niz ati on

nc y

Coexistence

Cooperation

Methods or Processes Used Research is conducted on the specific energy efficiency problems at the link layer and network layer of IMT-Advanced systems. Long Term Evolution (LTE)-Advanced is the targeted system since it has been selected as one of the IMT-Advanced technologies. The techniques with potential to achieve energy saving at the link layer of LTE-Advanced will be intensively examined. Those techniques include, but are not limited to, energy efficient modulation and coding, cooperative spectrum sensing, cooperative beam-forming, energy efficient Single User (SU) - Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) and Multiple User (MU)-MIMO algorithms, and energy efficient scheduling in Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) systems. It is important to see what the best ways to improve energy efficiency are. The link layer study is mainly focused on the energy efficient scheduling in the OFDMA system. The scheduling in OFDMA is a cross-layer problem

involving multiple layers in the protocol stack and different kind of resources at the time, space and spectrum domain. The efficient use of those resources leads to better system performance with less energy consumption. To achieve that, a system is required to monitor and understand radio environment and communication context efficiently. Crosslayer scheduling algorithms which take a balance between throughput performance and energy efficiency will be developed and validated by system-level simulation. Moreover, efforts will be invested on applying the CR technologies in OFDMA systems for learning from and adaptation to radio environment at the sub-carrier level. Energy efficiency must be taken into account in all layers, including applications, networks, links and physical layer. At the network level the study will be mainly focused on the layered structure approach which involves macro-cell and femtocell as different layers. First, energy consumption metrics facilitating the energy saving compar-

ison at the network level will be defined. Next the reconfigured network elements that have direct or indirect impact on energy consumption of the layered structure will be identified. The reconfiguration should take into following factors: the spectrum, power, location of cells, and location and communication context of user equipments (UE). Efforts will be put on the cross layer design and cross layer interface specification with a goal to achieve energy saving. The femtocell is expected to be widely deployed in IMT-Advanced networks. The spectrum coexistence and interference mitigation between macro-cells and femtocells have been a challenge. The solutions to those problems actually have positive meaning on energy saving. The spectrum coexistence problem of femtocell will be studied with the energy saving goal in mind. The distributed algorithms to achieve both spectrum efficiency and energy efficiency of femtocell will be proposed. The study will be mainly based on the theoretical analysis and simulation. The validation of the proposed algorithms and solutions will be performed by Monte Carlo software simulations based on MATLAB and C/C++ programs. A LTE system-level simulator based on MATLAB will be developed and used as the general simulation platform.

Results Based on the extensive literature review on energy saving techniques for cellular systems and other wireless access systems, four scenarios which have potential to significantly improve energy efficiency in LTE-Advanced systems

49

are identified for the JADE project. The specific scenarios are layered structure combining macro-cell with femtocell for energy saving, energy saving by joint time-frequency domain scheduling in OFDMA systems, relay for energy saving, and optimized deployment strategies. To date the research were conducted on layered structure, joint time-frequency domain scheduling, and relay for energy saving. The layered structure approach studied the energy efficiency architecture which integrates multiple layers of different systems for service provision and energy saving. Two layers are used in this study: the macro-cell of LTE for coverage, and femtocell of LTE for throughput improvement and energy saving. Efforts have been spent to study the achievable energy saving gain by the new architecture, and mechanisms and algorithms to achieve that gain. The achievable energy saving gain was studied by theoretical analysis and simulation. It showed that to maintain the same QoS for mobile users, the layered structure approach consumes less energy compared to the pure macro-cell approach. The achievable energy saving is a function of the number of femtocells and the location of the femtocells in the macrocell. The gain is also related to the spectrum access mode of femtocells. Based on the study of achievable energy saving gain, the signalling mechanisms and UE association algorithms are under development to achieve that gain. A soft frequency reuse (SFR) algorithm was developed, which uses joint time-frequency domain scheduling among multiple adjacent macro-cells for inter-cell interference reduction

50

and throughput improvement. The algorithm takes the location of base stations and UEs into account. It allocates sub-carriers of multiple cells jointly in a way that interference caused by the simultaneous transmission of same sub-carriers cross multiple cells is minimized. The energy wasted by the cochannel interference is therefore minimized. Analysis of the energy saving performance of the algorithm has been done under a simple setup. Simulation is under development to fully examine the algorithm. Transparent relay with cooperation strategies was studied in the context of one-hop relay architecture including only one cellular base station. A relay strategy which combines the original link and the relay link for throughput performance improvement was proposed. The energy saving gain of the UE by taking advantage of the relay was studied. It showed that, to maintain a bit error rate (BER) at the uplink, the energy saving gain is a function of the distance between mobile terminal and base station. Starting from a certain distance, the energy saving gain decreases as the distance increases. The energy saving gain can even be minus after beyond a certain distance. Further study is ongoing to develop an adaptive approach to maximize the energy saving gain under different relay conditions. The cooperation with Chinese partners is arranged in three kinds of activities: joint publications, scholar/ student exchanges, regular discussion by email and conference call. Joint conference papers have been published on energy efficiency metrics and energy efficiency analytical model in communication networks.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 June 2009 to 11 November 2010. (Note the list does not include works currently submitted for publication and are under review). T. Chen, H. Zhang, Z. Zhao, X. Chen, “Towards Green Wireless Access Networks,” CHINACOM 2010, Beijing, China, Aug. 2010. T. Chen, H. Kim, Y. Yang, “Energy Efficiency Metrics for Green Wireless Communications,” WCSP 2010, Suzhou, China, Oct. 2010. J. Xu, C. Liu, Y. Yang, T. Chen, “An Overview of Energy Efficiency Analytical Models in Communications Networks,” WCSP 2010, Suzhou, China, Oct. 2010. Project Volume

EUR 903 000 Project Participants

The project is carried out by VTT. The project is funded by Tekes, VTT, Nokia, NSN and Elektrobit. Project Manager

Dr. Tao Chen VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Tel. +358 (0)40 7491 691 [email protected]

Advances in Wireless Access (AWA) Project Duration

1 May 2009 to 30 April 2011 Project Volume

800 k€ (Tekes funding 480 k€) Place of Research

Department of Communications and Networking, Aalto University Project Funders

Tekes, Ericsson, Nokia Siemens Networks, Department of Communications and Networking (COMNET) at Aalto University Project leader

Professor Riku Jäntti Department of Communications and Networking Aalto University Tel. +358 (0)9 470 22353 [email protected]

General The AWA project was part of the Tekes technology programme GIGA, although it received its funding through the open call in February 2009. It represented a continuation of the radio related research done in the strategic ABI (Algorithms for Broadband Internet) project (2006-2009), which also belonged to the GIGA programme. The research team consisted of members from the research groups of Prof. Riku Jäntti, Prof. Jyri Hämäläinen and Prof. Samuli Aalto, who are all from the COMNET Department at Aalto University. The AWA project officially ends in April 2011, and thus more results are still expected in the project in addition to the results reported here.

Description of the Objectives

Results

The AWA project focused on fundamental performance issues arising in the radio resource management of modern wireless systems. The work in the project was divided in four working areas: (i) scheduling, (ii) intercell interference management, (iii) capacity limits of multihop networks and (iv) energy efficiency. The general objective was to develop the insight on the key aspects affecting the achievable gains in the respective areas, and to design new algorithms achieving the desired objectives. The research team included strong performance analysis expertise at all protocol layers of the system, ranging from the physical layer all the way up to the transport/application layer, and has enabled the analysis of the systems with a uniquely broad perspective.

There has been significant progress in all of the four areas mentioned above. Below we summarize the main results.

Methods or Processes Used A significant part of the work in the project involved developing mathematical models for the various problems/systems that were studied. This requires carefully determining the appropriate level of abstraction such that the models still remain somehow tractable. In this process, the researchers working in the project successfully exploited the broad expertise covered by the research team to justify certain modelling assumptions. The results of the project were derived through mathematical analysis to obtain general insights, whenever possible. Additionally, to explore the performance of the systems under more general assumptions, simulations were performed. These were conducted by utilizing Matlab, Mathematica or custom-made programs directly implemented in C/C++.

(i) Scheduling

Publications [2, 8, 12, 14] considered the impacts of scheduling in cellular systems on the performance of elastic data traffic (TCP file transfers). Generally, the used models are known as flow-level models and they capture the essential features of the wireless system at exactly the time-scale at which data traffic performance manifests itself, where the number of flows varies stochastically and the flows have random sizes. Publications [12, 14] focused on flowlevel analysis of opportunistic scheduling, where the base station tries to favour those users with instantaneously high rates. Important analytical insights on the stability properties of opportunistic scheduling where users experience a random achievable rate in every time-slot were obtained in [2]. The trade-off between opportunistic scheduling (favouring high rates) and size-based scheduling (favouring small flows) was studied in [14], and general conditions were given when SRPT-like scheduling is optimal for minimizing the mean delay in the transient setting with no new flow arrivals. Finally, we considered the problem where users are randomly around the base station (at a random distance) and the scheduler is not able to exploit the opportunistic gain, but it has access to the flow sizes. Also, it was assumed that a single user could not utilize all radio resources simultaneously (cf. terminal constraints in HDSDPA). This resulted in complex multiserver models for which, using simulations, SRPT-like size-based schedul51

52

ing was shown to give significant benefits over the round robin scheduler. This topic was covered in an M.Sc. thesis, see [12], and the main results were published in [8]. A more physical layer modelling approach to opportunistic scheduling (combined with beam forming) assuming a fixed set of active users was used in [16], where the impact of limited (imperfect) channel information was investigated. The study compares the performance of round-robin scheduling (non-channel aware) and max-SNR scheduler (perfect channel state estimation) against the on-off scheduler, where only very limited feedback information about the channel state is used. Also, results on the impacts of feedback errors were analyzed. It was shown that on–off strategy can reach the performance of the ideal Maximum SNR strategy if the feedback threshold is optimized. However, already a low feedback bit error rate causes degradation of the performance.

scheduling between the servers couples the service rates of the servers together. Based on recent results in the literature, the optimal policy was worked out for minimizing the mean flow delay when there are two possible rates for the servers. In the so-called low-interference region, optimal policy is to have both base stations on whenever possible, while in the high-interference region it is optimal never to have both stations on. The results are given in the M.Sc. thesis [13]. Publications [3, 4, 15] studied dynamic reuse schemes for LTE uplink that utilizes Nash bargaining to find the optimal amount of resources for each cell’s edge users in a way that an aggregate utility function for the cells is maximized. Also, combining the Nash bargaining solution with a load balancing handover scheme to increase performance was analyzed. These results constitute a part of the doctoral thesis of Mohammed AlRawi, see [10].

(ii) Inter-cell interference management

(iii) Capacity limits of multi-hop networks

In this working area the general objective has been to analyze the capacity/ performance gains from frequency reuse schemes between multiple base stations, as well as from coordinating the base stations through scheduling. At the flow-level, where flows (TCP file transfers) arrive stochastically and have random sizes, interference caused by neighboring base stations can also be controlled through scheduling, i.e., a neighboring base station can be turned-off for a short period to reduce interference. The base-stations correspond to servers and the possibility of

Publications [1, 9] have been analyzing the capacity limits of large random wireless multi-hop networks. It is well-known that the capacity per node of such networks scales as 1/sqrt(n), where n is the number of nodes. In this work the objective has been to establish accurate estimates of the exact capacity for a random network with the Boolean interference model. In [1], the maximum capacity in a single time-slot is considered. Analytical upper and lower bounds have been derived, as well as new estimates for truly large networks have been obtained using the

Moving Window Algorithm. In [9], the well-known maximum weight scheduling has been applied (under certain approximations) to obtain new significantly tighter bounds for the maximal flow of traffic in a given direction (socalled forwarding capacity or density of progress). These numerical results serve as important concrete reference values for the performance of more practical distributed schemes. (iv) Energy efficiency

Publications [5, 6, 7] have derived mathematical models for analyzing the energy-efficiency of wireless networks. Publication [5] presents a simple radio network power usage model. Based on the model, two different network deployment scenarios were compared from the energy consumption perspective. The aim was to make visible the impact of different link budget and network parameters to the network energy consumption. Publications [6,7] focus on energy models specifically for femtocell deployments.

Publications The total number of accepted and published results are given below for each publication category. Journal articles

1

Conference articles (international peer-reviewed)

8

D.Sc. theses

1

M.Sc. theses

3

The detailed list of publications until November 18, 2010, is given below, including the submitted papers.

Journal articles

[1] J. Nousiainen, J. Virtamo and P. Lassila, “Maximum Weight Independent Sets in an Infinite Plane with Uni- and Bidirectional Interference Models“, Annals of Telecommunications, Springer, 2010, to appear. Conference articles

[2] S. Aalto and P. Lassila, “Flow-level stability and performance of channelaware priority-based schedulers”, in Proc. of NGI 2010, Paris, France, 2010. [3] M. Al-Rawi and R. Jäntti, “Uplink InterCell Interference Coordination by Nash Bargaining for OFDMA Networks“, in Proc. of IEEE VTC-Fall, Ottawa, Canada, 2010. [4] M. Al-Rawi and R. Jäntti, “Nash Bargaining for the uplink of LTE Heterogeneous Networks“, in Proc. of 2nd Workshop on Wireless Communication and Applications (WoWCA), Vaasa, Finland, 2010. [5] M. Jada, J. Hämäläinen, R. Jäntti, A. Hossain, ”Power efficiency model for mobile access networks”, IEEE PIMRC Workshop on Green Wireless (W-GREEN), Istanbul, Turkey, 2010. [6] M. Jada, J. Hämäläinen, R. Jäntti, M. M. A. Hossain: “Impact of Femtocells to the WCDMA Network Energy Efficiency”. IEEE Ic-bnmt, China, 2010. [7] M. Jada, J. Hämäläinen, R. Jäntti, ”Energy Savings in Mobile Networks: Case Study on Femtocells“, Finnish Radio Convention, 2010. [8] J. Melasniemi, P. Lassila and S. Aalto, “Minimizing file transfer delays using SRPT in HSDPA with terminal constraints”, in Proc. of 4th Workshop on Network Control and Optimization (Net-Coop), Ghent, Belgium, 2010.

[9] Jarno Nousiainen, Jorma Virtamo and Pasi Lassila, “On the Achievable Forwarding Capacity of an Infinite Wireless Network”, in Proc. of ACM MSWiM, Bodrum, Turkey, 2010.

Cognitive and Opportunistic Wireless Communication Networks (COGNAC)

Theses

1 January 2008 to 31 March 2011

[10] M. Al-Rawi, "Opportunistic packet scheduling algorithms for beyond 3G wireless networks“, D.Sc. thesis, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, December, 2010. [11] B. B. Haile, “Co-channel Interference in Heterogeneous Networks: Rician/ Rayleigh Scenario“, M.Sc. thesis, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, May 2010. [12] J. Melasniemi, “Size-based scheduling under terminal constraints in cellular systems”, M.Sc. thesis, Aalto University School of Sience and Technology, August, 2010. [13] N. Falzon, “Optimal inter-cell coordination for elastic data traffic”, M.Sc. thesis, Aalto University School of Science and Technology, September, 2010.

During its lifetime, COGNAC project has been part of Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Submitted

[14] S. Aalto, A. Penttinen, P. Lassila and P. Osti, “On the optimal trade-off between SRPT and opportunistic scheduling”, submitted, 2010. [15] M. Al-Rawi and R. Jäntti, “Uplink InterCell Interference Coordination by Nash Bargaining for OFDMA Networks”, submitted, 2009. [16] M. Husso, J. Hämäläinen, R. Jäntti, J. Nieminen, T. Riihonen, R. Wichman, ”Performance of On–Off Scheduling Strategy in Presence of Transmit Beamforming”, submitted, 2010.

Project Duration

Description of the Objectives Research on cognitive radio systems was started at VTT in Tekes funded CHESS project (2006–2007). COGNAC project was established to continue the research of CHESS and broaden the cooperation by starting joint work with CWC on cognitive radio systems. The main goal of COGNAC was to develop fundamental techniques for future cognitive and opportunistic networks that utilize a wide variety of resources with improved efficiency. During the project, new techniques for different phases for the cognitive cycle were developed. A comprehensive set of results was produced including scientific publications, patent applications, contributions to spectrum regulatory bodies and demonstrations.

Methods or Processes Used Fundamental techniques were developed for cognitive and opportunistic networks in the fields of spectrum sensing and dynamic channel selection. Moreover, network traffic modelling methods as well as game theoretic analysis of dynamic operations in autonomous networks were developed. The project followed closely on-going activities on regulatory, standardization and research and provided contri-

53

Figure 1. WARP demonstration setup in Mobicom’10 demo-contest.

butions to selected forums in different forms (e.g. presentations to researchers, industry and regulators, contributions to ITU-R). Experimental work was done in the form of directional spectrum occupancy measurements and implementation of cognitive radio features on WARP platforms to demonstrate the capabilities of cognitive radio systems.

Results Conference and journal publications

K. Ghaboosi, M. Latva-aho and Yang Xiao, “A Distributed Multi-channel Cognitive MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11s Wireless Mesh Networks” Proc. of IEEE CrownCom, 15–17 May Singapore, 2008. K. Ghaboosi, M. Latva-aho and Yang Xiao, “A New Approach on Analysis of IEEE 802.11 DCF in non-saturated Wireless Networks”, Proc of IEEE VTC’08 Spring, 2008. 54

M. Matinmikko, M. Mustonen, H. Sarvanko, M. Höyhtyä, A. Hekkala, A. Mämmelä, M. Katz, and M. Kiviranta, “A Motivating Overview of Cognitive Radio: Foundations, Regulatory Issues and Key Concepts”, First IEEE International Workshop on Cognitive Radio and Advanced Spectrum Management (IEEE CogART), 14th February 2008, Aalborg, Denmark. M. Matinmikko, M. Höyhtyä, M. Mustonen, H. Sarvanko, T. Chen, M. Katz, A. Mämmelä, and M. Kiviranta, “Lisää älyä radioverkkoihin” (in Finnish), Prosessori Magazine, November 2008. T. Chen, H. Zhang, M. D. Katz and Z. Zhou, “Swarm Intelligence Based Dynamic Control Channel Assignment in CogMesh,” IEEE CoCoNet Workshop in conjunction with IEEE ICC08, Beijing, China, 19–23 May 2008. H. Zhang, X. Zhou, and T. Chen, “Cognitive Ultra-wideband Radio for Dynamic Spectrum Accessing Networks,”

In: Yang Xiao et al ed., Cognitive Radio Networks, CRC Press, ISBN-10: 1420064207, 2008. T. Chen, H. Zhang, M. Matinmikko, and M. D. Katz, “CogMesh: Cognitive Wireless Mesh Networks,” WMSN Workshop in conjunction with IEEE GLOBECOM08, New Orleans, USA, 30 Nov.–4 Dec. 2008. H. Sarvanko, M. Mustonen, A. Hekkala, A. Mämmelä, M. Matinmikko, and M. Katz, “Performance evaluation of spectrum sensing using Welch’s periodogram in cognitive radios,” First IEEE International Workshop on Cognitive Radio and Advanced Spectrum Management (IEEE CogART), 14th February 2008, Aalborg, Denmark. J. Lehtomäki, J. Vartiainen, and M. Juntti: Combined wideband and narrowband signal detection for spectrum sensing, in Proc. of Wireless Vitae, 2009. J. Lehtomäki, S. Salmenkaita, J. Vartiainen, J.-P. Mäkelä, R. Vuohtoniemi, M. Juntti: Measurement studies of a Spectrum Sensing Algorithm based on Double Thresholding, in Proc. of Wireless Vitae, 2009. I. Suliman and J. Lehtomäki. Optimizing detection parameters for time-slotted cognitive radios. in Proc. of the IEEE VTC 2009 Spring, Barcelona, Spain, April 2009. I Suliman, J. Lehtomäki, T. Bräysy and K. Umebayashi. Analysis of cognitive radio networks with imperfect sensing. in Proc of the PIMRC’09, 2009. K. Ghaboosi, M. Latva-aho, R. Kohno, C. Pomalaza-Raez: eMAC: A Multichannel Cognitive MAC Protocol for the Next Generation Wireless Networks. in Proc. of Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications, Sendai, Japan, 2009.

K. Ghaboosi, S. A. Abdallah, A. B. MacKenzie, L. A. DaSilva, and M. Latvaaho: A Channel Selection Mechanism based on Incumbent Appearance Expectation for Cognitive Networks, in Proc. of WCNC’09, 2009. K. Umebayashi, Y. Kamiya, Y. Suzuki, and J. Lehtomäki: Transmit power selection by cooperative sensing in cognitive radio networks, in Proc. of IEEE WCNC’09, 2009. Z. Khan, M. Latva-aho, and D. Grace: Modeling cooperation and coordination in opportunistic spectrum access as a turn-taking dilemma, in Proc. of WOCN09, 2009. T. Chen, H. Zhang, M. Höyhtyä, and M. Katz, “Spectrum Self-coexistence in Cognitive Wireless Access Networks,” IEEE GLOBECOM 2009, Honolulu, USA, 30.11.–3.12.2009. M. Matinmikko, T. Rauma, M. Mustonen, I. Harjula, H. Sarvanko and A. Mämmelä. Application of fuzzy logic to cognitive radio systems. IEICE Transactions on Communications, vol. E92-B, pp. 3572–3580, December 2009. M. Matinmikko, H. Sarvanko, M. Mustonen and A. Mämmelä. Performance of Spectrum Sensing Using Welch’s Periodogram in Rayleigh Fading Channel. In Proc. 4th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications (CrownCom 2009), Hannover, Germany, 22.–24.6.2009. M. Mustonen, M. Matinmikko and A. Mämmelä. Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Using Quantized Soft Decision Combining. In Proc. 4th International Conference on Cognitive Radio Oriented Wireless Networks and Communications (CrownCom 2009), Hannover, Germany, 22. –24.6.2009.

M. Kiviranta, A. Mämmelä, H. Paaso, M. Höyhtyä, and I. Moilanen, “Digital signal design and nonlinear distortions in antenna array beamforming,” IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (IEEE WCNC), 2009. M. Höyhtyä, T. Chen, and A. Mämmelä, “Interference management in frequency, time, and space domains for cognitive radios”, in Proc. WTS conference, April 2009. Xianfu Chen, Zhifeng Zhao, Honggang Zhang and Tao Chen, “'Distributed Iterative Power Allocation in Cognitive Wireless Mesh Networks,” International Conference on Wireless Communications & Signal Processing 2009 (WCSP'09), Nanjing, China. J. Del Ser, M. Matinmikko, S. Gil-Lopez and M. Mustonen. A Novel Harmony Search based Spectrum Allocation Technique for Cognitive Radio Systems. Proc. Seventh International Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems (IEEE ISWCS 2010). M. Matinmikko, M. Mustonen, M. Höyhtyä, T. Rauma, H. Sarvanko and A. Mämmelä. Distributed and Directional Spectrum Occupancy Measurements in the 2.4 GHz ISM Band. Proc. IEEE ISWCS 2010. Xianfu Chen, Zhifeng Zhao, Honggang Zhang and Tao Chen, "Reinforcement Learning Enhanced Iterative Power Allocation in Stochastic Cognitive Wireless Mesh Networks," Springer Wireless Personal Communications Journal, special issue on "Cognitive Radio Networks and Communications", April-June 2010. H. Sarvanko, M. Höyhtyä, M. Katz, and F. Fitzek, “Distributed resources in wireless networks: Discovery and cooperative uses,” Proc. of ERCIM eMobility Workshop, 2010.

M. Matinmikko, M. Mustonen, M. Höyhtyä, T. Rauma, H. Sarvanko, and A. Mämmelä. Cooperative Spectrum Occupancy Measurements in the 2.4 GHz ISM Band. Submitted to 3rd International Workshop on Cognitive Radio and Advanced Spectrum Management (CogART 2010). Vartiainen J., M. Höyhtyä, J. Lehtomäki, and T. Bräysy, Priority Channel Selection Based on Detection History Database, Proc. of CrownCom2010. M. Höyhtyä, S. Pollin, and A. Mämmelä, “Classification-based predictive channel selection for cognitive radios,” IEEE ICC 2010. J. Vartiainen, J. Lehtomäki, H. Saarnisaari, and M. Juntti: Limits of detection for the consecutive mean excision algorithm, Proc. of ICASSP2010. Tuomivaara H., Distributed TDMA MAC Protocol Design and Implementation for Ad Hoc Networks, Proc. of MCC2010. Umebayashi K., Tsuchiya H., Kamiya Y., Suzuki Y., and Lehtomäki J.: Analysis of weighted cooperative sensing with using signal power estimation, To be published in Proc. of ICC2010. Z. Khan, J. Lehtomäki, K. Umebayashi, and J. Vartiainen, On the Selection of the Best Detection Performance Sensors for Cognitive Radio Networks, IEEE Signal Processing Letters, vol. 17, no.4, April 2010, pp. 359–362. Z. Khan, J. Lehtomäki, M. Latva-aho, and L. DaSilva, On Selfish and Altruistic Coalition Formation in Cognitive Radio Networks, Proc. of CrownCom2010. Z. Khan, S. Glisic, L. Da Silva, and J. Lehtomäki. Modeling of the Dynamic Coalition Formation Games for Cooperative Spectrum Sharing in an Interference Channel, Accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence in AI and Games, 2010. 55

Z. Khan, J. Lehtomäki, M. Godreanu, M. Latva-aho, and L. DaSilva, Throughputefficient Dynamic Coalition Formation in Distributed Cognitive Radio Networks, Accepted for publication in EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, 2010. J. Lehtomäki, J. Vartiainen, Z. Khan and T. Bräysy, Selection of Cognitive Radios for Cooperative Sensing, Proc. of CogArt’10. T. Hänninen, J. Vartiainen, M. Juntti and M. Raustia, Implementation of Spectrum Sensing on Wireless Open-Access Research platform, Proc. of CogArt’10. M. Höyhtyä, J. Vartiainen, H. Sarvanko, and A. Mämmelä, Combination of short term and long term database for cognitive radio resource management, Proc. of CogArt’10. Submitted conference and journal publications

J. Del Ser, M. Matinmikko, S. Gil-Lopez, and M. Mustonen. A Novel Harmony Search based Spectrum Allocation Technique for Cognitive Radio Systems. Submitted to Applied Soft Computing. M. Matinmikko, T. Rauma, M. Mustonen, and J. Del Ser. Architecture and approach for obtaining spectrum availability information. Submitted to IEEE VTC Spring. I. Harjula, A. Hekkala, M. Matinmikko, M. Mustonen, Performance evaluation of spectrum sensing using Welch periodogram in OFDM systems. Submitted to IEEE VTC Spring 2011. Z. Khan, J. Lehtomäki, L.A. DaSilva and M. Latva-aho, Analysis of Autonomous Opportunistic Spectrum Access Strategies for Cognitive Radios: Benefits of Adaptive Strategies, Submitted to DySPAN 2011. 56

M. Höyhtyä, S. Pollin, and A. Mämmelä, Improving the performance of cognitive radios through classification, learning, and predictive channel selection, Submitted to Physical Communications Journal. H. Sarvanko, M. Höyhtyä, M. Matinmikko, and A. Mämmelä, Exploiting spatial dimension in cognitive radios and networks, Submitted to IEEE VTC Spring 2011. Patent applications and invention reports

T. Rauma & M. Matinmikko, “Method and Arrangement for Adaptive Signal Detection,” Patent application FI20105553 filed. M. Höyhtyä, J. Vartiainen & H. Sarvanko, “Method and device for selecting one or more resources for use from among a set of resources,” Patent application FI20105665 filed. T. Rauma & M. Matinmikko, “Arrangement for Model-based Learning in Cognitive Radio Systems,” Notification of invention filed. Regulatory contributions to ITU-R WP5A

Nokia Corporation, Nokia Siemens Networks & VTT: ITU-R WP5A/279 Proposal for a revised structure and revisions of a working document towards a preliminary draft new report on “Cognitive Radio Systems in the Land Mobile Service”, 3rd ITU-R WP5A meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, May 2009. Nokia Corporation, Nokia Siemens Networks & VTT: ITU-R WP5A/281 Text proposals for a working document towards a preliminary draft new report on “Cognitive Radio Systems in the Land Mobile Service”, 3rd ITU-R WP5A

meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, May 2009. Nokia Corporation, Nokia Siemens Networks & VTT: ITU-R WP5A/368 Text proposal and revisions for Section 6.4 of a working document towards a preliminary draft new report on “Cognitive Radio Systems in the Land Mobile Service”, 4th ITU-R WP5A meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, Nov/ Dec 2009. Nokia Corporation, Nokia Siemens Networks & VTT: ITU-R WP5A/369 Editorial update proposals for Section 5 of a working document towards a preliminary draft new report on “Cognitive Radio Systems in the Land Mobile Service”, 4th ITU-R WP5A meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, Nov/ Dec 2009. Nokia Corporation, Nokia Siemens Networks & VTT: ITU-R WP5A/370 Text proposal and revisions for Chapter 5.2. and Chapter 6.1 of a working document towards a preliminary draft new report on “Cognitive Radio Systems in the Land Mobile Service”, 4th ITU-R WP5A meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, Nov/Dec 2009. Nokia Siemens Networks, Nokia Corporation, VTT: Text proposal and revisions for Chapter 6.1, 6.2, 6.3 and 8 of a working document towards a preliminary draft new report on “Cognitive Radio Systems in the Land Mobile Service”, ITU-R WP5A meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, May 2010. Nokia Corporation, Nokia Siemens Networks, VTT: Text proposals and revisions for Chapter 5 and Section 6.3 of a working document towards a preliminary draft new report on “Cognitive Radio Systems in the Land Mobile Service”, ITU-R WP5A meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, May 2010.

Nokia Corporation, Nokia Siemens Networks, VTT: Text proposal and revisions for Chapter 6.2 and 7 of a working document towards a preliminary draft new report on “Cognitive Radio Systems in the Land Mobile Service”, ITU-R WP5A meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, May 2010. Nokia Corporation, Nokia Siemens Networks, VTT: Modification proposals for Sections 6.3 and 6.4 of a working document towards a Preliminary Draft New Report on “Cognitive radio systems in the land mobile service”. ITU-R WP5A meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, Nov 2010. Nokia Corporation, Nokia Siemens Networks, VTT: Revisions of a working document towards a Preliminary Draft New Report on “Cognitive radio systems in the land mobile service”. ITU-R WP5A meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, Nov 2010. Nokia Corporation, Nokia Siemens Networks, VTT: Modification proposals for sections 7 of a working document towards a Preliminary Draft New Report on “Cognitive radio systems in the land mobile service”. ITU-R WP5A meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, Nov 2010. Demonstrations

The cognitive radio demonstration built on top of the WARP platforms at CWC was presented in a demo-competition in Mobicom’10 conference in Chicago US. The victory in the competition was obtained with the setup shown in Figure 1. As a summary, voip-calls over the cognitive radio network were demonstrated. WARP demonstrations were also arranged for Cognac technical steering group.

Research exchange activities 2008–2010

K. Ghaboosi: Researcher visit to Virginia Tech, USA, 8-10 weeks in June-August 2008. K. Ghaboosi gave a half-day talk about his research topics at Virginia Tech, Wireless @ VT laboratory on 26.8.2008. K Ghaboosi: Researcher visit to University of Alabama, Professor Yang Xiao (21.–23.8.2008). K. Ghaboosi gave a comprehensive full-day lecture on Medium Access Control Issues in Cognitive Radios at the Department of Computer Science, the University of Alabama. Virginia Tech received funding from NSF for cooperation with CWC. As a result, professors Luis B. DaSilva and Allen Mackenzie gave a one week course on cognitive networks during their visit to CWC on February 2009. Moreover, prof. Allen MacKenzie with his student continued cooperation with K. Ghaboosi on the Cognitive MAC issues in WLAN/WMAN area. Prof. DaSilva with his student started a new cooperation with CWC cognitive issues in LTE-A. Kaveh Ghaboosi: Researcher visit to Rice University 25.8.–6.9.2008. The aim visit to the Rice University was to establish a joint collaboration with WARP research folks at Rice. Virginia Tech professors DaSilva and MacKenzie visited CWC on May 2009 (with two researchers). They gave a two day course on “Resource Management for Dynamic Spectrum Access”. The two VT researchers/PhD students (Yongsheng Shi (Sam) and Ryan Irwin) stayed for about a month in CWC.

Z. Khan: Researcher visit to Trinity College Dublin for four months in spring/ summer 2010. Collaboration with prof DaSilva is now located in Trinity College. K. Umebayashi from Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology (TUAT), Japan, visit to CWC for about 6 months (starting in September 2010). Research collaboration with J. Lehtomäki and Z Khan. Z. Khan made another visit in Trinity College Dublin in October-November 2010 for further collaboration with prof. DaSilva and his research group. Samir Perlaza from Orange Labs – France Telecom visited CWC for one month (August). Perlaza is a PhD student of M. Debbah from Supelec, France. Prof. DaSilva (Trinity College, Dublin. Ireland) visited CWC for collaboration with CWC researchers. He also gave a one week course on Game theory for wireless networks (29.11.–2.12.2010). Prof. M. Debbah (Supelec, France) visited CWC for research collaboration. During his visit he also gave a two day course on “Game theoretic tools for the design of wireless networks” (16.–17.12.2010). Dr. Javier Del Ser (TECNALIA TELECOM, Spain) visited VTT for research collaboration that led to several joint publications on heuristic decision making methods for cognitive radio systems (1.3.–31.5.2010). Gian Paolo Perrucci (Aalborg University, Denmark) visited VTT for research collaboration on the topic of efficient use of network resources (1.6.– 31.7.2008). Laszlo Blazovics and Csaba Varga (Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Hungary) visited VTT for research collaboration on cooperation in disruptive channels and social networking (1.–30.11.2009). 57

Project Volume

EUR 1 955 000 Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Finland, and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Oulu, Finland. The project was funded by Tekes, CWC, and VTT.    The project steering group members were EB, EXFO-NetHawk, Finnish Defence Forces, Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority (FICORA), Nokia (later Renesas), Nokia Siemens Network, Tieto, Tekes, VTT, and CWC. Project Managers

Ph.D. Timo Bräysy Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu Tel. +358 (0)40 765 0002 [email protected] Lic. Sc. Marja Matinmikko VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Tel. +358 (0)20 722 2485 [email protected]

Wireless Broadband Communications (Wibco) The Wibco projects were a series of Tekes funded research projects that ran for several successive years from 2006 until 2010 and were carried out within Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Description of the Objectives The main objective of the Wibco projects was to create system concepts for industry leading radio communication solutions covering mid to long

58

term time frame, and ensure the competitiveness and technology leadership of Nokia in future wireless broadband system design. Towards that objective the projects concentrated on the following aspects: •• Build system concepts, and develop related technologies and capabilities for realizing those systems. •• Investigate feasibility and potential of those technologies. •• Investigate business potential, and techno-economic modeling of different use cases and scenarios. •• Contribute concepts and technology components to relevant standards development organizations. •• An essential component of the projects has been to develop technical innovations and related IPR.

Methods or Processes Used The Wibco projects addressed various important parts of the development of future broadband technologies, including system concept development, technical capability development and performance evaluation studies. One of the cornerstones of the projects has been the work together with the cocreation and subcontracting partners of the projects, complementing and extending each others expertise. The project work has resulted in a deep understanding of wireless systems design by the involved partners, of which they can take advantage in the future in a wide variety of industry-related research and development projects. The system concept development work within the Wibco projects developed concepts for future cellular systems and technologies at a very early

phase when they have not yet proven their full potential. The project allowed us to look further ahead and take more risk than would otherwise have been possible. Specific required capabilities for future wireless broadband systems have been developed within the Wibco projects, these functionalities are the components required to implement the new system concepts. Examples of these include spectrum sensing and coexistence technologies. Performance evaluation studies assessing and analyzing the performance at various levels of the created system concepts and technical capabilities were an integral part of the projects. The performance of the system concepts and component technologies at link level all the way up to end-to-end system level was assessed.

Results The results generated in the Wibco projects and the buildup of know-how has had a profound impact on the development of wireless systems. The results have been exploited in short and medium term standardization activities in 3GPP, and the IEEE, as well as in related product development projects. The most salient result of the series of Wibco projects is the creation of innovative technologies, going hand-in-hand with a very solid IPR creation. The projects have been shaping Nokia’s cellular future with important concepts and technologies for LTE, and also have been instrumental in establishing a stronghold in the area of cognitive radio, a technology that is becoming increasingly important when innovating future wireless broadband communication systems.

Future Cellular Technologies

The core aim of this project activity during earlier years (2006–2008) was to take care of research in order to develop Nokia concept for 3GPP UTRAN Long Term Evolution (LTE) – focus was on LTE RAN (Radio Access Network) research, i.e., on physical layer (L1), link layer (L2) and related link and system analysis. Also background research on concepts and technologies for future LTE releases targeting towards IMT-Advanced. In more recent years the emphasis shifted towards new opportunities for cellular systems within the local area domain. Significant results in this field include: solutions for flexible spectrum use, device-to-device communications solutions, as well as enhancements of the lower layers including radio resource management, interference cancellation algorithms and advanced antenna and MIMO solutions. Cognitive Radio Technologies

The main objective of the initial cognitive radio activities within Wibco during 2008 has been the development of a CR system concept that can create disruptions in the area of radio technologies and radio systems and analyze the implications and opportunities of that. Wibco enabled Nokia to start researching cognitive radio technologies at a very early stage and allowed higher risk in this important topic. The project results include very important work done on spectrum sensing technologies in a very early phase, and architectural work which has strongly impacted international collaboration activities in this field, in particular the EU FP7 IP project E3. The work in the Wibco project formed the basis for the coexist-

ence solutions that are currently being standardized in IEEE 802.19.1. Nokia Instant Communities

During the work on cognitive radio technologies AwareNet, an early materialization of a Cognitive Radio concept was developed. It is a connectionless always-on local radio mesh between the mobile devices that gives the user of the device knowledge (awareness) about the surroundings. It can be used for finding local services (from pizza restaurants to data storage), finding nodes, finding people, content, information (anyone selling a ticket for tonight’s concert) and local advertising. This concept is nowadays known as “Nokia Instant Communities”.

Selected Publications The following list shows a selection of publications made during the period 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2010. 1. Y. Yang, M. Rinne, and M. Renfors, "Filter bank based frequency-domain equalization with noise prediction," in Proc. IEEE 17th Int. Symp. on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Communications, Helsinki, Finland, Sep. 2006. 2. T. Chen, E. Malkamäki and T. Ristaniemi, ”Uplink DPCCH gating of inactive UEs in continuous packet connectivity mode for HSUPA,” in Proc. of IEEE Wireless Communications & Networking Conference, WCNC2007, March 11–15, 2007, Hong Kong, China. 3. Petteri Lundén, Tero Henttonen, Jussi Äijänen, “RSSI Measurements of WCDMA 2.6 GHz Extension Band”, Globecom 2007, Washington DC, USA. 4. H.-L. Määttänen, O. Tirkkonen, K. Hugl, “Orthogonalizing Transmission in MIMO with Linear Receiver and Finite

MCS Set”, in Proc. WCNC’08, pp. 522– 527, Las Vegas, April 2008. 5. J. Puttonen, T. Henttonen, N. Kolehmainen, K. Aschan, M. Moisio, P. Kela, “Voice-Over-IP Performance in UTRA Long Term Evolution Downlink”, Proc. IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference Spring 2009, pp. 2502–2506 , Singapore 11–14th May 2008. 6. Elena Virtej, Markku Kuusela, Esa Tuomaala: "System Performance of Single-User MIMO in LTE Downlink", in Proceedings of IEEE PIMRC 2008, pp. 1–5, Cannes, France, 15–18th Sep. 2008. 7. E. Viterbo and A. Hottinen, ``Optimal user pairing for multiuser MIMO," IEEE ISSSTA 2008, Bologna, Italy, August 2008. 8. Carl Wijting, Klaus Doppler, Kari Kalliojärvi, et.al., “Key Technologies for IMT-Advanced”, IEEE Wireless Communications, 2009. 9. Carl Wijting, Andreas Richter, Jari Junell, "On Distributed Functionalities for Cognitive Radio", Wireless VITAE 2009, Aalborg, Denmark. 10. J. Pajarinen, J. Peltonen, M. A. Uusitalo, and A. Hottinen, “Latent state models of primary user behavior for opportunistic spectrum access“, PIMRC09, 2009. 11. H.V. Poor, J. Lunden, V. Koivunen, A. Huttunen, “Collaborative Cyclostationary Spectrum Sensing for Cognitive Radio Systems”, IEEE Trans. Signal Processing, 2009. 12. M. Rinne, M. Kuusela, E. Tuomaala, P. Kinnunen, K. Pajukoski, I. Kovacs and J. Ojala, "A Performance Summary of the evolved 3G (E-UTRA) for VoIP and Best Effort Traffic", IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 58, issue 7, pp. 3661–3673, Sep. 2009.

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Technologies for Wireless Converging Networks (TECWIN2)

13. K. Schober, P. Jänis, and R. Wichman, “Geodesical Codebook Design for Precoded MIMO Systems”, IEEE Communication Letters, Vol. 13, No. 10, pp. 773–775, Oct. 2009. 14. Klaus Doppler, Mika Rinne, Carl Wijting, Cássio B. Ribeiro, Klaus Hugl, “Deviceto-Device Communication as an Underlay to LTE-Advanced Network”, IEEE Communications Magazine, Volume 47, Issue 12, Dec. 2009 Page(s):42–49.

Overview TECWIN2 continues the work that has been systematically carried out since year 2000 when the BROWAT research program started. The main goal of the project is to develop practical solutions for various air interface applications requiring both broad bandwidth and high performance for mobile users. In practice, this requires utilization of already known and also novel technologies based on multi-antenna and multicarrier solutions. The 1st project year of TECWIN2 focused into fundamental OFDM MIMO technologies, developed software defined radio solutions focusing in both hardware and software modules and carried out work with concepts and prototypes for multimedia and hybrid terminal solutions as part of the Wireless Applications Enablers Workpackage. From the technology point of view, collaborative and converging networks, ad-hoc techniques and cognitive radio were of especial interest. The 2nd project year took a more precise focus on the Wireless Applications Enablers for industrial and special applications. In addition to that, SDR technology utilized for R&D purposes was developed with the main out-

An overview on the publications and IPRs that originated from the Wibco projects is given in the table below. Project Volume

Total project budget has been approximately EUR 4 500 000 annually. Project Participants

The project was carried out by Nokia Research Center in close collaboration with co-creation partners.    The project was funded by Tekes and Nokia.    Collaboration partners included: Jyväskylän yliopisto, Magister Solutions, Cyberell, TKK / Aalto University, Tampere University of Technology, Cyberell. Project Manager

Carl Wijting (most recent project manager / Nokia contact related to Wibco) Nokia Research Center Tel. +358 (0)7 180 39385 [email protected]

An overview on the publications and IPRs that originated from the Wibco projects.

Publications and IPR

60

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

International scientific publications

21

34

36

49

29

Filed patent applications

58

105

79

48

52

come as the RACE SDR emulator concept. RACE has been also adopted and utilized by EB’s most important research partners: Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) of the University of Oulu and VTT, who have utilized the technology in the WINNER+ project activities as well as bilateral projects. B21C, a Celtic project has been part of TECWIN2 activity. In B21C EB has established major results in channel modeling and been able to contribute to international standardization. B21C has also opened new market and business opportunities in the field of broadcasting, which is one of the main prospects for EB in near future in addition to satellite hybrid communications.

Project implementation TECWIN2 is carried out by two partners: EB Wireless Communications Ltd. and EB Corporation (coordinator), including approximately 25–30% subcontracting services from national universities and SMEs. Project’s planned duration was 1.5 years starting in 2.5.2008 and ending 31.12.2009. A continuation phase named TECWIN3 has already started in 1.12.2009. The project was included in Tekesprogramme “GIGA” and it aims to participate in the focus area 1, “Air interface”. The project has strong collaboration with other research projects such as WINNER+, PANU, MITSE etc.

Summary of main results

Workpackage

Task

Results

WP1: Wireless Access Tech.

OFDM-MIMO

High-mobility WiMAX improvements, WiMAX 802.16e testbench based on RACE emulator Specifications of a satellite-MIMO emulation concept, implementation started DSSS-based very high-mobility link testbench

WP2: Sys. Engineering

Multi-ant systems

RACE multi-user / multi-antenna emulation concept

Radio ch.

DVB-H and DVB-NGH channel measurements, contribution + dissemination

Networking

NS-2 simulation environement development for WiMAX

SDR SW

WiSAR SW porting and implementation to a new SDR demonstrator platform. DBE environment for SDR development

SDR HW

EB4Gv2 HW upgrade implemented. EB’s laboratory set-up updated

RACE

RACE emulator concept developed and implemented. Concept utilzed in customer and research projects Test Tool Platform development. Allows automatic measurements and control of measurement devices used with the RACE emulator.

WP3: Application Enablers

WP4: Demonstration WP5: Project Management

HW implementation and perf. issues

MIMD concept / prototype development work. Comprises also UI development. Various models developed

Sat and Public Safety Solutions

Collaboration with COSCAR project. Development of a DVB-SH broadcasting relay concept, ROAD-TV applications. Development work mostly carried out in COSCAR. Input to WP1 test bench development

Def. and Sec. Solutions

Development of a new SDR demonstrator platform

Industrial and Special Solutions

Support to customer projects, promoting WiMAX technology to industrial customers

ITS

Activity discontiued. Ship ICT introduced as a new application

Lab, field and system demos

A few promotional demonstrations arranged together with WINNER+. A high mobility link demonstration Project management and administration work carried out. Business development and support to business planning. Tech forecasting providing multiple internal reports

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Multiradio Mobile Access (MaMA) Project type

Enterprise Project status

Completed Project schedule

1 July 2005 to 30 June 2008 Funded through Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme

Description of the Objectives The purpose of the project was to study the new architecture and technology development for WiMAX and LTE mobile broadband networks and especially develop wireless indoor coverage concepts for those systems. The objective was to build architecture and technology leadership for Nokia Siemens Networks for these most prominent wireless mobile broadband systems and their evolution in the future. The project included both applied system research and technology platform development. The target of the applied research was to model and analyze the key end-to-end system functionality from mobile user equipment to Internet interface and to demonstrate a feasible system implementation using a general purpose network architecture and technology platform. The focus points were in mobility, seamless multiradio networks, multi technology base stations and common transport network solutions. The project aim was to provide the necessary system and technology knowhow in order to NSN to steer the related standardization of

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the respective mobile systems and the underlying technologies e.g. in 3GPP, WiMAX Forum, IEEE, ITU-T and IETF.

Methods or Processes Used The project work was divided in a matrix to three vertical System Research projects and four horizontal technology development projects, which provide a common technology base for the systems in question. The System Research projects were WiMAX 802.16, 3GPP LTE and Inbuilding Wireless. The conducted system research covered the end-to-end functionality from the mobile systems base station air interface to the mobile core network elements through the different layers of packet transport. In addition to normal system development they include related standardization and business modeling activities and development of reference system architecture and End-toEnd System Proof-of-Concepts or demonstrators: •• Steer standardization of WiMAX & IEEE 802.16 networks, 3G evolution to 3.9G networks and Inbuilding Wireless concepts for improved indoor coverage •• Business solutions and modelling for new concepts •• End-to-End concept solutions, system architecture definition, system modelling and performance evaluation •• End-To-End System Proof-Of-Concepts and reference designs to proof the developed concepts, algorithms and methods and to validate technology choices The target for technology development was to define multi technology proof-

of-concept architecture base (same technology base and reference architecture for multiple standards) and to develop key architecture modules and building blocks to be used by the system development projects. Technology development was separated to radio (RF), baseband, IP and transport technology projects. Common technology base and reference architecture to be used by multiple mobile system evolutions was defined by leveraging standards and defacto interfaces and by build adequate competences and resources using networked development environment. Proof-of-Concept demonstrators were used to evaluate different technology offerings. Access for key implementation technologies was secured by steering the technology development when feasible. Nokia and NSN internal Research project process guidelines and milestones were applied in the project.

Results As a whole MaMA project has progressed according to the overall plan and reached its original research targets within the three year period. The formation of Nokia Siemens Networks in Q1/2007 caused some resource changes and refined target setting for the project, but these (mostly schedule related) hick-ups were managed to be recovered by the end of the project. The main achievements of the projects were: •• WiMAX 802.16 broadband solution development and system proof-of-concept demonstrator, supporting standardization activities in IEEE and WiMAX Forum

••

••

••

••

••

and finally technology and knowledge transfer from Research to NSN business unit R&D for further product development in January 2006. Development of 3G indoor coverage concept and proof-of-concept prototype of Femto BTS and gateway nodes. The technology was transferred to R&D in April 2007. LTE system standardization, system modelling and analysis, development of base station and access gateway technology platform. The technology platform and prototypes was transferred to R&D in April 2007 for further development. Securing seamless transformation to packet technologies in mobile backhaul networks. Harmonization of transport network solutions, architectures and technologies for multi radio technologies and future mobile systems. Strong presence and contributions in standardisation organisations and industry forums (3GPP, IEEE, ETSI, ITU-T, WiMAX, Femto Forum etc). Improved competence on the areas of the project scope for both Nokia Siemens Networks and the external project collaborators.

The concepts, platforms and technology developed in this project were assumed to be taken into commercial product use during 2009–2012. Some of the project results have already been introduced and published in NSN products.

Publications Related to the project 10 academic theses (of which 3 doctoral thesis), about 50 published scientific papers and articles (including one book) and approximately 110 patent applications were created. Project Participants

The project was originally led by Nokia and from 1.4.2007 onwards by Nokia Siemens Networks. A highly networked national and international project organization typical to Nokia and Nokia Siemens Networks was created for the project. The expertise of Nokia/NSN’s worldwide organization and its local contacts to collaborators (e.g. local universities, research institutes and subcontractors) were utilized when sharing the project responsibilities. Altogether 34 different subcontractor companies and 20 research institutes or universities worldwide along with 12 NSN own research locations have been participating to the project. Competence development and knowledge transfer were co-operative and bi-directional function between project collaborators and NSN.    The project’s Finnish part consisting of 8 national research organizations, 12 SMEs and 5 other companies was funded by Tekes and Nokia/NSN. Responsible Project Manager

Juha Salmelin Research Manager Tel +358 (0)7180 27360 [email protected] Additional information

Pekka Wainio Research Project Manager Tel +358 (0)7180 24636 [email protected]

Ubiquitous broadband Connectivity with IMT-A Radio technologies (UbiCAR) Project type

Enterprise Project status

Ongoing Project schedule

4 July 2008 to 28 February 2011 Funded through Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme

Description of the Objectives IMT-Advanced radio technologies provide peak data rates of 1Gbps per user, large available bandwidth and efficient spectrum use. The objective of UbiCAR system research project is to develop and standardize, in IMT-Advanced frame, wireless broadband radio and network solutions, architectures, product concepts and implementation technologies, which are able to offer the same broadband mobile service for the user regardless of the location, time and used terminal. The UbiCAR project is focusing on the evolution of the LTE(-Advanced) and HSPA mobile broadband systems as part of the end-to-end wireless system providing ubiquitous mobile broadband services for the end user. Originally the scope included also WiMAX evolution, but that research area was dropped out after period 1 due to the changes in global market. From network technologies point of view the key research items were evolution of transport network to packet switched net-

63

work and Fixed Mobile Convergence, support for multi-technology mobile networks including legacy 2G/3G networks and due to the critical cost point, advanced mobile backhaul access technologies (e.g. Micro Wave Radios, xDSL, (G)PON, Ethernet). The main research challenges of UbiCAR can be summarized in the following way: •• IMT-Advanced standardization & system definition of future mobile systems: LTE-Advanced (3GPP rel 9 & beyond) incl. indoor access, and HSPA+, also WiMAX evolution & WiFi on need basis •• End-to-end system concepts, future business solutions & services for IMT-Advanced mobile systems to provide Ubiquitous Broadband Connectivity •• Build architecture & technology leadership for NSN in IMT-Advanced radio & packet backhaul technology areas. Prototypes will

••

be developed to bring new innovations to business faster. How to provide backhaul access to base stations with lowest total network costs (mobile + transport network, CAPEX+OPEX)

Methods or Processes Used UbiCAR project continued from the technology and knowledge base of Multiradio Mobile Access (MaMA) project, exploiting and developing further many of the results of MaMA project. The UbiCAR project consisted of three phases, first two 12 months, the last one 8 months. Organizationally the project was divided to five main research areas as depicted in the picture above. By utilizing agile principles for research road mapping the research focus in each period was refined based on general NSN research strategy, business needs and the knowledge gathered from the results of the previous research work. In

Figure 1. Project organization – the five main projects.

1. HSPA+ Evolution Standardisation & IPR creation

HSPA+ Evolution Subprojects

2. LTE – Advanced LTE Evolution Subprojects

Celtic Winner + Future Internet Network

E2E System concepts, solutions & services

3. Ubiquitous Access E2E System Architecture Performance Evaluations & PofC Technology Development & PofC

Nokia Siemens Networks. All rights reserved.

64

ARTIST4G 4. Future Mobile Transport

100GET -E3 Fin100G

5. Technology Exploration & Development

STREP ETNA

total the UbiCAR system research frame during its three periods included approximately 45 individual research topics and study items organized as separate research subprojects within UbiCAR project frame. On the average there were approximately 30 active subprojects in each period. Some of the subprojects were continuous activities like standardization. The shortest subprojects lasted only 6 months. Nokia Siemens Networks internal Research project process guidelines and milestones were applied in the project. Agile research principles were also piloted in some of the subprojects.

Results As a whole UbiCAR project has progressed according to the overall plan and reached its original research targets within the first two periods ending June 2010. The third and last period is still ongoing so therefore only preliminary results are reported here. Some highlights from the project results and achievements are listed below: •• WiMAX standardization in IEEE802.16 and WiMAX Forum was steered to favourable direction considering NSN business interests and NSN preferred technology was successfully inserted to the standards. The system simulators and simulation results created in the project were used in developing and evaluating standardization contributions as well as in evaluation of feature candidates for product roadmaps. Large number of inventions was made. •• HSPA+ evolution: The research focused on studying the possibility of applying the relaying and

••

••

••

multipoint transmission schemes being developed and standardized in the IEEE 802.16 and 3GPP LTEA to the WCDMA/HSPA technologies. HSPA benchmarking study was conducted. LTE-Advanced: NSN has successfully driven the standardisation of the 3GPP LTE releases 9 and 10. Flatter and leaner RAN architectures improve system performance and lower the cost, thus enabling new kind of products and operator business models. Advanced LTE radio technology research included among other things studies related to cognitive radio network concepts, Device-to-Device communication and other local connectivity with flexible spectrum use. Large number of inventions was made and protected by IPR when applicable. Ubiquitous access: Experimental LTE self-configuration and self-optimization systems were demonstrated in Mobile World Conference 2010. Total cost of ownership for future HSPA/LTE macro, macro upgrade, micro cell and relay node deployments were analyzed using real network scenarios. Pilot system for end-to-end QoS differentiation was verified in the performance verification laboratory. Future mobile transport: Continued research and standardization of IEEE 1588 Timing-over-Packet frequency and time synchronization transfer in ITU-T. The telecom profile for IEEE 1588 was consent-

••

ed in the June 2010 ITU-T meeting. The key results of NSN packet synchronization research were demonstrated in Mobile World Congress 2009. The effects of LTE X2 traffic to transport topologies and dimensioning were analyzed by performance simulations. Co-existence of WCDMA/HSPA and LTE over the same transport network was analyzed and simulated. Multilayer optimization network planning research tool prototype was developed. Internal research white paper on MBH solutions and technologies was created including visioning for 2011-2015. Technology exploration and development: Advanced technology development projects and general technology scouting activities were conducted on RF and antennas, HW computing platforms and SW technology areas. The results enable for example a new product category for NSN base stations. For example active antenna product prototype, which combines antenna element and miniaturized remote radio head (RRH) into one compact element, was developed. Also outdoor multi-sector LTE/LTEAdvanced pico base station prototype with medium output power, green eco footprint, low visual profile and integrated backhaul transmission was developed and demonstrated.

The concepts, architectures, algorithms and technologies developed in this

project are assumed to be taken into commercial product use during 2011 – 2015. Some of the project results have already been introduced and published in NSN products.

Publications Related to the project 4 academic theses, about 130 published scientific papers or articles and approximately 120 patent applications were created within the first two years of the project. Project Participants

The project was managed by Nokia Siemens Networks. A highly networked national and international project organization typical to Nokia Siemens Networks was created for the project. The expertise of NSN’s worldwide organization and its local contacts to collaborators (e.g. local universities, research institutes and subcontractors) were utilized when sharing the project responsibilities. Altogether 23 different subcontractor companies and 25 research institutes or universities worldwide along with NSN own research locations have been participating to the project. Competence development and knowledge transfer between project collaborators and NSN were emphasized. The project’s Finnish part consisting of 6 national research organizations, 9 SMEs and 3 other companies was funded by Tekes and NSN. Responsible Project Manager

Juha Salmelin Research Manager Tel +358 (0)7180 27360 [email protected]

65

MIMO Techniques for 3G System Evolution (MITSE) Project Duration

1 January 2006 to 31 December 2007 From 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2005, the MITSE project started outside Tekes’ technology programmes. During years 2006 and 2007, the MITSE project belonged Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme. The same situation continues also in years 2008 and 2009.

Description of the Objectives The generic goal of the project is to produce new scientific information, results and engineering solutions which are useful and of interest to the project partners. The project adopts and further develops (if needed and when sensible) evolving network technologies and concepts in emerging wireless system standards developed in part in CWC, e.g., in PANU, FUTURA, WINNER, FRACTA and other related projects. The main goal is to study the implementation of the novel network concepts and related algorithms for real evolving future standards. The ultimate goal is to provide new scientifically evidenced information, solutions and expertise to support the implementation of the new network concepts and technologies, in particular for the transceiver baseband processing. Thus, the goal is to provide baseband architecture solutions and implementation guidelines for the relevant algorithms; algorithms are further developed and refined driven by the architecture and implementation needs taking the communication system performance optimization and needs into consideration. 66

Methods or Processes Used The methodology applied in the research includes mainly the following: •• theoretical and mathematical analysis and synthesis •• Monte Carlo computer simulations based on MATLAB™ and C language models •• modeling by VHDL by using an appropriate translators •• DSP and computation emulation and software generation •• algorithm evaluation using an existing test system and measurements based on those.

Results In WP #1, performance of detection algorithms were studied in the case when interference is present. Two novel methods to reduce the computational complexity of LR based detectors were developed. Simulation models of MMSE-PIC and MMSE detectors with SAGE based front end have been developed and performance of detectors have been simulated. LIST-SAGE algorithm has been developed and simulated. The performance of the newly proposed detectors is very good and promising, while their complexity is still moderate. They have also the further advantage of natural combination of (SAGE algorithm based) channel estimators. Performance of detection algorithms was studied in the case when perfect channel estimate is not available. The level and distribution of the channel estimate error has been taken into consideration in algorithm development. Also, iterative detector algorithms were studied. In WP #2, LSD detection algorithms have been developed further in order to find effective implementations of algorithms. Detector algorithms considered

in this task are IR-LSD, SEE-LSD, and KBest LSD. Implementation architecture of the K-Best LSD algorithm has been developed, fixed-point performance simulations have been performed and algorithm has been implemented using FPGA. Performance of the LMMSE detector implementation has been measured in realistic channel environments. The ASIC complexity of the MMSE detector has been estimated. DSP implementation study of LSD-algorithms has been started. The developed architectures and the on-going work forms a basis for further work to design practical detector implementations with acceptable power consumption, area consumption and still providing highly enhanced data throughput (up to 50 Mbits per second seems potentially feasible currently). LSD and interference cancellation detection algorithm architectures were developed and implemented. Implementations using FPGA, DSP processor and TTA-architecture based ASIP were considered. Channel estimation and channel parameter estimation implementation studies were conducted. In WP #3, system model and assumptions for downlink have been reviewed and simulation model has been expanded. Inter-cell interference has been taken into account in simulations. Also, low complexity MIMOOFDM channel tracking and equalization method, low complexity joint detection method and a method for joint channel tracking and decoding have been developed. Different channel estimators in the presence of intercell interference were studied. Simulation model was developed and performance simulations performed. Precoding in closed-loop MIMO downlink scheme study was studied.

In WP #4, system model and assumptions for the uplink have been defined. Different transmission schemes are currently under comparison. Simulation model development for uplink has been started. EXIT chart aided Hybrid HARQ development has also been started. Also use of EXIT and MSE charts in precoding has been proposed and is currently ongoing. Simulation model for uplink SC-FDMA scheme were developed and performance simulations performed. Also, the use of EXIT charts in HARQ optimization was studied.

Publications Articles in International Scientific Conferences

1. Jari Ylioinas, “An Iterative Receiver Design Using a SAGE Based List Detector in Turbo Coded OFDM”, presented in VTC’07 (submitted in 2006). 2. Mehdi Bennis, Ebrahim Karami, Jorma Lilleberg, “Performance of MIMO Receivers in the presence of Channel Estimation Errors,” accepted to PIMRC 2007. 3. Jari Ylioinas, Markku Juntti, “An Iterative Receiver Using a List PIC Detector in Turbo Coded OFDM”, accepted to Asilomar´07. 4. Ebrahim Karami, “Low Complexity Time Domain LS MIMO OFDM Channel Estimation Algorithm” submitted to Asilomar’07. 5. Markus Myllylä, Markku Juntti, Joseph R. Cavallaro, ”A List Sphere Detector Based on Dijkstra’s Algorithm for MIMO-OFDM System”, accepted to PIMRC’07. 6. Johanna Kerttula, Markus Myllylä, Markku Juntti, “Implementation of a K-Best based MIMO-OFDM detector”, accepted to EUSIPCO-2007.

7. Johanna Kerttula, Markus Myllylä, Markku Juntti, “Word length study and architecture design of a K-best based MIMO-OFDM detector algorithm”, accepted to SPAWC 2007. 8. Markus Myllylä, Markku Juntti, Joseph R. Cavallaro, ”Implementation Aspects of List Sphere Detector Algorithms”, accepted to Globecom’07. 9. Markus Myllylä, Juho Antikainen, Markku Juntti, Joseph R. Cavallaro. ”The Effect of LLR Clipping to the Complexity of List Sphere Detector Algorithm”, accepted to Asilomar’07. 10. Juho Antikainen, Perttu Salmela, Markku Juntti, Olli Silvén, Jarmo Takala, Markus Myllylä “ApplicationSpecific Instruction Set Processor Implementation of List Sphere Detector”, accepted to Asilomar’07. 11. Jari Ylioinas, Markku Juntti, “Comparison of Three List Detectors in Iterative Decoding and Channel Estimation in MIMO OFDM”, submitted to ISSSTA’08. 12. M. Myllylä P. Silvola M. Juntti, J. Cavallaro “Comparison of Two Novel List Sphere Detector Algorithms for MIMO-OFDM Systems”, PIMRC'06. 13. J. Ylioinas, M. Juntti, “EM Based Iterative Receiver for Joint Decoding and Channel Parameter Estimation in Space-Frequency Turbo Coded OFDM”, PIMRC'06. 14. P. Silvola, K. Hooli, M. Juntti , “SubOptimal Soft-Output MAP Detector with Lattice Reduction in MIMO-OFDM System”, PIMRC'06. 15. M. Myllylä, M. Juntti, M. Limingoja, A. Byman, J. Cavallaro “Performance Evaluation of Two LMMSE Detectors in a MIMO-OFDM Testbed”, Asilomar 2006. 16. P. Silvola, K. Hooli, M. Juntti, ” SubOptimal Soft-Output MAP Detector

with Lattice Reduction Based on the Euclidean Distance Interpolation” submitted and approved to VTC’07. 17. Ebrahim Karami, Markku Juntti, "Equalization of MIMO-OFDM Channels Using Bussgang Algorithm", submitted and approved to VTC'07 spring. Articles in International Scientific Journals

1. Juho Antikainen, Perttu Salmela, Markku Juntti, Olli Silvén, Jarmo Takala, Markus MYllylä, ”ApplicationSpecific Instruction Set Processor Implemantation of List Sphere Detector”, accepted to EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems. 2. Jari Ylioinas, Markku Juntti, “An Iterative Joint Detection, Decoding and Channel Estimation in Turbo Coded MIMO-OFDM”, journal paper draft, submitted to IEEE transactions on Vehicular Technology. Domestic Journals

1. M. Juntti, V. Tapio & M. Myllylä, “Moniantennitekniikat kehittyvien 3G-järjestelmien ytimessä – MIMO:lla vauhtia langattomaan laajakaistaan” [”Multiantenna techniques in the core of evolving 3G systems – MIMO boosting the wireless broadband”, in Finnish]. Prosessori, November 2006. Academic Thesis

1. Juho Antikainen,” Transport Triggered Architecture Implemantation of List Sphere Detector”, M.Sc. (Sci) thesis. 2. Janne Janhunen, ”Signal Processor Implementation of List Sphere Detector”, M.Sc. (Tech) thesis. 3. Juho Antikainen,.”Requirements and Application-Specific Instruction Set Processor Design for MIMO Detector”, M.Sc. (Tech) thesis. 67

4. P. Silvola “Advanded Lattice Reduction Based Detection Algorithms for MIMOOFDM Communications”, Licentiate thesis, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Oulu, January 2007. 5. J. Kerttula, “Implementation of a K-best based multiple antenna detector algorithm”, Master’s thesis, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Oulu, January 2007. The total number of literal outputs that are originated in the MITSE project are given in the following table. Publications

2006 2007 Total

Theses Dr. Lich. Tech. M. Sc. International Journal papers Conference papers National Journal papers Conference papers

5

1 4

1 4

2 12

2 17

1

1 Total

25

Project Volume

EUR 1 705 561 Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.    The project was funded by Tekes, Nokia, Texas Instruments, Nokia Siemens Networks and Elektrobit who also participated in the scientific steering. Project Manager

Visa Tapio University of Oulu Tel. +358 (0)8 553 2864 [email protected] 68

MIMO Tecniques for 3G System and Standard Evolution (MITSE) Project Duration

1 January 2008 to 31 March 2010 MITSE project during 2008–2010 was continuation to a project witch had the same name. During the years 2006– 2010 both MITSE projects were included in Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Description of the Objectives The generic goal of the project was to produce new scientific information, results and engineering solutions which are useful and of interest to the project partners. Thus, the results and information produced can support their own internal research and development activities. The goal of CWC was to create and publish new scientific results and information in scientific conference and journal publications and in academic theses. The objective of the project was to provide new scientifically evidenced information, solutions and expertise to support the implementation of the new network concepts and technologies, in particular for the transceiver baseband processing.

Methods or Processes Used The project adopted and further developed evolving network technologies and algorithms in emerging wireless system standards. Algorithms were further developed and refined driven by the architecture and implementation needs taking the communication system performance optimization and needs into consideration. Thus, the goal was to provide baseband architecture

solutions and implementation guidelines for the relevant algorithms. The figure 1 illustrates the work flow followed in algorithm development and implementation. Detailed research plans for the topics and tasks were updated and accepted for each project year. The progress of research was presented in the technical steering group on monthly basis. There the company representatives closely monitored the achieved results and gave direct feedback to the researchers. In addition to these technical meetings other results dissemination seminars were organised. They included lectures at other partners’ facilities, annual project results seminars, and open workshops with invited speakers. Research methods comprised mathematical analysis and computer simulations. Implementation studies were done using up-to-date development tools for FPGAs, DSPs and TTA based ASIPs. The assumptions and system models reflected the interest of industrial partners. Research innovations were written in invention reports, and eventually published in journal and conference papers and academic theses.

Results Novel methods and algorithms were developed for channel estimation and detection of MIMO-OFDM signals. Implementation solutions for those algorithms were also generated. New optimal linear precoder design technique for single-carrier single-user MIMO with iterative FD SC-MMSE equalization was developed and a power allocation method for irregularly modulated MIMO signalling with iterative frequency domain detector was proposed. Algorithm implementation study needed in

Figure 1. Phases of algorithm development and implementation.

Algorithm development (MATLAB)

Algorithm refinement for practical implementation (MATLAB & C)

Architecture develoment (MATLAB & C)

Fixed-point model creation (MATLAB & C)

VHDL generation

Perfromance and complexity analysis

Performance study via simulations

Performance verification

Performance verification

Performance verification

Algorithm verification

Algorithm verification

iterative zero-forcing precoding in multiuser multi-antenna systems was also performed. Co-operation with other research groups was active throughout the project duration. Project collaborated closely with professor Joseph Cavallaro’s group from Rice University, USA, professor Jarmo Takala’s group from Tampere University of Technology and professor Olli Silvén’s group from the Information Processing Laboratory of University of Oulu. Research visit from CWC to Rice University was carried out twice during 2008–2010. In 2008 and 2010 popular public GIGA project seminars were arranged by CWC in Oulu with significant MITSE contribution.

Publications The following list provides a cross-section of outputs produced in the project. Journal articles

J. Ketonen, M. Juntti, J. Cavallaro, “Performance-complexity comparison of Receivers for a LTE MIMO-OFDM System”, IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing. J. Janhunen, O. Silvén, M. Juntti, ”Programmable Processor Implementations of K-best List Sphere Detector for MIMO Receiver”, EURASIP Signal Processing. J. Ylioinas, M. Juntti, “Iterative Joint Detection, Decoding, and Channel

Estimation in Turbo Coded MIMOOFDM”, IEEETransactions on Vehicular Technology. P. Salmela, J. Antikainen, T. Pitkänen, O. Silvén, J. Takala, ”3G Long Term Evolution Baseband Processing with Application Specific Processors”, International Journal of Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (main contribution in this article from the Tampere University of Technology). Conference articles

J. Antikainen,P. Salmela, O. Silvén,M. Juntti, J. Takala, M. Myllylä, ”Fine-grained Application-specific Instruction Set”, SAMOS, 2008. J. Janhunen, J. Antikainen,O. Silvén,M. Juntti, M. Myllylä, ” Programmable Processor Comparison Based on the K-Best List Sphere Detector Algorithm”, WPMC, 2008. J. Janhunen, O. Silvén, M. Juntti, M. Myllylä, ”Software Defined Radio Implementation of K-Best List Sphere Detector Algorithm”, SAMOS, 2008. J. Karjalainen, T. Matsumoto, ”On the Convergence Property of an MMSE Based Multiuser MIMO Turbo Detector with uplink Precoding”, ICC, 2008. J. Karjalainen, T. Matsumoto, W. Utschick, ”Convergence analysis of MMSE based multiuser MIMO turbo detector with linear precoding strategies”, 5th International Symposium on Turbo Codes and Related Topics, 2008.

J. Ketonen, M. Juntti, ”SIC and K-Best LSD Receiver Implementation for a MIMOOFDM System”, EUSIPCO, 2008. J. Ketonen, M. Juntti, ”Performance Comparisons of SIC and K-Best LSD Receivers for a MIMO-OFDM System”, WPMC. 2008. J. Ketonen, M. Myllylä, M. Juntti, J. Cavallaro, ”ASIC Implementation Comparison of SIC and LSD receivers for MIMO-OFDM”, Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, 2008. M. Myllylä, M. Juntti,J. Cavallaro, ”Implementation and Complexity Analysis of List Sphere Detector for MIMO-OFDM systems”, Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, 2008. M. Myllylä, M. Juntti,J. Cavallaro, ”Architecture Design and Implementation of the Increasing Radius - List Sphere Detector Algorithm”, ICASSP, 2009. M. Myllylä, M. Juntti,J. Cavallaro, ”The Effect of Preprocessing to the Complexity of List Sphere Detector Algorithms”, WPMC, 2008. S. Tiiro, J. Ylioinas, M. Myllylä, M. Juntti, ”Implementation of the Least Squares Channel Estimation Algorithm for MIMO-OFDM Systems”, International ITG Workshop on Smart Antennas, 2009. sA. Yadav, M. Juntti, J. Karjalainen, ”Combating Timing Asynchronism 69

in Relay Transmission for 3GPP LTE Uplink”, WCNC, 2009. J. Ylioinas, M. Juntti, ”Comparison of Three List Detectors in Iterative Decoding and Channel Estimation in MIMO OFDM”, ISSSTA, 2008. J. Ylioinas,S. Tiiro, M. Juntti, ”Improving Channel Estimation with Turbo Feedback and Time Domain Filtering in MIMO-OFDM”, International ITG Workshop on Smart Antennas, 2009. J. Janhunen,O. Silvén, M. Juntti, “Comparison of the Software Defined Radio Implementations of the K-Best List Sphere Detection”, EUSIPCO, 2009. J. Karjalainen, A. Tölli,M. Codreanu, M. Juntti, “Power Allocation for Irregularly Modulated MIMO Signaling with Iterative Frequency Domain Detector”, Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, 2009. J. Karjalainen, A. Tölli, T. Matsumoto, M. Juntti,” On Convergence Constrained Precoder Design for Iterative Frequency Domain MIMO Detector”, ISIT, 2009. J. Ketonen, M. Juntti, J. Cavallaro, “Receiver Implementation for MIMO-OFDM with AMC and Precoding”, Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, 2009. P. Komulainen, A. Tölli, M. Latva-aho, M. Juntti, “Channel Sounding Pilot Overhead Reduction for TDD Multiuser MIMO Systems”, 5th IEEE Workshop on Broadband Wireless Access, 2009. X. Lu,H. Jin, M. Juntti, Closed Loop Transmission for LTE System Downlink, European Wireless Conference, 2009. sA. Yadav, M. Juntti, J. Lilleberg,” RateAdaptive Space-Time Constellation Design for Partially Coherent Rayleigh Fading Channels”, European Wireless Conference, 2010.

70

sA. Yadav, V. Tapio, M. Juntti, J. Karjalainen, “Combating Timing and Frequency Asynchronism in Relay Transmission for 3GPP LTE Uplink”, ICC, 2010. J. Ylioinas, J. Karjalainen, M. Juntti, ”On the Activation Ordering of Detector, Decoder, and Channel Estimator in Iterative Receiver for MIMO-OFDM”, ICC, 2010. J. Ylioinas, R. Madanahally, M. Juntti, ”Avoiding Matrix Inversion in DD SAGE Channel Estimation in MIMOOFDM with M-QAM”, VTC Fall, 2009. Invited tutorial presentations

M. Juntti, “Baseband Algorithms and Architectures for Cooperative MIMO Systems with Applications to Evolving System Standards”, IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, 2009. M. Juntti, J. Cavallaro, “Baseband Algorithms and Architectures for Cooperative MIMO Systems with Applications to Evolving System Standards”, International Symposium on System-on-Chip, 2009.

M. Juntti, J. Cavallaro, “Baseband Algorithms and Architectures for Cooperative MIMO Systems with Applications to Evolving System Standards”, Wireless Vitea 2009. Theses

J. Ylioinas, “Iterative Detection, Decoding, and Channel Estimation in MIMOOFDM”, ACTA Universitatis Ouluensis C Technica 358, Dr.Tech thesis. M. Myllylä, “Detection Algorithms and Architectures for Wireless Spatial Multiplexing Communications”, Dr. Tech thesis, reviewers appointed. M. Palo, ”HARQ Retransmission Protocols and Spatially Multiplexed MIMO for UTRAN LTE Uplink”, M.Sc. thesis. S. Tiiro, “Implementation of a MIMO-OFDM Channel Estimation Algorithm”, M.Sc. thesis. J. Han, “Closed-loop adaptive transmission for MIMO-OFDM Systems”, M.Sc. thesis. M. Jokinen, “Implementation of SAGE based channel estimator”, M.Sc. thesis. J. Laine, “Matrix Decompositions for Iterative Zero-Forcing Precoding in Multiuser Multi-antenna Systems”, M.Sc. thesis.

The total number of literal outputs originating from the MITSE project during 2008–2010 is collected to the following table. Publications Journal articles Conference articles Invention reports M.Sc. theses Doctoral theses

2008 3 17 8 4 -

2009–10 5 16 10 1 2

Total 8 33 18 5

Reports Other publications

5

-

5

TOTAL

71

2

One doctoral thesis was completed in June 2010, the second thesis that

Project Volume

EUR 1 753 895 Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.    The project was funded by Tekes, Nokia, Nokia Siemens Networks, Elektrobit, Texas Instruments (2008), Uninord (2009– 2010), and CWC. Project Manager

Visa Tapio Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu Tel. +358 (0)8 553 2864 [email protected]

advanced rAdio SysTems and Architectures (NASTA) Project Duration

1 July 2009 to 31 December 2010 NASTA project was accepted as part of the Tekes’s Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme starting the second half of 2009.

Description of the Objectives The data throughput and peak data rates in cellular systems have been increasing rapidly. The advent of new standard releases like LTE-A and the new releases of HSPA are pushing this trend even further. Together with the need for advanced MIMO receivers, this is placing a challenge on the baseband platforms of base stations. Solutions for bridging the performance gap, not covered by Moore's law, are investigated both from the algorithmic and architectural perspectives.

The objective of the project has been to develop algorithms and architectures for the base band of next generation base stations. The work has concentrated on the physical and MAC layers. The objective has been to make publications in addition to some NSN internal reports. The concrete areas of study are listed below: 1. HSUPA+ advanced receivers 2. LTE-A MIMO receivers 3. Architecture, requirement engineering and virtual prototyping for next generation base stations 4. Uplink MAC layer concepts and solutions

Methods or Processes Used On the HSUPA+ advanced receivers, interference cancellation receivers have been studied combined with frequency domain solutions. The receivers are a key element for enabling uplink data rate improvements for future HSUPA networks. Similarly, MIMO concepts for LTE-A require new receiver design. The need arises both from the requirement to improve performance as well as to keep the implementation complexity manageable. Different iterative receiver solutions have been studied for this application. The challenges for next generation base stations are not only arising from which algorithms to apply, but also innovations in architecture design are needed. To enable this, the architecture development flow has been studied including requirement engineering and virtual prototyping. Virtual prototypes of key architectural areas have been built, with the simulation results providing important data for architectural trade-offs.

A closer integration of the air interface physical and MAC layers of the base station protocol stack is taking place. Advanced scheduling schemes for base station uplink, combined with antenna arrays have been the third area of research. Several publications have been made, which together with the 3D simulation models give a good foundation for continued research in the vast area.

Results For HSUPA+, we have proposed a frequency domain single-user chip-level MMSE equalizer to combat ISI of data users and PIC to suppress the interference from data users to speech users, and Rake to detect the speech users. Simplified finger allocation procedures have been proposed. We have also introduced a simplified channel estimation method utilizing a combination of time and frequency domain. From the processing capacity and cost point of view, these simplifications allow the base station to serve more users with acceptable implementation costs. LTE-A MIMO receiver utilizing soft symbol feedback from the demodulator in addition to a-posteriori feedback from the decoder has been proposed. Reduced complexity is achieved without jeopardizing performance significantly. A three-dimensional (3D) multi-cell multi-user system model along with spatial array processing are presented and studied. With multiple antenna elements displaced in a 3D space, e.g., uniform linear array (ULA) or uniform planar array (UPA), the base station (BS) is capable of forming beams in vertical domain. This is particular-

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ly interesting for interference limited systems, since the 3D array processing provides another degree of freedom to transmit signal and eliminate the interference. Using the 3D multicell channel model, the impact of elevation domain angular spread and antenna analog beam pattern on the base station antenna design, digital beamforming and power control are studied. Significant gains can are got due to the spatial array processing with the extra degree of freedom in vertical domain. The cooperative reception amongst multiple coordinated base stations (BS) in the uplink communications, where each mobile station (MS) is served by an associated multiple BS set (MBS) is studied. Under the individual signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) constraint per MS, power control and receive beamforming are jointly optimized with adaptive MBS selection to minimize the total transmit power. An iterative optimization algorithm is presented accordingly. The joint optimization problem is non-convex in general, but it can be optimally solved by the proposed algorithm as long as it is feasible. To find the optimum, the proposed algorithm requires the exhaustive search over all BSs per MS. To reduce the complexity in the large scale cellular network, we propose the simplified schemes where a subset of BSs is pre-selected based on the large scale fading factors. By limiting the search in the subset, the complexity is reduced significantly. Although the obtained power vector with the simplified algorithm is not optimal, a very close performance can be achieved by carefully choosing the sizes of the pre-selected BS subset and MBS. The significant advantage is proven by simulations. 72

Figure 1. Beam attenuation pattern.

Figure 2. An illustration of the network layout.

Figure 3. Comparison of probability of feasible connections of Alg1 and Alg2, SINR constraint per MS is 8 dB.

scheme. Using the proposed algorithm with either the optimal or the simplified MBS selection schemes, a significant power efficiency improvement is obtained which is verified by the system level simulations.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 July 2009 to 31 December 2010.

The sum power minimization problem for the uplink of wireless cellular systems is studied. Given a certain quality-of-service (QoS) constraint per mobile station (MS), the optimal power control and receiver beamforming are jointly considered with adaptive multi base station set (MBS) selection for joint reception. An iterative optimization algorithm is proposed accordingly. Although the problem is non-convex in general, it can always be optimally solved via the proposed algorithm as long as it is feasible. By changing the size of MBS, the system performance in terms of the transmit power over all MSs is evaluated through system level simulations. The results show that the transmit power can be significantly reduced even with a small size MBS, which is of a great interests for uplink communications.

Assuming that multiple base stations (BSs) are coordinated for the joint reception of each user’s transmitted signal in the uplink, the sum power minimization (SP-MIN) problem for the cellular systems is studied. As BSs may have multiple antennas, the power control and receiver beamforming are jointly optimized with the adaptive multi BS set (MBS) selection for each user. By doing optimization iteratively, an algorithm is proposed to find the minimum transmit power. Although the SP-Min problem is non-convex in general, it is proven that the proposed algorithm using the optimal MBS selection can converge to the optimal solution as long as it is feasible. To improve the computational efficiency of the algorithm, two simplified MBS selection schemes have been presented as well as the optimal

Lu, X., Li, W., Tölli, A., Juntti, M., Kunnari, E., Piirainen, O., ”Joint Power Control, Receiver Beamforming and Adaptive Multi Base Station Coordination for Uplink Wireless Communications,” PIMRC, 2010. Lu, X., Li, W., Tölli, A., Juntti, M., ”Adaptive Multi Base Station Coordination Reception for Uplink Wireless Communications,” Eurasip Journal, 2010. Li, W., Juntti, M., Lu, X., Tölli, A., Kunnari, E., Piirainen, O., ”Adaptive Joint Multi-cell Reception with Uplink Power Control and Beamforming,” invited paper, China Comm, 2010. Lu, X., Tölli, A., Piirainen, O., Juntti, M., Li, W., ”Comparison of Antenna Arrays in a 3-D Multiuser Multicell Network,” ICC, 2010. Lu, X., Kunnari, E., Leinonen, J., Piirainen, O., Vainikka, M., Juntti, M., ”LTE Uplink Power Control and Base Station Antenna Down Tilt in a 3D Channel Model,” European Wireless, 2010. Hahtola, P., "Path selection for advanced WCDMA uplink," draft available for publication. I. Moilanen, "Frequency domain channel estimation with prediction and smoothing in HSUPA," draft available for publication.

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In addition, the following output is based on the work carried out in NASTA project: Moilanen, I., Hahtola, P., Törmälehto, J., “Advanced FDE-PIC-RAKE receiver,” NASTA internal report for NSN, 2010. Vatjus-Anttila, J., Weissenfeld, M., “BTS Ethernet performance and capacity analysis,” NASTA internal report for NSN, 2010. Piirainen, O., “LTE-A MIMO Receivers,” NASTA internal report for NSN, 2010. Laine, J., “xgBTS WCDMA Logical Architecture”, NASTA internal report for NSN, 2010. Vainikka, M., et.al, “SOC architecture proposals for ng BTS”, NASTA internal report for NSN 2010. Vatjus-Anttila, J., Weissenfeld, M.,“Virtual prototype model for SOC”, NASTA internal report for NSN 2009. Project Participants

The project was carried out by Nokia Siemens Networks, with research collaboration from the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland and VTT Oulu, Finland. Project Manager

Markku Vainikka Nokia Siemens Networks [email protected]

E!3187 CELTIC HOMESNET – Home Base Station: An Emerging Network Paradigm, Aalto University and VTT Project Duration

1 July 2009 to 30 June 2012 The HOMESNET project is funded by Tekes under the Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme and consists of four consortium members in Finland, namely, Aalto University, Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) and European Communications Engineering (ECE). Furthermore, the HOMESNET project is also part of the Celtic (Cooperation for a sustained European Leadership in Telecommunications), which is a European R&D programme fully dedicated to end-to-end telecommunications systems (http://www.celtic-initiative.org). The European Celtic HOMESNET consortium includes national HOMESNET consortia in three other countries in addition to Finland, namely, France, Turkey and Israel. The main cooperation partners for Finnish consortium have been Alcatel-Lucent-Bell Labs/ France and Orange Labs, FT.

Description of the Objectives The Department of Communications and Networking (Comnet) of Aalto University is a multi-disciplinary research unit with a strong research tradition in the area of radio communications. The research on the emerging Home Base Stations (HBS) or femtocell concept in Comnet was carried out on a limited scale from around 2008 and eventually commenced formally with the launch of the HOMESNET project in July 2009. At VTT, Communication Platforms

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knowledge centre is a part of larger ICT cluster concentrating on wireless network and device core technologies; radio systems and computing platforms. In the recent years VTT has been involved in many cognitive radio related projects, and HOMESNET can be seen as a project where some of the ideas generated for example in COGNAC project are being taken into use in more practical environment. It has been noted that over half the voice calls and in excess of two-thirds of data service usage occurs from within indoor environments. Against this backdrop, the femtocell concept has gained significant interest as solution for boosting coverage and capacity for wireless broadband networks in indoor environments. A typical femtocell device is characterized by very low costs, plug-and-play installation by subscribers, low transmission power, use of existing fixed broadband (typically, digital subscriber lines) backhaul and it limits access to a closed user group, such as, household members. Mass adoption of femtocells will strongly influence the local area network evolution towards International Mobile Telecommunications-Advanced (IMT-Advanced), create a platform for to support delivery of wide range of multimedia services for subscribers and produce new business opportunities for mobile operators. However, the possible unplanned nature of the femtocell installation and operation, coupled with the need to co-exist with conventional (macrocellular) mobile wireless networks makes the femtocell concept technically challenging. The HOMESNET project addresses these technical challenges and proposes a wide range of innovative solutions that serve to bring the femtocell

concept to forefront as mainstream inbuilding solution. To that end, the femtocellular innovations expected from the HOMESNET project include: femtocell concept framework and related requirements for IMT-Advanced, local and remote management, interference control methods, localization functions for improved service and application provisioning, and techno-economical models for the complete femtocell ecosystem.

Methods or Processes Used One of the most notable drawbacks of increased femtocell proliferation in femto and macrocellular deployment environment is the quality of service degradation as a result of co-channel interference experienced by both sets of subscribers connected to femtocells and

macrocells within the same vicinity. The interference is particularly significant for closed access femtocells that are typically favoured for private residential environments. The Comnet research team has developed within HOMESNET Matlab-based system-level simulators to study various performance aspects of multiple femtocell deployments in various building structures, as well as, to test and validate novel solutions and services proposed within the project for the femtocell environment. The simulators explicitly model utilisation of air interface resources provided by various radio access technologies (RATs) and the associated impairments effects (wall attenuation, path loss, cochannel interference, indoor multipath propagation etc.) on non-line-of-sight

radio signal propagation in a considered in-building environment. The RATs considered for the femtocells in the developed simulators are Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) and Long Term Evolution (LTE). The different system scenarios, simulation methodologies and modelling have been considered in cooperation with researchers from Alcatel-Lucent Bell Labs/France, Orange Labs FT and Izmir Institute of Technology/Turkey. VTT studies the issue of interference management in femtocell deployment via cognitive radio-like approach. The similarities between primary user – secondary user and macrocell – femtocell pairs are palpable, and therefore the principles studied in cognitive radio

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research can be seen to apply for femtocell systems, too. The research team at VTT has developed within HOMESNET a Matlab-based simulator that can be used for studying the cognitive aspects in the femtocell systems. The simulation model is based on LTE and LTEA parameters, and uses software developed in WINNER II for modelling the radio channel.

Results The Aalto Comnet research group used the in-house developed simulators to study the distribution of interference in closed access mode femtocells that are deployed randomly in a fraction of the apartments of buildings whose layouts are based on Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) guidelines. The simulation also took into account the interference effects of the overlay macrocell network. Extensive simulations indicated that indoor deployed femtocells resulted in a dominant interferer scenario. To that end, further simulations indicated that in this dominant interferer case, feasible transmit beamforming techniques enabled interference mitigation (hence, significant performance improvement) for HSPA femtocells. The LTE related femtocell studies are ongoing and they include design of radio resource sharing methods to mitigate interference between femtocells and macrocells as well as related performance analysis. Project will be continued until 2012 and radio resource sharing methods that are feasible for efficient LTE-Advanced operations will be designed in the next phase. In addition to the interference related studies also femtocell LTE network architecture was investigated in cooperation with Nokia Siemens Networks. 76

The existence of femtocells also present a unique mobile broadband access option for emergency response personnel that may be spontaneously called upon to provide critical emergency services from within a particular in-building environment. For this case, the Comnet research group has studied extensively the emergency telemedicine scenario as an exemplary use case, whereby, femtocells could be exploited to support rich multimedia emergency telemedicine applications (tele-ultrasound, video streaming for telediagnosis etc.) at a random indoor medical emergency site (e.g. residential apartment). This enhances the quality and efficiency of pre-hospital emergency care, resulting in significant savings in cost of care and prevention of long-term or fatal effects to patients due to the medical emergency. Detailed simulations carried out over a range of scenarios (different building types, femtocell penetration rates, RATs etc.) demonstrated significant improvements in terms of achievable throughput for the emergency personnel mobile devices when complementary access to femtocells is possible, compared to the conventional case where they are only able to access the macro network. Experimental demonstration of this novel femtocell use case is planned within HOMESNET. In order to adjust the transmission parameters, femto base station must have knowledge of the surrounding radio environment. There are many ways for achieving this information, and VTT has focused on studying spectrum sensing via Matlab simulations. The simulations have shown that spectrum sensing based for example on Welch periodogram can provide information of the spectrum occupancy to

the femto base station with low computational complexity and minimal requirements placed on the system design. As the project will be continued until 2012, other methods for acquiring this information, such as using X2 interface as defined in the LTE standard for passing information between base stations, will be studied. Also the decisionmaking process for reducing interference based on this information will also be studied.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 June 2009 to 11 November 2010. (Note the list does not include works currently submitted for publication and are under review). E. Mutafungwa, Z. Zheng, J. Hämäläinen, M. Husso, T. Korhonen, “On the use of Home Node Bs for Emergency Telemedicine Applications in Various Indoor Environments”, Special Issue of the International Journal on E-Health and Medical Communications (accepted for publication). M. Husso, Z. Zheng, J. Hämäläinen, and E. Mutafungwa, "Dominant Interferer Mitigation in Closed Femtocell Deployment", Second IEEE IOFC Workshop, (Istanbul, Turkey), Sep. 2010. Z. Altman, C. Balageas, P. Beltran, Y. Ben Ezra, E. Formet, J. Hämäläinen, O. Marcé, E. Mutafungwa, S. Perales , M. Ran, Z. Zheng, "Femtocells: The HOMESNET vision", Second IEEE IOFC Workshop, (Istanbul, Turkey), Sep. 2010. E. Mutafungwa, Z. Zheng, J. Hämäläinen, M. Husso, and T. Korhonen, "Exploiting Femtocellular Networks for Emergency Telemedicine Applications in Indoor Environments", 12th IEEE International Conference on e-Health Networking,

Application & Services (Healthcom 2010), Lyon, France, 1-3 July 2010. M. Husso, J. Hämäläinen, R. Jäntti, J. Li, E. Mutafungwa, R. Wichman, Z. Zheng, and A. Wyglinski, "Interference Mitigation by Practical Transmit Beamforming Methods in Closed Femtocells", EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking, Vol. 2010, April 2010. E. Mutafungwa, and J. Hämäläinen, "Leveraging Femtocells for Dissemination of Early Warning Messages", NGenSafe'09, workshop of IEEE ICC 2009, (Dresden, Germany), June 2009. In addition, the following academic theses are based on the work carried out by Comnet members within HOMESNET: Muhammad Farhan Khan “Femtocellular Aspects on UMTS Architecture Evolution” M.Sc. thesis published by the Faculty of Electronics, Communications and Automation of Aalto University, 2010. Zhong Zheng “On the Femtocell Concept: Performance Studies and Application in the Public Safety Framework” M.Sc. thesis published by the Faculty of Electronics, Communications and Automation of TKK, 2009. Project Volume

EUR 305 000 Project Participants

The project is carried out by the Department of Communications and Networking (Comnet) of Aalto University and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT).    The project was funded by Tekes, Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) and European Communications Engineering (ECE).

Project Leader (Finnish consortium)

Prof. Jyri Hämäläinen Aalto University Tel. +358 (0)50 3160975 [email protected] Project Manager (Aalto project)

Dr. Edward Mutafungwa Aalto University Tel. +358 (0)9 470 22318 [email protected] Project Manager (VTT project)

Ilkka Harjula VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Tel. +358 (0)40 732 7920 [email protected]

E!3187 CELTIC HOMESNET – Home Base Station: An Emerging Network Paradigm, Nokia Siemens Networks Objectives A Home Base Station (HBS) is characterized by very low costs, plug-andplay installation, low transmission power, use of existing fixed broadband (typically, digital subscriber lines) backhaul and usually limits access to a closed user group, such as, household members. Mass adoption of HBSs will strongly influence the local area evolution towards International Mobile Telecommunications-Advanced (IMT-Advanced) and create new business opportunities for mobile operators. The Homesnet project will consider the evolving HBS concepts and their evolution from technological, economical and services viewpoint, including study areas of requirements for HBSs, architecture options, O&M and SON

(Self Optimized Network) features, interference control methods, service optimization for local area use and techno economical models.

Methods or Processes Used The NSN Homesnet project is part of a larger nation level Homesnet go-operation project funded by Tekes. Members of the Finnish Homesnet consortia are Aalto University, Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) and European Communications Engineering (ECE). The Homesnet project is also part of the Celtic (co-operation for a sustained European Leadership in Telecommunications), which is the European R&D programme fully dedicated to end to end telecommunication systems. The Celtic Homesnet consortium includes national consortiums from Finland, France, Turkey and Israel. The Celtic Homesnet project is divided into eight Work Packages from which NSN participates to the Work Package 2 System Requirements and the Work Package 3 Architectural options. The research work in Homesnet project was made independently using mainly in-house resources, however the research findings was introduced and discussed with project partners in technical meetings of Finnish consortium and in Celtic level work package specific meetings.

Results A state of the art situation in standardization was studied in co-operation with Alcatel-Lucent/Bell Labs France, Orange Labs (France Telecom), Prism, Mostlytec, Turkcell and Aalto University. The current situation in 3GPP (3G and LTE), WiMax Forum, NGMN (Next Gen77

eration Mobile Networks alliance), IMTAdvanced (ITU global standard for international mobile telecommunications), Heterogeneous Hand Over (IEEE 802.21) and Femto Forum –standardization was studied. Also deeper Investigation of LTE femtocell architectures was made in go-operation with Aalto –university A LIPA (Local IP Access) feature is introduced in 3GPP rel.9 specification for Home Base Station system. The LIPA enables direct user plane connectivity to home based packet data network by using a dedicated PDN connection terminated to gateway located inside the home network. The local PDN connection could be used in parallel with the regular PDN connection to the mobile operator’s core network. Mobility models based on LTE Home Base Station architecture proposals, which were on a table in standardization, was investigated. The introduction of the LIPA feature integrates the 3GPP Home Base Station and UEs (User Equipment) into part of the home network. A 3GPP IPv6 link model, which is tailored to a 3GPP transport model, however differs from an IPv6 link model(s) typically used in home networks. The Ipv6 models of the home network and 3GPP system are investigated as well as the attachment the home base station into home network environment in IPv6 networking vice. Contact person

Matti Laitila Nokia Siemens Networks Tel. +358718060784 [email protected]

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E!3187 CELTIC HOMESNET – Home Base Station: An Emerging Network Paradigm, European Communications Engineering Ltd. Project Duration

1 July 2009 to 30 June 2012 The HOMESNET project is funded by Tekes under the Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme and consists of four consortium members in Finland, namely, Aalto University, Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Nokia Siemens Networks (NSN) and European Communications Engineering (ECE). Furthermore, the HOMESNET project is also part of the Celtic (Cooperation for a sustained European Leadership in Telecommunications), which is a European R&D programme fully dedicated to end-to-end telecommunications systems (http://www.celtic-initiative.org). The European Celtic HOMESNET consortium includes national HOMESNET consortia in three other countries in addition to Finland, namely, France, Turkey and Israel. The main cooperation partners for Finnish consortium have been Alcatel-Lucent-Bell Labs/ France and Orange Labs, FT.

Objectives European Communications Engineering (ECE) specialises in mobile network design and has worked with customers in more than 50 countries over the past 10 years. ECE offers services and a unique cloud computing software solution for radio network planning and optimisation , assisting operators with their network deployment and maintenance processes. The possible un-

planned nature of the femtocell installation and operation, coupled with the need to co-exist with conventional (macrocellular) mobile wireless networks makes the femtocell concept challenging from optimizations and monitoring perspective, especially performance monitoring. The work on HOMESNET project addresses management and performance monitoring of femtocells in live co-existing multi technology networks scenario.

Methods or Processes Used A significant challenge in femtocells deployment and operations is the performance monitoring of whole network, including femtocells e.g. interference management in live networks. The practical process of performance monitoring in mobile networks include operations statistics as well as field measurements. These incomes from live network is compared and validated with results in planning and optimization software. With introduction of a novel calendar approach for network evolution a detailed network representation can be achieved on day by day basis. As a result femtocells configurations and status can be managed. Imposed on performance analysis of whole network, also femtocells performance contribution is addressed in co-existing network.

Results ECE studies management and performance monitoring in femtocell deployment via eEPOS, ECE’s cloud computing software platform for planning and optimization of wireless networks. The research team at ECE has developed within HOMESNET a domain

model for femtocells, interference monitoring concept as well as calendar based technology filtering to support performance monitoring of femtocells in live networks. Future work will include interface analysis and methods for validation in live networks. Project Participants

Kimmo Oinonen, Hans Ahnlund Project Manager

Hans Ahnlund Additional Information

Hans Ahnlund European Communications Engineering Ltd. Tel. +358 (0)46 712 1130 [email protected]

dCOM – Direct Communication Objectives The project aimed at developing a long range direct peer-to-peer radio system used on globally available unlicensed frequency bands. The system would provide free peer-to-peer communication within few kilometers. Another target was to create key competences and IPR to enable timely product creation in the future. The novel radio system was to introduce an opportunity to enhance and enlarge the usability of traditional mobile terminal by adding direct connectivity and essentially seamless interplay.

Methods or Processes Used Partners were to be selected for the verification platform. They were to have common interests to realize the related technology. In-depth discussions on re-

search topics were followed by mutual negotiations where synergies were obtained. Selected parts of technology development and demonstrator realization were subcontracted to research institutes and small SW/HW companies. Detailed requirement specifications for the HW and SW were commonly agreed. Implementation specifications were derived from these correspondingly. The specific contents of subcontracted work and volumes were determined and executed on the basis of the program plan. Boundary conditions posed by global radio regulations were taken into account. Special attention was paid on bill of material which is key importance especially in the entry market.

Results SW and HW specifications were completed on schedule. A wide range of applications were innovated, planned and implemented in a WLAN ad-hoc test environment well before completion of the line verification. The application set covered community and presence, media, voice chat, broadcast, multicast and reliable and secure data transfer. A series of prototypes for field testing and development were manufactured both for Symbian and Maemo platforms. Several patent applications were filed. Despite of the challenging economic climate all partners and individuals completed the agreed work honorably. Finally the prototypes were subjected to field tests in Southern Finland. The system behaved well within two kilometers range in all applications. Appli-

cations with more coding gain such as messaging extended the range further. In optimal conditions the range was extended beyond three kilometer limit. Publications and theses were made as part of theoretical and practical university research collaboration. Project Participants

Nokia Research Center, Elcoteq SE, Tampere University of Technology, Nomovok Ltd Project Manager

Kari Rissanen Additional Information

Kari Rissanen Nokia Research Center Tel. +358400608195 [email protected]

Concepts for Ultra Wideband Radio Systems (CUBS) Project Duration

1 March 2006 to 28 February 2007 During its lifetime, CUBS project has been involved in two Tekes technology programmes. From 1 January 2004 to 31 January 2005, the project was a part of Tekes’ Networks of the Future (NETS) technology programme as a continuation of the preceding FUBS project (Future Ultra Wideband Radio Systems, http://www.tekes. fi/julkaisut/NETS_final.pdf ). During the period 1 February 2005 to 28 February 2006, there was no suitable technology programme available but the project received Tekes funding outside the technology programmes. During the final year, a third one, the CUBS project was involved in Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

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Description of the Objectives An ultra wideband technology (UWB) related basic research at CWC started at 1999 within Tekes funded FUBS project and continued till the end of February 2007 within a CUBS project. The main goal in these two study projects was to discover the performance differences between several carrier-less (DS-UWB, TH-UWB and UWBFM) and multibandOFDM (i.e., WiMedia) based UWB systems that are utilising different multiple access and modulation schemes and realistic radio channel models with the presence of electro-magnetic interference. During the project, different UWB approaches were ranked based on their provided performance in non-ideal propagation environments. In addition, co-existence issues between UWB and other, existing radio systems were studied experimentally.

Methods or Processes Used Time hopping (TH) and direct sequence (DS) singleband impulse radio concept performances as well as multibandOFDM based WiMedia UWB concept performance were studied in the presence of interference coming from other radio systems. Studies were applied both to AWGN and to channel models defined by the IEEE 802.15.3a study group. At the FUBS and CUBS projects, a link level simulator was developed for this purpose in Matlab. The simulator allows flexible use of variable set of system parameters that have an influence on UWB system performance, as well as to the radio propagation environment. UWB impact on IEEE802.11a, UMTS and GPS was studied in experimental co-existence tests. At these tests, network throughput and positioning accu-

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racy degradations of the victim system were measured at the presence of UWB interference. UWB interference sources were CWC’s own UWB impulse transmitters developed for co-existence research and also commercial UWB development kits. Using the latter UWB radios, both positioning and live video transmission demonstrations were showed in front of audience.

devices is slight, less than 5, the interfered non-UWB link can maintain its performance. With small number of interferers, the activity factor (i.e., the active period within a frame) of the UWB devices used is not an issue. However, if the number of simultaneously active UWB devices is increased, the activity factor has great impact on the performance of the victim system.

Results

Publications

The simulations concentrated on direct sequence and time hopping UWB, UWB-FM and MB-OFDM concepts. The last concept represents the multiband approach whereas the others are based on singleband approach. Single band UWB systems are more suitable for slow data rate and high accuracy positioning applications. The simulations showed that the direct sequence UWB technology (i.e., DS-UWB) with pulse amplitude modulation (equals phase shift keying) is outperforming the other studied binary UWB techniques. However, to fulfil the given quality measures, such as bit error rate, DS-UWB requires a rake receiver to be used. On the other hand, uncoded DS-UWB could give similar performance level than coded multibandOFDM system without coding which reduces the operations during the signal transmission. MB-OFDM is capable to offer high data rates and by suppressing selected sub-bands, it could avoid allocated frequency bands much easier than corresponding singleband concepts which fulfil all the spectra defined by a pulse shape and a pulse width. The experimental results showed that if the number of interfering UWB

The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 March 2006 to 28 February 2007. M. Hämäläinen: “Singleband UWB systems. Analysis and measurements of coexistence with selected existing radio systems,” Doctoral thesis, ACTA C240, University of Oulu, 2006. P. Pirinen: “Effective capacity evaluation of advanced wideband CDMA and UWB radio networks,” Doctoral thesis, ACTA C260, University of Oulu, 2006. H. Viittala: “Comparative study on the impact of interference on MB-OFDM and DS-UWB system performance,” Master’s thesis, 2006. I. Oppermann, M. Hämäläinen, J. Iinatti, A. Rabbachin, B. Allen, SA. Ghorashi, M. Ghavami, O. Albert, CG Mecklenbräuker: “Signal Processing.“ Chapter in UWB Communication Systems. A Comprehensive Overview edited by M.-G. Di Benedetto, T. Kaiser, A.F. Molisch, I. Oppermann, C. Politano, D. Porcino. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2006. P. Pirinen: “Outage analysis of ultra wideband system in lognormal multipath fading and square-shaped cellular configurations.” Eurasip Journal, Volume 2006.

M. Hämäläinen, J. Iinatti: ”Eurooppa uhkaa jäädä UWB-junasta”. Prosessori, Elektroniikan suunnittelun erikoisnumero, 2006. M. Hämäläinen, A. Isola, J. Saloranta, J. Iinatti: ”UWB coexistence measurements with IEEE802.11a.” IET Seminar on Ultra Wideband Systems, Technologies and Ap-plications, London, UK, 2006. P. Pirinen: “Cellular topology and outage evaluation for DS-UWB system with correlated lognormal multipath fading.” PIMRC, Helsinki, 2006. R. Tesi, M. Hämäläinen, J. Iinatti: ”Channel estimation algorithms comparison for UWB multiband-OFDM.” PIMRC, Helsinki, 2006. H. Viittala, M. Hämäläinen, J. Iinatti: “Comparative studies of MB-OFDM and DS-UWB with co-existing systems in AWGN channel.” PIMRC, Helsinki, 2006. H. Karvonen, C. Pomalaza-Raez: “Crosslayer energy efficiency of FEC coding in UWB sensor networks.” PIMRC, Helsinki, 2006. H. Karvonen, C. Pomalaza-Raez, M. Hämäläinen: ”Cross-layer energy efficiency of FEC coding in UWB sensor networks.” ICUWB, Boston, MA, USA, 2006. H. Viittala, M. Hämäläinen, J. Iinatti: “Performance comparison between MB-OFDM and DS-UWB in interfered multipath channels.” MILCOM, Washington D.C., USA, 2006. A. Isola, M. Hämäläinen, J. Iinatti: ”UWB coexistence measurements.” URSI, Sodankylä, 2006. H. Viittala, M. Hämäläinen, J. Iinatti: ”The impact of co-existing systems on MB-OFDM and DS-UWB system performances in AWGN and multipath channels.” URSI, Sodankylä, 2006.

Project Volume

H. Viittala, M. Hämäläinen, J. Iinatti: “Comparative Performance Studies of Interfered Low Data Rate Ultra Wideband Systems in Multipath Channel.” PIMRC, Athens, Greece, 2007. A. Isola, M. Hämäläinen, J. Iinatti, E. Airos: “UWB co-existence measurements with GPS and other systems.” MILCOM, Orlando, Fl, USA, 2007.

EUR 300 000 Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.    The project was funded by Tekes, the Finnish Defence Forces, Elektrobit Ltd. and CWC.

In addition, the following output is based on the work carried out in CUBS project:

Project Manager

Dr. Matti Hämäläinen University of Oulu Tel. +358 (0)8 553 2856 [email protected]

A. Isola: “Ultra wideband interference and aggregate noise measurements.” Master's thesis, 2008.

The total number of literal outputs that are originated in the CUBS project are given in the following table. Publications Theses

2004

2005

4

3

Dr. 1

M.Sc.

3

Books

2007 0

2008 1

2

Lich.Tech. International

2006

8

Total 8 2 1

1 6

10

1 2

5 26

1

1

Chapters in books

1

1

Journal papers

2

2

Conference papers National

7

6

7

2

22

0

0

3

0

3

Journal papers

1

Conference papers Laboratory reports

2 2

5

2

3

12 TOTAL

49

81

Ultra Wideband Program Objectives The objective of Ultra Wideband program was to drive WiMedia based UWB standard, spectrum regulation, transceiver architecture design to obtain best possible technical solution for mobile devices. It was also important to demonstrate capabilities of UWB Radio from future applications point of view and innovate new UWB enabled solutions and applications for short proximity networks. UWB need to provide fast, free wireless local connectivity which will be an important enabler to transfer gigabytes of data between mobiles and storage devices, to support downloading and wireless display applications. Therefore, it was important to assure that world wide UWB standard will be created as mobile devices will be roaming in all continents. UWB performance and low power consumptions, and size are relevant factors to be met for mobile device. UWB radios should be able coexists with other radios best possible way.

Results

Main results

••

••

Methods or Processes Used Research and technical development was carried in Nokia Research Center and in co-operation with TKK, and CWC UWB research groups, and with small and medium size companies such as PJM, Vesatel, and Mermit. The program was divided into standardization and demo implementation projects that supported common mission: Develop and support development of WiMedia based High Rate WPAN ecosystem from user and mobile device perspective and drive UWB technology research and development to guarantee timely availability and exploitability of technology. 82

••

Program reached well its targets. The value of UWB program is many fold. Firstly, the most important is perhaps that the WiMedia UWB standard has developed as suitable for mobile applications in the squeeze of PC and CE companies requirements. Secondly, innovations and more than 40 filed patent application provides good basis for future R&D. Thirdly, we have raised early interest for the potential of UWB by building early demos on UWB radio. Fourthly, we have increased Nokia's knowledge and visibility to this new technology.

••

••

••

••

Program has navigated successfully mobile device friendly UWB spectrum regulatory strategy during European Regulatory process in CEPT/TG3, including even discussions with China regulators. Nokia has been driving primary UWB usage above 6GHz (-41.3dBm/MHz). Our contributions to WiMedia standardisation bodies had to go through serious checking by worldwide experts from other companies to be accepted into Wimedia standard Together with local Universities we have developed long term relationship providing universities also external recognition (e.g. an ISSCC'06 paper of circuit design to TKK). Physical layer simulation tools were developed to allow PHY performance analysis of the full system Possibly World’s first dual band group WiMedia UWB RFIC receiver was designed Small size and high performance UWB antenna were designed for mobiles phones

•• ••

Proof-of-concepts UWB demonstrators provided new input for understanding mobile device implementation architecture in UWB context. There were 6 demonstrations: 1) uncompressed mobile-TV video signal (DVB-H) transferred over UWB to external display, 2) Wireless audio visual interface 3) WiMedia UWB Medium Access Control layer implemented on test platform, 4) Bluetooth protocol stacks and OBEX profile, 5) UWB on “MMC” card demo and 6) Wireless USB demo setup. Nokia got also a position within WiMedia Board of Directors. One of our team members was invited as opponent to Public Defense of Matti Hämäläinen's PhD thesis on UWB technology at the Oulu University.

Publications Publications on UWB concepts, MAC, PHY

Wei Cui, Janne Tervonen, Pekka Ranta, Nokia Research Center: “Video Streaming over UWB vs WLAN” WWC 2007. Wei Cui, Pekka Ranta NRC, Todd Brown (Wiquest). “Wireless Video Streaming over UWB” ICUWB 2007, Poster presentation. Leonardo Goratti, Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) (Finland); Ulrico Celentano, Centre for Wireless, Communications (CWC) (Finland); Juha Salokannel, Nokia Research Center (Finland): “Energy Consumption of Beacon Period Extension and Contraction in Distributed Medium Access Control”, PIMRC06, Helsinki.

Arto Palin, NRC (Finland); Jukka Reunamäki (Finland); Juha Salokannel (Finland); Jussi Ylänen (Finland): “Bluetooth Host Protocol Usage over the Ultra Wideband Radio”, PIMRC06, Helsinki. Green, Marilynn, Adjacent Frequency Coding Technique for Decreasing MultiBand-OFDM Ultrawideband Interference to Other Radio Services, IEEE Sarnoff 2006 Conference Proceedings, 27–28 March 2006, Princeton, NJ, (2006). Timo Lunttila, Sassan Iraji, Heikki Berg, "Advanced Coding Schemes for a Multi-Band OFDM Ultrawideband System towards 1 Gbps", presentation at CCNC 2006, Las Vegas, US. Wei Cui, Harald Kaaja, "Low Latency Buffer Allocation for Dual Radio Transceivers", Global Mobile Congress Conference Proceedings. GMC2005 10–12 October 2005 Chongqing, China. Helal, D. Kaaja, H. Blazevic, L. UWB file transfer between mobile terminals using multi-media card standard interface and Bluetooth as a control radio, IEEE International Conference on Ultra-Wideband, 2005, pp.609–614. Green, Marilynn, Dynamic Spectrum Sensing by Multiband OFDM Radio for Interference Mitigation, , 2005 First IEEE International Symposium on New Frontiers in Dynamic Spectrum Access Networks, 2005. DySPAN 2005. Volume 1, pp. 619–625, (2005). Sassan Iraji, Nikolai Nefedov, Heikki Berg, Timo Lunttila and Pekka A. Ranta, "Performance of Zigzag codes in a Multi-Band OFDM Ultra-Wideband System," Proceedings of Softcom 2005 conference, Split, Croatia, 15–17 September 2005. Pekka A. Ranta, "Is UWB interference or provides new interconnectivity?", Presentation in Ultrawideband

Europe Conference, Organizer IQPC, March, 2005, London. Wylie-Green, M.P., Ranta, P.A., Salokannel, J., "Multi-band OFDM UWB solution for IEEE 802.15.3a WPANs", Proceedings of IEEE/Sarnoff Symposium on Advances in Wired and Wireless Communication, April 18–19, 2005, pp.102–105. Marilynn P. Wylie-Green and Peter Wang, "Effects of Noise-Like UWB Emissions on cdma2000 Forward Link Performance", Conference Proceedings of the IEEE 2005 Wireless Communications and Networking Conference, New Orleans, LA, USA. Marilynn P. Wylie-Green, "Comparison of the Bhattacharyya and CramerRao Lower Bounds for the Position Estimation of an OFDM Transmitter", Proceedings of the IEEE 2005 International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing, (March 18–23). Timo Lunttila, Juha Salokannel, Arto Palin, and Pekka Ranta, "Nopeat laiteyhteydet langattomiksi," Prosessori ES, Marraskuu 2004 (in Finnish only). Marilynn P. Wylie-Green and Peter Wang, "The Impact of Ultrawideband Emissions on cdma2000 Forward Link Performance", Conference Proceedings of IEEE Radio and Wireless Conference 2004, Atlanta, GA, USA, September 2004, pp. 255–258. Marilynn P. Wylie-Green and Peter Wang, "UWB: Principles, Practices and Potential", APOC 2003 Conference Proceedings, Wuha, China, November 2003. Marilynn P. Wylie-Green, "Impact of Ultrawideband on cdma2000 Forward Link Performance," APOC 2003 Conference Proceedings, Wuha, China, November 2003.

Publications on UWB RFIC

K. Stadius, T. Rapinoja, J. Kaukovuori, J. Ryynänen, K. Halonen, “Multi-tone fast frequency-hopping synthesizer for UWB radio,” IEEE Trans. on Microwave Theory and Techniques, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1633–1641, August 2007. J. Kaukovuori, K. Stadius, J. Ryynänen, K. A. I. Halonen, ”Analysis and design of passive polyphase filters,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I – Regular Papers Regular Papers, IEEE Transactions on Volume 55, Issue 10, pp. 3023–3037. V. Saari, M. Kaltiokallio, S. Lindfors, J. Ryynänen, K. A. I. Halonen, ”A 240MHz Low-Pass Filter With Variable Gain in 65-nm CMOS for a UWB Radio Receiver,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I – Regular Papers, accepted for publication. O. Viitala, S. Lindfors, K. Halonen, “A 5-bit 1-GS/s flash-ADC in 0.13-mm CMOS using active interpolation,” in Proceedings of the IEEE European SolidState Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC), pp. 412–415, September 2006. T. Rapinoja, K. Stadius, K. Halonen, “A lowpower phase-locked loop for UWB applications,” in Proceedings of the 24th Norchip Conference, pp. 23–26, November 2006. V. Saari, M. Kaltiokallio, S. Lindfors, J. Ryynänen, K. Halonen, “A 1.2V 240MHz CMOS continuous-time low-pass filter for a UWB radio receiver,” in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference (ISSCC) Digest of Technical Papers, pp. 122–123, February 2007. J. Kaukovuori, J. Ryynänen, K. A. I. Halonen, “A dual-band direct-conversion RF front-end for WiMedia UWB receiver,” in IEEE Radio Frequency Integrated Circuits (RFIC) Symposium Digest of Papers, pp. 211–214, June 2007. 83

M. Kaltiokallio, S. Lindfors, V. Saari, J. Ryynänen, “Design of precise gain GmC-leapfrog filters,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Circuits and Systems, pp. 3534–3537, May 2007. M. Kaltiokallio, J. Kaukovuori, J. Ryynänen, “Analysis of different feedback topologies to LNA input matching,” in Proceedings of the European Conference on Circuit Theory and Design (ECCTD), pp. 68–71, August 2007. M. Kaltiokallio, V. Saari, T. Rapinoja, K. Stadius, J. Ryynänen, S. Lindfors, K. Halonen, ”A WiMedia UWB Receiver with a Synthesizer,” in Proceedings of the European Solid-State Circuits Conference (ESSCIRC), pp. 330–333, September 2008. Theses from co-operation partners (TKK, CWC, Oulu)

G. Destino, Access technique for wireless personal area network using UWB radio interface, Supervisors: S. Benedetto (Politecnico di Torino, Italy), R. Knopp (Institut Eurécom, France), U. Celentano (UoO). Politecnico di Torino and Eurécom, Sept 2004 – Apr 2005. M. Kaltiokallio, System design and modeling of an integrated wideband direct conversion receiver, Master’s Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, June 2006. T. Rapinoja, A fully integrated phaselocked loop for multiband frequency synthesizer, Master’s Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2006. O. Viitala, A 5-bit analog-to-digital converter with 1-GS/s sample rate, Master’s Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, May 2007.

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J. Kaukovuori, CMOS radio frequency circuits for short-range directconversion receivers, Doctoral Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2008. On going D.Sc. Thesis (TKK)

Ville Saari (expected graduation 2010) Mikko Kaltiokallio (expected graduation 2011) Tapio Rapinoja (expected graduation 2011) Olli Viitala (expected graduation 2011) Program Manager

Pekka Ranta (–1H/2005), Harald Kaaja (2H/2005–1H/2007) Additional Information

Nokia Research Center, Helsinki Harald Kaaja Tel. +358 (0)50 48 36580 [email protected]

Description of the Objectives Techniques for antenna array front-ends operating at 60 GHz radio frequency band were to be developed. The data rate of the system was to be 1 Gbit/s. The nonlinear effects of the analog parts of the transmitter were to be studied and possible compensation techniques were to be considered. Antenna arrays and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) transceiver circuits were to be designed. Low-temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) technology was to be used for implementation of the antenna arrays and for the integration purposes. Also, the limitations of LTCC design, materials and processes in the 60 GHz frequency band were to be determined. The objective was to provide the basis for the advanced industrial product development within 3 to 6 years.

Methods or Processes Used

Technologies for Antenna Array Front Ends (TAFE) Project Duration

1 January 2006 to 31 December 2007 TAFE project was started in June 2004 as a part of ELMO technology programme of Tekes. The first phase ended in December 2005. The results have been summarised in the ELMO final report available in http://akseli.tekes.fi/opencms/opencms/OhjelmaPortaali/ohjelmat/ELMO/en/tulokset.html. From 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2007, the project was continued in the GIGA– Converging Networks 2005-2010 technology programme.

Electronic data bases were used for literature research. MATLAB was used for algorithm and system simulations. Antennas were simulated with Zeland’s IE3D and Ansoft’s HFSS. HP/Agilent VNAs, Cascade probe station and Anritsu Wiltron test set-up were used for antenna measurements. VTT’s LTCC process was used for the implementation of the test structures and antenna arrays. CMOS circuit design was done with the tools provided by STMicroelectronics. The CMOS circuits were manufactured with the 90 nm process of STMicroelectronics. The project was carried out in cooperation with Berkeley Wireless Research Center (BWRC). VTT had a visiting researcher at BWRC from August 2004 to September 2006.

Figure 1. Numerically calculated two and three dimensional radiation patterns of antenna array with ACMPA antenna elements. -15 °



15° 30 °

-30 ° -45 °

45°

20 -60 °

60 °

18 16 75 °

-75 °

90°

-90 °

-105°

105°

5

z axel

14 12 10 8 6 -120 °

120 °

15

-135 °

135 °

25

4 -5 0 5 x axel

2 0

150 °

-150 ° -165°

±180°

0

5

35 165 °

Figure 2. Two-sided cavity structure in antenna array on LTCC substrate.

Results We continued the work started in the ELMO programme. In this phase, we developed MATLAB models for antenna arrays with theoretical rectangular patch antenna elements and aperturecoupled microstrip patch antenna (ACMPA) elements designed in this project. We studied the effects of the nonlinear analog parts of the transmitter on the radiation pattern of the antenna ar-

10 y axel

15

20

Figure 3. 16-element planar antenna arrays: a) radiating patches, b) with reactive feed network, c) with Wilkinson feed network.

ray with simulations. We prepared a review on multipath spread mitigation with antenna arrays. We designed and manufactured different antenna arrays on LTCC substrate and measured their performance in terms of S-parameters and radiation patterns. We studied the effects of power feed networks and the reduction of surface waves with uniplanar compact photonic bandgab (UCPBG) structures. We designed a number of CMOS circuits including amplifiers,

mixers and oscillators. We measured the implemented circuits to verify their operability and performance. We tested the circuit integration on LTCC substrate, but noticed that additional studies are needed. We found that the considered techniques and technologies seem to be feasible for very high data rate applications in the 60 GHz radio frequency band. However, further developments are required before they are mature for mass-production.

85

Figure 4. Simulated and measured gain patterns for 4×4 antenna array with large embedded cavity and Wilkinson feed network.

20 10

20

E-plane

sim. 60 GHz meas. 61 GHz

10 Gain (dB)

Gain (dB)

H-plane

0

0 -10 -20

-10 -20

-30

-30

-40

-40

-50

-50

-60 -180 -140 -100 -60 -20 20 60 theta (deg)

Figure 5. 60 GHz voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) implemented with CMOS technology.

sim. 60 GHz meas. 61 GHz

100 140 180

-60 -180 -140 -100 -60 -20 20 60 theta (deg)

100 140 180

Figure 6. Measured spectrum of 60 GHz VCO. Ref -30 dB m Peak Log 10 dB/

Mkr1 60.85 Ghz -42.01 dB m

Ext Mix 1

Center 60.85000000 GHz W1 S2 S3 FC A AA

Center 60.85 GHz # Res BW 100 kHz

Publications P. Järvensivu, J. Holmberg, T. Karttaavi, M. Kiviranta, A. Lamminen, A. Mämmelä, H. Paaso, J. Säily, and A. Vimpari, “WLAN halvemmalla – CMOS- ja LTCC-tekniikoilla Nopeampi 60 gigahertsin radio [in Finnish],” Prosessori, Elektroniikan suunnittelu -erikoisnumero, vol. 26, no. 11, 2006, pp. 62–63. [Online]. Available: http:// www.prosessori.fi/es06/ARKISTO/ WLAN.htm 86

T. Karttaavi and J. Holmberg, “100 GHz push-push oscillator in 90 nm CMOS technology,” in Proc. European Microwave Integrated Circuit Conference (EuMIC 2007), Munich, Germany, Oct. 8–10, 2007, pp. 112–114. T. Karttaavi and J. Holmberg, “Millimetre wave CMOS circuit development,” VTT Scientific activities in ICT-sector 2006, VTT, Espoo, 2007. [Online]. Available: http://www.vtt.fi/liitetiedostot/

VBW 100 kHz

Span 5 GHz Sweep 644.2 ms (401 pts)

cluster1_tieto-ja_viestintatekniikka_ elektroniikka/ict_scientific_ activities_2006.pdf M. Kiviranta and A. Mämmelä, “Review on effects and compensation of nonlinearities caused by analog parts of radio modem,” submitted to E. Grass (Ed.), “WWRF Book of Visions on short-range wireless communications,” Wireless World Research Forum/Wiley, 2008.

A. Lamminen, “Design of millimetre-wave antennas on low temperature cofired ceramic substrates,” M.S. thesis, Dept. Elect. Commun. Eng., Helsinki University of Technology, 2006. A. Lamminen, J. Säily, and A. Vimpari, “Design and processing of 60 GHz antennas on low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates,” in Proc. 4th ESA Workshop on Millimetre-Wave Technology and Applications, Espoo, Finland, Feb. 15–17, 2006, pp. 43–48. A. Lamminen, J. Säily, and A. Vimpari, “60 GHz microstrip patch antennas on LTCC,” VTT Scientific activities in ICT-sector 2006, VTT, Espoo, 2007. [Online]. Available: http://www.vtt. fi/liitetiedostot/cluster1_tieto-ja_ viestintatekniikka_elektroniikka/ict_ scientific_activities_2006.pdf A. E. I. Lamminen, J. Säily, and A. R. Vimpari, “60 GHz patch antennas and arrays on LTCC with embedded-cavity substrates,” unpublished, submitted to IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 2007. A. Lamminen, and J. Säily, “Adaptive antenna array systems design,” submitted to E. Grass (Ed.), “WWRF Book of Visions on short-range wireless communications,” Wireless World Research Forum/Wiley, 2008. A. Vimpari, A. Lamminen, and J. Säily, “Design and measurements of 60 GHz probe-fed patch antennas on low-temperature co-fired ceramic substrates,” in Proc. 36th European Microwave Conf., Manchester, UK, Sept. 10–15, 2006, pp. 854–857. A. Vimpari, K. Kautio, and A. Lamminen, “On the design of millimetre wave probe-fed patch antennas in lowtemperature co-fired ceramic substrates,” unpublished, submitted to IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 2007.

A. Vimpari and T. Karttaavi, “Lowtemperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) antenna array,” submitted to E. Grass (Ed.), “WWRF Book of Visions on shortrange wireless communications,” Wireless World Research Forum/Wiley, 2008.

P. Järvensivu, “Technologies for antenna array front-ends (TAFE),” seminar presentation, Tekes GIGA Results Promotion Seminar, Helsinki, Messukeskus, Apr. 1, 2008. Project Volume

EUR 1 050 000 In addition, the following poster or seminar presentations were given A. Vimpari and T. Jaakola, “Module integration in LTCC,” poster presentation, BWRC Winter 2006 Retreat, Jan. 9–10, 2006. J. Holmberg, P. Järvensivu, T. Karttaavi, M. Kiviranta, A. Lamminen, A. Mämmelä, J. Säily, and A. Vimpari, “TAFE– Technologies for 60 GHz adaptive antenna array front-end,” poster presentation, BWRC Winter 2006 Retreat, Jan. 9–10, 2006. A. Lamminen, J. Säily, and A. Vimpari, “60 GHz antenna array development on LTCC,” poster presentation, BWRC Summer 2006 Retreat, June 5–6, 2006. A. Lamminen, J. Säily, and A. Vimpari, “60 GHz antenna development using LTCC,” poster presentation, BWRC Winter 2007 Retreat, Jan. 8–9, 2007. J. Holmberg, T. Karttaavi, M. Kiviranta, A. Lamminen, J. Säily, and A. Vimpari, “VTT-BWRC 60 GHz collaboration,” poster presentation, BWRC Winter 2007 Retreat, Jan. 8–9, 2007. K. Rönkä and A. Vimpari, “LTCC technology appliance and micromodules at VTT,” poster presentation, BWRC Summer 2007 Retreat, May 30–31, 2007. A. Lamminen and J. Säily, “60 GHz microstrip patch antennas and arrays on low temperature co-fired ceramic (LTCC) substrates,” poster presentation, BWRC Summer 2007 Retreat, May 30– 31, 2007.

Project Participants

The project was carried out at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. The project was funded by Tekes, Elektrobit Ltd., the Finnish Defence Forces, Nokia Siemens Networks, Perlos and VTT. Project Manager

Mr Pertti Järvensivu VTT Tel. +358 (0)20 722 2350 [email protected]

Millimetre Wave Circuit Design Using Silicon Technologies (NASTEC) Project Duration

1 January, 2006 to 31 December, 2008 The NASTEC (Millimetre Wave Circuit Design using Silicon Technologies) project is a strategic research project in TEKES GIGA technology programme. The research work was done in the department of Micro and Nanosciences at the Helsinki University of Technology (TKK). The former Electronic Circuit Design Laboratory (ECDL) has joined forces with several other laboratories to form the new department. Two post-graduate students have worked in the NASTEC project and in May 2007 Dan Sandström joined the research team. He has

87

now completed his master’s thesis. The work of post-graduate student Mikko Varonen is also funded by the Graduate School of Electronics, Telecommunications and Automation (GETA). The NASTEC project has ended at the end of 2008. Results from the second manufacturing round of the designed hardware were obtained during the last year of the project. All of the published results are based on the microchips that were designed in 65-nm CMOS technology for the project. These microchips consist of several test structures and functional RF-blocks such as amplifiers, mixers, a doubler and RF-frontends for both reception and transsmission of V-band signals.

Description of the Objectives Recently, the demand for a short-range and high-speed data communication technologies has been increasing rapidly. The millimetre wave frequency range offers very wide bandwidths (more than 1 gigabit per second), but the technologies, that are capable of realising radio front-ends at these frequencies, have previously been too expensive, power consuming and bulky for true consumer products. This situation will change in the near future if suitable front-ends can be manufactured with a technology that enables mass production and integration of digital baseband as well as other front-ends such as UWB, WLAN, WCDMA etc. In addition, the small size of millimetre wave antennas enables the integration of dense antenna arrays, which can have electronic beam steering capability or operate as a Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) system. All of the digital electronics needed to realise the intelligent beam steer-

88

ing or a MIMO system can be integrated on the same CMOS chip. Other interesting millimetre wave applications include point-to-point radio links at 7090 GHz range, collision avoidance radar for a car (77 GHz), wireless uncompressed digital video transmission, such as wireless HDMI, and security applications, such as a millimetre wave scanner for detecting concealed weapons and other objects at airports. The high resolution millimetre wave radar or sensor may also be used in medical and industrial applications. The objectives of the NASTEC project are the following: 1. Show that a nanocale (65-nm) Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology is feasible for millimetre wave integrated circuit design. 2. Suitable structures can be designed and modelled at millimetre waves so that the desired performance for the designed microchips can be obtained. 3. The performance of the measured circuits is at a suitable level when considering the target applications.

Methods or Processes Used Modern silicon technologies are not easily accessible to research institutions since small-scale production of prototype circuits is expensive and requires additional coordination work. The 65-nm baseline CMOS technology is very suitable for integrating digital functionalities on the same chip since it is also commonly used in digital circuits. Because the transistors are becoming fast enough for enabling millimetre wave operation, one would like to find proof that the realisation of millimetre wave front-ends is possible in CMOS technology. Despite the fast

transistors, there are also many challenges related to the passive CMOS circuit structures that must be resolved before actual millimetre wave circuits can be designed. Low resistivity silicon substrate and tight metal density requirements are among the issues that introduce many challenges to the circuit designer. Several computer aided design (CAD) programmes are needed to develop the circuit blocks. These include circuit simulators, electro-magnetic field simulators and layout design tools. Especially at millimetre waves the circuit designer has to go back to circuit simulators and electro-magnetic (EM) field simulators after drawing the layout, because some of the most critical parts of the circuit need to be characterized accurately. Sometimes a structure is too complex to be simulated on an EM-simulator and the actual behaviour can only be found out by designing, measuring and de-embedding a test structure. Most of the circuit models provided by a microchip manufacturer are not suitable for millimetre wave circuit design and, thus, the designer needs to build a set of his or her own models, which are based on either EM-simulations using simplified structures or measured and de-embedded test structure data. The basis for the millimetre wave research work at the Electronic Circuit Design Laboratory dates back to early 90’s. At that time, the millimetre wave integrated circuits were implemented using compound semiconductor materials such gallium arsenide (GaAs) and Indium Phosphide (InP). Even now, the microchips manufactured using these materials exhibit very good performance, but the technology to manufac-

ture them is too expensive and not feasible for the integration of other functionalities on the same chip. This makes the development of profitable consumer products using compound semiconductors impossible.

Results Measurement results for the two manufacturing rounds are available. The results show state-of-the-art performance for the CMOS circuit blocks. In addition, the results, which are obtained from millimetre wave 65-nm CMOS chips, are also among the first in the world. As an example of the first round, the 60 GHz amplifier achieved a 5.6 dB noise figure and the 40 GHz amplifier reached +6 dBm 1‑dB output compression point (OCP), which were at the time of publication both the best results in the world for CMOS amplifiers. To this date, no-one else has reported a balanced resistive mixer implemented in CMOS for 60 GHz. This mixer has a spiral transmission line balun integrated on the CMOS chip. For further circuit development, a transistor test structure was designed and accurately characterized up to 110 GHz. The test structure also enabled the noise characterization of the transistor at V-band (50–75 GHz). The de-embedded noise parameters can be used for simulating the noise performance of V-band CMOS amplifiers. Furthermore, four different CMOS compatible coplanar waveguide structures (two conventional and two slowwave structures) were designed and characterised up to 110 GHz. The second chip from the second processing round consisted of 60, 80, 100 GHz amplifiers, a doubler, receiver and transmitter RF-front-ends.

The 60 GHz and 100 GHz amplifiers employed substrate shielded (slow-wave shield) coplanar waveguides. Furthermore, we suggested that the slow-wave shield should be extended under all passives. As a result, the complicated substrate effects of the silicon are minimized and accurate designs could be even done at 100 GHz in submicron baseline CMOS. Using this approach we designed a 100 GHz amplifier which achieves so far the highest reported output power of +10 dBm and lowest reported noise figure of 7.5 dB in the world at 100 GHz. Also, a single chip receiver was developed and measured. The receiver consists of a millimeter-wave front-end, including a single-ended low noise amplifier and a balanced resistive mixer, an IF-stage and an analog baseband circuit with an analog-to-digital converter.The receiver achieves a measured 7.0-dB noise figure at 60 GHz and the voltage gain can be controlled between 45 to 79 dB. The measured 1-dB input compression point is –38.5 dBm. The receiver has the highest integration level in the world and it demonstrates he feasibility of a broadband single-chip 60GHz receiver with an ADC in deep-submicron CMOS.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period from 1st of January, 2006 to 31st of December, 2008. M. Varonen, M. Kaltiokallio, V. Saari, O. Viitala, M. Kärkkäinen, S. Lindfors, J. Ryynänen, K. Halonen, "A 60-GHz CMOS Receiver With an On-Chip ADC", accepted to the Radio Frequency

Integrated Circuit (RFIC) Symposium, Boston, USA, 2009. M. Kärkkäinen, M. Varonen, D. Sandström, K. Halonen, "60_GHz Receiver and Transmitter Front-Ends in 65-nm CMOS", accepted to the International Microwave Symposium (IMS), Boston, USA 2009. D. Sandström, M. Varonen, M. Kärkkäinen, K. Halonen, "W-Band CMOS Amplifiers Achieving +10dBm Saturated Output Power and 7.5dB NF”, in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference ISSCC Digest, Feb. 2009, pp. 486–487. Sandström, D., Varonen, M., Kärkkäinen, M., Halonen, K., "60 GHz Amplifier Employing Slow-wave Transmission Lines in 65-nm CMOS", in proc. of the 26th Norchip conference 2008, Nov. 2008, p. 21–24. Kärkkäinen, M., Varonen, M., Sandström, D., Tikka, T., Lindfors, S., Halonen, K., "Design Aspects of 65-nm CMOS MMICs", Proceedings of the 3rd European Microwave Integrated Circuits Conference EuMIC'08, October 27th–31st, 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, pp. 115–118. ”Design of amplifiers and mixers in baseline CMOS technology” ESSCIRC ’08 Tutorial (invited) M. Varonen, M. Kärkkäinen, Mikko Kantanen, and Kari A. I. Halonen, ”Millimetre Wave Integrated Circuits in 65-nm CMOS”, IEEE Journal of SolidState Circuits, September 2008, Vol. 43, No. 9, pp. 1991–2002. M. Varonen, M. Kärkkäinen, and K. A. I. Halonen ”Millimeter-Wave Amplifiers in 65-nm CMOS,” Proceedings of the 33rd European Solid-State Circuits Conference, Munich, Germany, pp. 280–283, Sep. 2007.

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M. Varonen, M. Kärkkäinen, and K. A. I. Halonen ”V-band Balanced Resistive Mixer in 65-nm CMOS,” Proceedings of the 33rd European Solid-State Circuits Conference, Munich, Germany, pp. 360–363 Sep. 2007.

Lic. Sc. Mikko Kärkkäinen Department of Micro and Nanosciences Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) Tel. +358 (0)9 451 2276 Email: [email protected]

it higher efficiency than is achievable with conventional antenna solutions.

Methods or Processes Used

Doctor’s thesis

The project participated in two Tekes technology programmes; the year 2005 it was part of the Miniaturising Electronics (ELMO) technology programme and research during years 2006–2007 was part of the Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Frequency tuning techniques applicable to mobile terminal antennas were researched. Frequency tuning technologies were reviewed and most promising candidates was selected for further studies. The approaches selected were the use of commercial RF switch and varactor components and the use of integrated ferroelectric materials. Commercial electromagnetic simulation software was used for antenna and tuning circuit design and analysis. Prototype antennas were fabricated and the simulations were validated through various practical measurements. Also advanced manufacturing techniques, such as Low Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC) were used.

Mikko Kärkkäinen Mikko Varonen

Description of the Objectives

Results

The ever-increasing number of wireless communication standards being applied to handheld devices has created a need for integrated antennas operating in ten or more distinct frequency bands. Also, there is a trend toward highly integrated devices that are slimmer, smaller, and lighter than those in current use. However, this creates problem for the antenna designer, since he is limited by fundamental relationships between antenna size, bandwidth, and efficiency. To address this issue, the main aim of the project was to design and implement frequency tunable-antennas operating at frequency range 400 MHz – 6 GHz. Frequency tunable antenna may provide several dynamically selectable narrow frequency bands and, within these bands, exhib-

The key findings were a novel frequency tuning concept for a planar inverted-F antenna including the implementation guidelines. The main advantages of the method were the integration of a tuning circuit into the antenna and a very low radiation efficiency deterioration caused by the tuning circuit. Besides, very compact frequency-tunable antennas for digital television signal reception in a handheld device were developed. The smallest antenna fulfilling specifications of the DVB‑H standard occupied only 0.7 cm3 volume. A novel low-sintering temperature ferroelectric Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) thick film paste material was developed. Relative permittivity of the material can be adjusted ~ 40% with a static external electric field. Low sinter-

In addition, the following thesis, which is totally or partially a result of the NASTEC project, was completed: Master's thesis

Sandström, D., "Design of a CMOS amplifier for millimeter-wave frequencies", Master's Thesis, TKK, June 6, 2008, p. 73. In addition, the following theses, which are totally or partially a result of the NASTEC project, are being written:

Project Volume

Total (3 years) EUR 324 000 Project Participants

The project is being carried out at department of Micro and Nanonsciences, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland. The project is funded by Tekes (100 %). The members of the NASTEC steering group: Kari Markus, Tekes Risto Kaunisto, Nokia Research Center Patrik Björksten, Texas Instruments Petri Jukkala, Elektrobit Hans Somerma, Nokia Siemens Networks Pekka Sjöman, DA-Design Kari Halonen, TKK

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Project Manager

Active Multi-Frequency Antennas for the Future (TAMTAM) Project Duration

1 January 2005 to 31 December 2007

ing temperature (900 °C) allows co-firing with silver electrodes and LTCC material systems. The material was used as variable capacitor integrated in an antenna structure for purpose to tune the operating frequency. Small frequency shift obtained demonstrated the applicability of the material for the present purpose.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2007. T. Tick, M. Komulainen, V. Palukuru, J. Peräntie, H. Jantunen, A method to manufacture embedded variable capacitors in a Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic substrate, IEEE Electronics Letters, Volume 44, Issue 2, 2008, Page(s): 94 95. T. Tick, J. Peräntie, S. Rentsch, J. Müller, M. Hein, H. Jantunen, Co-sintering of barium strontium titanate (BST) thick films inside a LTCC substrate with pressure-assisted sintering, Journal of the European ceramic society, 2008. M. Komulainen, M. Berg, H. Jantunen, E. Salonen, C. Free. A frequencytuning method for a planar inverted-F antenna,” IEEE Trans. Antennas & Propagation, 2008. M. Komulainen, T. Kangasvieri, J. Jäntti, H. Jantunen. Compact surface mountable LTCC-BGA antenna module for X-band applications, Int. Journal of Microwave and Optical Tech., 2008. M. Komulainen, J. Mähönen, T. Tick, M. Berg, H. Jantunen, E. Salonen, M. Henry, C. Free. Embedded air cavity backed microstrip antenna on an LTCC substrate, Journal of European Ceramic Society, 2007.

T. Tick, J. Peräntie, H. Jantunen, A. Uusimäki. Screen printed low-sinteringtemperature Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) thick films, Journal of European ceramic society, 2007. M. Komulainen, V. K. Palukuru, H. Jantunen. Frequency tunable dual-band planar inverted- F antenna based on a switchable paracitic element, Frequenz –Journal of RF-Engineering and Telecommunications, 2007. M. Komulainen, M. Berg, H. Jantunen, E. Salonen. Compact varactor-tuned meander line monopole antenna for DVB-H reception, IEE Electron. Lett., 2007. M. Sonkki, M. Berg, E. Salonen, V. Palukuru, J. Peräntie, T. Tick, M. Komulainen, H. Jantunen. Monta taajuutta, yksi antenni, Prosessori, Elektroniikkasuunnittelun erikoisnumero, 2007. M. Komulainen, H. Jantunen. Switching a dual-band planar inverted-F antenna to operate in eight frequency bands, LAPC2008, Loughborough, U.K., 2008. M. Sonkki, M. Berg, J. Pihlaja, S. Karhu, H. Jantunen, E. Salonen. Varactor Tunable Helical Antenna, EuCAP 2007, Edinburgh, England, 2007.

V.K. Palukuru, M. Komulainen, M. Berg, H. Jantunen, E. Salonen. A frequency tunable planar monopole antenna for mobile terminals, EuCAP2007, Edinburgh, U.K., 2007. M. Berg, M. Komulainen, V. Palukuru, H. Jantunen, E. Salonen. Frequency-Tunable DVBH Antenna for Mobile Terminals, IEEE AP-S, Honolulu, USA, 2007. M. Komulainen, M. Berg, V. Palukuru, H. Jantunen, E. Salonen (2007) FrequencyReconfigurable Dual-Band Monopole Antenna for Mobile Handset, IEEE AP-S, Honolulu, USA, 2007. M. Berg, M. Komulainen, E. Salonen, H. Jantunen. Frequency reconfigurable microstrip-fed annular slot antenna, EuCAP 2006, Nice, France, 2006. M. Komulainen, M. Berg, J. Mähönen, H. Jantunen, E. Salonen. Frequency reconfigurable planar inverted-F antennas for portable wireless devices, EuCAP 2006, Nice, France, 2006. M. Komulainen, J. Mähönen, M. Berg, H. Jantunen, E. Salonen. Embedded air cavity backed microstrip antennas on LTCC substrate, MMA2006, Oulu, Finland, 2006.

The total number of literal outputs originated in the TAMTAM project is given in the following table. Publications

2006

2007

2008

Total

Theses

1

1

0

2

M.Sc

1

1

3

8

3

14

4

4

8

4

1

8

International Journal papers Conference papers

3

National Journal papers

2

1 0

1

1 0

1

TOTAL

19

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J. Peräntie. Säädettävien BST-pohjaisten paksukalvojen valmistus ja karakterisointi, Master’s Thesis, 2007. M. Pierettis. Future Multiband PASS for Dual-Band Performance in Wireless Communications, Master’s Thesis, 2006. Project Volume

EUR 434 000 Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Telecommunication Laboratory, and Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.    The project was funded by Tekes, Nokia Mobile Phones Business Group, Pulse Finland Ltd, and Elektrobit Ltd. Project Manager

M.Sc. Marko Sonkki University of Oulu Tel. +358 (0)8 553 7611 [email protected]

Adaptation of Antennas to Usage Environments (AATE) Project Duration

1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 AATE project has been a part of Tekes’s Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme during the period 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010. Research work has been carried out in cooperation between the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) and Microelectronics and Materials Physics laboratories at the University of Oulu and Aalto University School of Science and Technology, SMARAD/Department of Radio Science and Engineering.

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Description of the Objectives The main goal of the project was to develop antenna control methods for mobile terminal antennas which reduce the losses caused by the terminal user. Research was focused on the frequency range from 400 MHz – 5000 MHz. The control methods were based on the RF components and sensors. Another goal of the project was to study and develop proper techniques to detect user’s hand and head in close proximity to the antenna. As a base of efficient antenna tuning or selection is the knowledge of environmental conditions i.e. is there human head, hand or fingers located close to the antenna. An important issue was the investigation of multi-element antenna solutions and their interaction with the user, motivated by the fact that multi-element solutions were expected to be less sensitive to the user, as long as they allow using several different combinations of several antenna elements. One or two functional antenna prototypes, including both antenna control and sensing systems, were planned to realise by the end of the project.

Methods or Processes Used In order to develop practical compensation solutions, the detuning effect that the user has on the antenna was quantified and typical mechanisms that are responsible for the decreased antenna performance were examined. Based on this understanding, compensation techniques were investigated that involve designing of the optimal matching circuits in a way to maintain the impedance matching in the frequency band used. The understanding was used also for the antenna switch-

ing design between two or more antenna elements. Advanced 3D simulation software was used to design antennas and to evaluate the effect of the user. Simulators allowed the use of the hand and head models that speeded up the research and antenna design. All the developed antenna structures and control methods as well as sensing systems were implemented. The operation and performance of the developed systems were verified by the measurements. Also, the operation of complete switchable antenna systems was demonstrated with functional prototypes. Capacitive sensors were developed by using electronic measurements techniques but also by producing new composite materials for detection sensors.

Results The results of the studies show that the user’s hand very close to the antenna element causes a large influence on the antenna operation. In that case, the total efficiency decreases significantly, mainly due to the absorption of the hand. The user caused impedance mismatch has a minor influence on the total efficiency decrease. Later, the user effect phenomenon was also explained with an equivalent circuit model. Different methods how to compensate the effect of the user were considered. The best compensation method is to use multiple antenna elements and select the element in use based on the location of the hand(s). Demonstrators 1 (shown in Fig. 1) and 2 were designed and built to compensate the effect of the user. The selection of the antenna element in use is based on the capacitive sensor, also developed in the project.

Figure 1. One of the developed and built multi-antenna prototypes (left) and phantom hand used for measurements (right).

Figure 2. Total efficiency measurement results with the top-located PIFA-elements for 1900 MHz frequency band. 0 -1

Total efficiency, [dB]

-2 -3

Antenna1, free space Antenna2, free space Antenna1, hand Antenna2, hand

-4 -5

User effect compensation

-6 -7 -8 -9 1850 10 1850

1870

1890

1910

1930

1950

1970

1990

Frequency [MHz]

The measurement results of Demonstrator 1 for 1900 MHz frequency band are shown in Fig. 2 with free space and hand grip cases. In the case of antenna 1, which is close to the phantom hand index finger, the user induced total efficiency decrease is 7 dB. Approximately 5 dB compensation is achieved when antenna 2 is used instead of antenna 1.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010. A. Huttunen, ”Matkapuhelimen käyttöympäristön tunnistus kapasitiivisella anturilla,” Diplomityö, University of Oulu, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, 2008. M. Berg, M. Sonkki & E. Salonen

"Experimental Study of Hand and Head Effets to Mobile Antenna Radiation Properties", in Proc. EuCAP 2009, Berlin, Germany, 23–27 March 2009. M. Sonkki, E. Antoni-Daviu, M. FerrandoBataller & E. Salonen “Optimal Dimensions of Two Microstrip Patch Antennas at 5.8 GHz to Gain Low Mutual Coupling", in Proc. EuCAP 2009, Berlin, Germany, 23–27 March 2009.

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S. Moradi, “User effect on mobile terminal antennas,” Master’s thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Radio Science and Engineering, March 2009. J. Ilvonen, “Isolated antenna structures of mobile terminals,” Master’s thesis, Espoo, Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Radio Science and Engineering, August 2009. S. Myllymaki, A. Huttunen, M. Berg, M. Komulainen, H. Jantunen, “A method to measure user induced load on a mobile terminal antenna”, Electronics Letters, pp. 1065–1066, Vol. 45, Oct. 2009. J. Riaza, “Adaptive Impedance Matching for Antennas of Mobile Terminals,” Master’s thesis, University of Valencia, January 2010. A. Huttunen, S. Myllymaki, M. Komulainen, H. Jantunen, “Capacitive sensor arrangement to detect external load on a mobile terminal antenna “, Progress In Electromagnetics Research Letters, Vol. 15, 13–18, 2010. S. Myllymaki, A. Huttunen, M. Berg, V. Palukuru, H. Jantunen, E.Salonen “Capacitive recognition of the user’s hand grip position in mobile handsets”, Progress In Electromagnetics Research B, Vol. 22, 203–220, 2010. M. Sonkki, E. Antonino-Daviu, M. FerrandoBataller, E. Salonen, “Wideband Multielement Mobile Terminal Antenna with Symmetrical Chassis Coupling”, EuCAP2010 Conference, 11th–16th Apr. 2010, Barcelona, Spain. M. Sonkki, M. Ferrando-Bataller, E. Antonino-Daviu, E. Salonen, “Optimized Dimensions of Ultra Wideband Quasi-Complementary Antenna with Switching Capability”,

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EuCAP 2010, 4th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Barcelona, Spain, 12–16 April 2010. J. Ilvonen, J. Holopainen, O. Kivekäs, R. Valkonen, C. Icheln, and P. Vainikainen, “Balanced antenna structures of mobile terminals,” EuCAP 2010, 4th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Barcelona, Spain, 12–16 April 2010. R. Valkonen, C. Luxey, J. Holopainen, C. Icheln, P. Vainikainen, ”Frequency reconfigurable mobile terminal antenna with MEMS switches,” EuCAP 2010 4th European Conference on Antennas & Propagation 2010, 12–16 April 2010, Barcelona, Spain. M. Berg, E. Salonen, “Control system for compensation of antenna mistuning and absorption caused by user’s index finger”, EuCAP 2010, 4th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, Barcelona, Spain, 12–16 April 2010. J. Holopainen, O. Kivekäs, J. Ilvonen, R. Valkonen, C. Icheln, and P. Vainikainen, “Effect of the User on the Operation of Lower UHF Band Mobile Terminal Antennas: Focus on Digital Television

Receiver,” accepted to IEEE Transactions on Electromagnetic Compatibility with minor revisions, June 2010. R. Valkonen, S. Myllymäki, A. Huttunen, J. Holopainen, J. Ilvonen, P. Vainikainen, and H. Jantunen, “Compensation of finger effect on a mobile terminal antenna by antenna selection,” in 2010 International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA'10 Offshore), Sydney, Australia, September 20–24, 2010, pp. 364–367. M. Berg, M. Sonkki, E. Salonen, “User effect compensation in mobile terminal with two side located monopole antennas”, accepted with revisions: IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, October 2010. J. Holopainen, R. Valkonen, O. Kivekäs, J. Ilvonen, L. Martínez, P. Vainikainen, J.R. Kelly, and P.S. Hall, “Equivalent Circuit Model-Based Approach on the Effect of Dielectric Material Besides a Mobile Terminal Antenna”, Loughborough Antennas & Propagation Conference 2010, November 8–9, 2010, Loughborough, UK, pp. 217–220.

The total number of literal outputs that are originated in the AATE project are given in the following table. Publications

2008

2009

2010

Total

Theses

4

2

2

8

Dr.

2

 

1

3

Lich.Tech.

1

 

 

1

M.Sc.

1

2

1

4

International

0

3

11

14

Journals

 

1

4

5

Conference papers

 

2

7

9

2

2

2

6

 

 

TOTAL

28

Technical reports

In addition, the following outputs are partly based on the work carried out in AATE project: J. Holopainen, “Handheld DVB and Multisystem Radio Antennas”, Licentiate thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, Department of Radio Science and Engineering, 2008 [Online]. Available: http://lib.tkk.fi/ Lic/2008/urn011818.pdf. M. Komulainen, “Bandwidth enhanced antennas for mobile terminals and multilayer ceramic packages”, Doctoral Thesis, University of Oulu, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, 2009. T. Tick, “Fabrication of advanced LTCC structures for microwave devices”, Doctoral Thesis, University of Oulu, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, 2009. J. Holopainen: “Compact UHF-band antennas for mobile terminals: focus on modelling, implementation, and user interaction”, Doctoral Thesis submitted to the pre-examination, November 29, 2010. Project Volume

EUR 763 000 (University of Oulu) and EUR 408 000 (Aalto University) Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) and Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories (MIK), University of Oulu, together with Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Department of Radio Science and Engineering / SMARAD.    The project was funded by Tekes, Nokia Devices, Pulse Finland, EB (2008), CWC and SMARAD.

Project Manager

M.Sc. Markus Berg Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) University of Oulu Tel. +358 (0)8 553 7611 [email protected]

Multiradio Antennas Introduction The project ”Multiradioantennas” (MURA) has been a research project lasting totally four years. The first period was three years, starting in 2006 and then additional year 2009. The focus in the project has been to research new antenna structures and material for new handheld wireless terminals. Co-operation with Universities and VTT has played important role in Mura project. Mura project has been divided into two parts, research of new antenna structures and research of new alternative antenna materials and manufacturing technologies.

Different kind of switching methods for band switching were studied in order to get the distance between radiator and ground smaller. For the phones, where the antenna is located on the bottom part of the phone, new monopole type of structures became more popular, because the radiator is smaller and therefore easier to design in the phone. For non cellular applications like GPS and BT, ceramic technology has been the research focus area. The ceramic process itself already exist in house for the filters but to learn to make ceramic antennas was the target. For the applications like RFID, FMradio and DVB-H, one topic has been to use loop antenna. RFID has the lowest frequency and therefore the biggest antenna. The idea was to use the same radiator for all three applications. Figure 1. Multiantenna frame for cellular phones.

Content In the antenna structure part of the project the main focus has been to research new ideas to make 5 to 7 band antennas for new phone applications. The drivers for the research have been miniaturization, integration and multiradio environment. Miniaturization is needed to get antenna thinner and to keep the performance. Normally PIFA antenna needs some distance between the radiator and the ground plane. Typically it has been six to eight millimeters.

Multiradio environment means the challenge inside the phone. In addition to cellular radio antenna for several bands, the phone has the applications like BT, GPS, FM TX/RX, Mobile TV and Wlan. All these functions need antenna radiators to get radio signals in and out. The challenge has been to develop the antennas so that the isolation between the antennas is good enough to work at the same time.

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Figure 2. GPS and Bluetooth antennas made of ceramic material.

tenna has become smaller and smaller. In addition to this challenge, number of antennas has increased. Bluetooth, FM radio and Wlan are already must applications in smart phones. Therefore as one trend in antenna technology has become mechanical integrated radiators in phone mechanics.

Objectives for Nela-project

The needs for new double curved (3D) surfaces of the antennas has mainly guided the research of material and manufacturing technology research work. At the beginning the methods to get metallization on plastic and later when LDS became the trend, new materials for LDS process have been the main topics.

Further information

Pekka Hynönen Patent Engineer [email protected] Petteri Annamaa Director, R&D [email protected]

Co-operation The simulation of the antenna structures is part of research work. Co-operation with VTT has generated new simulation tool and deeper understanding of different simulation methods. Material and antenna structure research with Oulu University has been creative and successful. Material suppliers have had also important role and networking with the suppliers and co-operators has improved during the project.

Results The results of Mura project have been adopted as soon they have been mature enough for mass manufacturing. Know how improvement was seen in the areas like RF development, material and testing technologies and new manufacturing technologies.

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New LTE-antennas (NELA) Market and customer needs guiding the project The usage of wireless internet has had enormous growth in latest years. The development of the cellular systems has followed the increased data traffic and newest update has been LTE (Long Term Evolution). Followed by LTE, new frequency bands and new radio architectures with new applications has been specified. This kind of development is setting new demands and requirements for the antenna development and antenna manufacturing technologies. Because of increased electronics for data processing the available space for an-

The project has started 1.6.2010 and the plan is for two years research and development work. The first project period will end 31.5.2011 and the main contents for the project are: 1. To research and develop high performance antenna structures for Pulse LTE product family. Important features are to minimize hand and head effects, to secure isolation between the antennas and to optimize MIMO requirements. 2. To research and develop active and passive matching circuits for the main and complementary antennas. One important feature for main antenna matching is the automatic re-tuning in the operating position when hand or head of the user has de-tuned the antenna. 3. To research and develop small antenna structures for base stations by utilizing the existing cumulative know how of wireless terminal antenna technology. 4. To research and develop new manufacturing technologies for printed radiators on double curved surfaces. The main technology at the moment is LDS. The disadvantages for LDS are high investment costs and low capacity per laser machine. 5. To study and to make prototypes of new possible business ideas to im-

prove integration of new actions in antenna environment. 6. To make material studies to find new flexible radiator material for coming antenna structures. The view is three to five years for mass manufacturing. The goals for Nela project are based on the company’s Vision to To strengthen it’s role as the world leading global CMT antenna developer and manufacturer. The project has been ongoing seven months and the co-operation with VTT and Oulu University has started.

Figure 1. Seven band LTE antenna, made by using LDS technology.

Reconfigurable Small Mobile Terminal Antennas – RESONATE Objectives In the RESONATE project, methods to make mobile terminal antennas electrically tunable and reconfigurable were studied. The main objective was to learn to reduce the volume occupied by the antennas or to increase their effective operation bandwidths without decreasing the efficiency significantly. The main objectives of RESONATE were: •• To increase knowledge and find out the fundamental limits of tuning methods for monopole-like radiating structures. •• To develop and demonstrate novel tunable monopole-like radiating structures having large tuning range, high efficiency and low distortion. •• To increase understanding of the distortion mechanisms of switches in non-50-ohm impedance environment. •• To develop thorough understanding of potential benefits achievable by antenna tuning

Further information

Methods

Pekka Hynönen Patent Engineer [email protected]

The project was carried out in close collaboration with the Radio Laboratory of Helsinki University of Technology (TKK). Leading experts from NRC and TKK were involved in the project. The TKK research team was regarded as one of the top research teams in this area in the world. Typical good research practices were applied in the antenna research – the hypotheses

Petteri Annamaa Director, R&D [email protected]

were first studies by theoretical calculations and electromagnetic simulations, and the results were confirmed by prototyping and measurements. The work was carried out in TKK and NRC research facilities.

Results General

In general, the knowledge and understanding on the fundamental limits and design rules for tunable antenna structures was increased. The findings were verified in practice by working antenna prototypes implemented in mobile phone prototypes. The RESONATE project results served as a basis for further research, and also had commercial impact in the form of invention reports and patent applications, and novel antenna concepts for future products. Scientific or technological applications

A number of valuable results were achieved. •• It was proven that a compact coupling element antenna can be tuned over a broad frequency band, while maintaining acceptable antenna efficiency. •• Based on the results, the relation between antenna radiation efficiency and distortion caused by tuning elements was well understood. This enables the design of tunable antennas with optimal efficiency while keeping the distortion at an acceptable level. •• The design rules can be applied to tunable antennas based on external lumped element tunable matching circuits as well as to an-

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••

tennas with tuning elements integrated in the antenna structure. A compact multiband diversity antenna based on switched matching circuits was designed built and tested. It was shown that this antenna concept can be applied to realize a compact size diversity antenna operating within the specifications.

The outcome of the project has served as a basis for further research and novel antenna applications. Commercial impact

Results from RESONATE and the follow-up antenna studies are applicable to new products. They have had an impact on Nokia products in the form of novel and improved antenna designs. Based on the RESONATE results, one patent application has been filed, and the project has led to follow-up studies resulting in several patent applications.

R. Valkonen, J. Holopainen, C. Icheln, and P. Vainikainen, “Broadband tuning of mobile terminal antennas”, Proc. 2nd European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP 2007), Edinburgh, UK, 11-16 November 2007. R. Valkonen, J. Holopainen, C. Icheln, and P. Vainikainen, ”Minimization of power loss and distortion in a tuning circuit for a mobile terminal antenna," Proc. International Symposium on Antennas and Propagation (ISAP 2008), Taipei, Taiwan, 27–30 October 2008. Invention reports and patent applications

Two invention reports in the field of mobile terminal antennas. One patent application was filed based on these invention reports. Project Participants

Nokia Research Center (NRC) Helsinki University of Technology (TKK)

Dissemination

Project Manager

The results were disseminated mainly through a Master’s thesis, conference papers, and a patent application. The results may also be included in the doctoral theses of the researchers from Helsinki University of Technology. The publications created from the technical results of RESONATE are listed below.

Anssi Toropainen, Nokia Research Center Tel. +358 (0)50 4837260 [email protected]

Publications Theses

R. Valkonen, Broadband Tuning of Small Antennas, Master’s Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, Radio Laboratory, Espoo, March 2007, 85 p.

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International conferences

Configurable Terminal Platform (COPLA) 2007–2010 Objectives The Configurable Terminal Platform (COPLA) project aimed at creating and validating radio implementation enablers for flexible, more cognitive radios of the future. The more and more demanding requirements for mobile devices in case of network access, local connectivity, positioning and broad-

casting reception drive the wireless implementation towards increased complexity, size, cost and power consumption. Demands for system capacity and user experience improvements necessitate evolution of established radio systems as well as introduction of new radio solutions. This, in turn, leads to a greater number of frequency bands to be covered, wider bandwidths to be handled, higher data rates to be processed, and coexistence issues due to the simultaneous operation of multiple radios in a single device. In order to tackle these challenges and to pave way for truly cognitive radio, greater flexibility in radio implementation is needed, and that should be done by means of wideband operation, tunability, and SW based implementation methods. Those would enable future multi-band multiradio designs while maintaining a feasible time-to-market. COPLA was not meant to tackle all the technical challenges, but a focused approach was chosen. Even though software defined radios (SDR) have been studied for a decade or more, it was seen that the emergence of heterogeneous processing platforms, increasing computing power and more flexible RF platforms, front-ends and antennas still hold a significant promise. Therefore SDR was selected as the primary focus area. In the BB signal processing realm, the objective was to develop the radio computer concept, create an architecture for that and validate its feasibility through a multi-radio demonstrator. Later on, high-performance parallel signal processing with code portability was included in the targets. In the RF platform area, the bar was set high to define an agile RF platform architec-

ture and modeling that paves the way to power-efficient and affordable solutions for internet-centric devices. The model should enable architecture analysis, multiradio coexistence analysis and implementation specification work in dynamic multi-system scenarios through time-domain behavioral modeling. In addition to the architecture definition, RF implementation options for flexible multisystem transceivers for cognitive radio were under scrutiny. The work aimed at designing RF and analog baseband blocks of a future multi-band and multi-system receiver. Similarly, there was an intention to develop modular antenna system architectures with a minimum number of miniaturized, flexible and tunable radiators, and novel complementary antennas for future multi-band/multisystem needs. Moreover, there was a need to improve system analysis tools and the electromagnetic (EM) simulation accuracy of antennas with complex CAD geometries, and gain more understanding on multiple radiator interaction and control of EM fields near the terminal. Leaning more towards the future cognitive radio and improved spectrum utilization, implementation of a proofof-concept demonstrator for wideband spectrum sensing and integrating that to a mobile device was selected as one target for the project. Moreover, towards to the end of the project there was a need to enhance the implementation towards connectivity middleware development, since architecturally that is the layer where reasoning and decision making would mostly take place. The objective was to demonstrate the interworking capabilities

of 3GPP and WLAN access networks towards seamless smart connectivity.

Approach The COPLA project harnessed open-innovation principles to involve the best research groups in the radio implementation area locally and globally. The collaboration wasn’t restricted to universities and research institutes alone, but there were also extremely fruitful collaborations with international companies that enabled the project to achieve state-of-the-art results. Whenever possible, the project arranged practical demonstrations and built prototypes that were showcased to the customers, relevant interest groups and in some cases also to the public in order to facilitate and speed up technology transfer and productization. Where appropriate the research results were driven towards standardization. In practice the research work was divided into a few quite independent work packages: Software defined radio, flexible RF platforms, flexible front-ends and antennas, and cognitive radio enablers.

Results The research work for software defined radio (SDR) focused on the architectures, computing models and design flows for baseband signal processing with heterogeneous multi-core platforms featuring vector processing capabilities. It resulted in creation of an SDR executable functional architecture model that was contributed to ETSI Reconfigurable Radio Systems for Handset SDR Reference Architecture. The SDR work was done in very close

collaboration with ST-Ericsson and NXP. This joint effort lead to the world's first software defined radio computer proofof-concept demo in May 2009 showing an implementation of SDR functional architecture on a distributed platform featuring a radio compiler, dynamic loading of radios, multiradio controller operation and resource sharing. The results were published in SDR 2009 conference were the paper received the best paper award. Based on the technology maturity and opportunity analysis the SDR research was continued to the direction of the portability and performance of signal processing code across different heterogeneous multi-core platforms. A domain specific Corento language and compiler utilizing LLVM were created and the first performance analyses have shown promising results were the execution time of the compiled code is comparable to the hand-optimized code while maintaining the portability. The flexible RF platform research delivered the first custom wideband (2-6 GHz) RF front-end ASIC design for cognitive radios. It was designed by TKK and delivered for test measurements in 2008. Moreover, a novel frequency synthesizer featuring ultra-fast channel scanning was developed. Later an improved wideband ASIC design, including RF front-end, analog baseband components and a novel frequency synthesizer, was completed and its performance was validated. In 2010 the multiband cognitive radio RF ASIC design was further directed towards integration of a direct delta-sigma BB with an RF front-end and a multi-system synthesizer in order to create capability to test LTE Advanced scenarios. In paral-

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lel to the RF ASIC design there was also significant effort to develop tools for studying and designing multiradio solutions for future mobile devices, especially covering areas like RF resource sharing and in-device coexistence. The project successfully created a simulation testbed for studying novel RF front-end architectures and re-configurable multisystem multiband antenna concepts for different RF architecture options, for example two novel miniaturized MEMS-based antennas tunable from 0.8 to 2.5 GHz and new hexaband cellular antenna concepts (0.8…2.7 GHz). Furthermore, the project managed to significantly increase knowledge of handset antenna near-field control, and successfully developed hearing aid compatible (HAC) antennas and SAR control techniques. It yielded improved understanding of the hand effect on the handset antenna, and developed and demonstrated a novel isolation improvement and correlation reduction technique for a closely placed two-antenna system. There was also a significant boost in the EM simulation accuracy of a complex CAD model based virtual phone. Research conducted in the area of mobile spectrum sensing for cognitive radio provided solid results. A cyclostationary feature detection algorithm was developed and implemented on an FPGA. The first spectrum sensor demonstrator was built based on a commercial 2.4 GHz WLAN RF ASIC and Nokia developed demo board, and with that WLAN detection and channel utilization at the 2.4 GHz ISM band was demonstrated. The first field tests revealed that the spectrum utilization is indeed highly dynamic in frequency, time and

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space. The final Nokia N900 based demo devices featured an integrated spectrum sensing functionality capable of operating at 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz WLAN bands as well as in the UHF TV band. Detection algorithms for WLAN, DVB and WiMAX signals were developed, and there was also a Qt based GUI for spectrum usage illustration. Field measurements were performed to validate the devices and to analyze the performance limits of sensing primaries in TV bands for White Spaces. First steps towards collaborative sensing among multiple devices were also taken The cognitive connectivy research concentrated on middleware development in a mobile device for seamless traffic offloading from cellular networks to WLAN networks utilizing standardized features and network prioritizations. A demonstration with a graphical map user interface was developed to illustrate the functionality and achievable benefits. Throughout its existence, the project accomplished more than 60 patent applications. Additionally, there were 57 international scientific publications including magazine and journal articles, conference presentations, a book chapter, a doctoral thesis, an invited keynote and workshop presentations. The most distinguished publications were the articles in IEEE Communications Magazine and IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits as well as a presentation in IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference, all taking place in 2010. Collaborators

Aalto University / Helsinki University of Technology, VTT, Vincit Oy, Esju Oy, Atostek Oy, University of Jyväskylä, Cadmic Oy, Digita Oy, NXP and ST-Ericsson.

Additional information

Mauri Honkanen Nokia Corporation [email protected] +358 (0)50 4835356

Advanced Access for Telecommunication, AATOS Objectives The objective of the AATOS project was to strengthen the Powerwave core competencies in the forefront of wireless telecommunication RF components and solutions. Strategic focus of the project was on reconfigurable RF filters, ie filter devices that can be tuned to different frequencies during the operation. New tuning and construction methods and materials have been studied and developed extensively. Together with this novel approach, more traditional RF technologies have been researched on several product application areas to ease the access to new business opportunities world wide.

Methods or Processes Used AATOS project was divided to five subprojects: 1. USKO, New generation RF filtering components, studying field reconfigurable filtering technologies and new, alternative construction materials for such filters 2. ELKO, New electronic applications and solutions for antenna line components, such as intelligent Power Supplies, antenna line performance diagnostics and protection solutions.

3. ALKO, Integrated antenna line components, where new generation Tower Mounted Amplifiers and multi-system combiners were studied and developed 4. SYKO, Next generation systems and technologies containing studies for new wireless technologies, such as WiMAX and LTE on new frequency bands. 5. TEKO, intelligent test systems and components, studying new methods and solutions for RF component production testing.

Results The strategic investment to this overall AATOS project has brought significant boost to the Powerwave technology portfolio and realized already to the business activities and revenue. Some highlights of the achievements: Improvements on tuning accuracy and power handling of remote tunable cavity combiner for GSM/EDGE base stations. Field tunable base station filter product platform for all major frequency bands in use globally. Improvements in product size and electrical performance as result of the USKO sub-project. Continuation project on-going for applications on dielectric filters with higher performance. Project Participants

Planned resourcing of the project was 152 man months with about 80 Powerwave employees involved to the AATOS project. Project Manager

Markku Tiihonen, Senior Principal Engineer Powerwave Finland Oy

Advanced Techniques for RF Impairment Mitigation in Future Wireless Radio Systems (DIRTY-RF) Project duration

1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010

Objectives and Background This project focused on the so-called dirty-RF theme, addressing different type non-idealities and imperfections of the most common analog radio frequency (RF) electronics components and modules used in building and implementing radio transmitters and receivers. The main objectives were to build waveform and link and system level understanding (analysis) on the most essential impairment effects through proper component and signal modeling, on one side, as well as to devise sophisticated digital signal processing (DSP) techniques that can be used in transmitters and receivers to reduce the effects of such radio electronics imperfections, on the other side. Practical example imperfections covered in the research work include mirror-frequency interference due to I/Q imbalance, power amplifier non-linear distortion, oscillator phase noise, sampling jitter, and non-linear distortion due to receiver small-signal components such as analog-to-digital converters (ADC), mixers and low noise amplifiers (LNA). One main target was to demonstrate the potential and opportunities that such DSP-based impairment mitigation techniques can offer in future radio implementations, compared to more traditional radio engineering where analog RF and digital baseband sections

are designed and implemented independently of each other. As a result, being able to compensate for different nonidealities of the analog RF sections basically relaxes the specifications for those parts, e.g., by helping to reduce the power consumption of the corresponding analog blocks. Thus cheaper circuit technologies and also more simple radio architectures can be utilized.

Methods On the performance analysis side, the main emphasis was on link-level degradation effects (instead of individual devices). This has been characterized using the signal-to-interference-andnoise ratio (SINR) observed on the receiver side of the link, taking into account the imperfect transmitter and receiver modules as well as the radio channel. The SINR distribution (or even average SINR) can then also be mapped to detection error rate, when also the used waveform is taken into account. Furthermore, as the heart of communication theory, also the link capacity (maximum mutual information) has been addressed using the derived SINR distribution, as function of RF impairment levels. This can be seen as the RF-impairment equivalent or generalization of the celebrated Shannon’s capacity analysis against plain additive channel noise, being thus a fundamental contribution. On the signal processing side, both pilot-signal based as well as non-dataaided impairment estimation and mitigation methods have been developed, at the receiver side of a radio link. Pilot-signal based estimation methods are interesting in the sense that such pilots are anyway always available in

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any communication waveform structure, e.g., for channel estimation and synchronization purposes. Non-dataaided methods, in turn, typically deploy adaptive filtering and other statistical signal processing methods offering thus capabilities to, e.g., track the possible changes in the impairment characteristics. Also many of the developed non-data-aided methods are applicable in the very digital front-end of the receiver, before any modulation-specific signal processing, offering thus easier integration to existing devices. On the transmitter side, system identification techniques have been deployed to estimate the impairments, and the effect of the impairments has then been mitigated with adaptive signal processing methods in terms of adaptive digital pre-distortion.

Results As the following publication statistics demonstrate, massive progress and outputs have been made in the research, which is difficult to describe comprehensively in this type of short summary report. Thus only some highlight are given here and the reader is referred to extensive set of publications for more details. The project outcomes, in terms of publications, are also available at the project website http://www. cs.tut.fi/tlt/DirtyRF/ One central element in the RF impairment analysis work was to derive the link-level performance of a radio link under imperfect transmitter and receiver, including also the effects of the radio channel. Such analysis has been successfully derived, in terms of SINR distribution and the resulting average and outage capacities, against oscilla-

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tor phase noise. This can be seen as a fascinating generalization of e.g. Shannon’s capacity analysis against channel noise only. Furthermore, closed-form performance analysis has been carried out for a general OFDM radio link which includes amplitude and phase mismatches between the I and Q rails of both transmitting and receiving devices, called I/Q imbalance, as well as carrier frequency offset (CFO) and oscillator phase noise in the receiving device. Furthermore, the impact of fading mobile multipath radio channel has also taken into account. The main performance measures used in this analysis are effective average received SINR and the corresponding detector symbol error rate (SER). Also detailed analyses on the nature and spectral characteristics of power amplifiers with memory have been conducted. Furthermore, the effects of transmitter and receiver I/Q imbalances in multiantenna based communications, including space-time coding and spatial multiplexing have been extensively analyzed. On the signal processing side, both transmitter and receiver oriented methods have been developed. On the transmitter side, one central contribution is digitally-intensive feedforward linearization structure for efficiently reducing the power amplifier spectral re-growth. Such structure and it’s essential signal processing modules have been developed in this project, and it’s performance has been analyzed both analytically and actual radio signal measurements. Furthermore, a joint digital predistorter for power amplifier linearization and I/Q modulator calibration has been developed in the project, together with needed parameter estimation

and identification methods. On the receiver side, the developments and outputs have been even more wide-scale than on the transmitter side. First of all, various efficient digital signal processing methods for reducing the mirrorfrequency interference due to I/Q imbalances have been developed. Many of the developed techniques are stemming from statistical signal processing principles, being non-data-aided, and can thus be applied in the very digital front-end of the receiver which makes them generally applicable for different radio architectures and different waveforms. The developed methods have also built-in capability to handle frequency-dependent I/Q imbalances which is very important in emerging wideband radio applications where the processed bandwidths can easily be in the tens of MHz range. Another interesting area where the project work has had successful algorithm developments is related to oscillator phase noise effects in radio devices. Both downconverting oscillator phase noise in direct-conversion type radios as well as sampling clock jitter effects in RF sampling radios have been addressed. The developed algorithms can be divided into two classes, one stemming from proper reference signal injection at the receiver input which is then used for phase noise or jitter estimation, and another one utilizing iterative detection methods combined with modeling of phase noise effects for different communications waveforms. Both methods have been demonstrated to be efficient in suppressing phase noise effects in radios. Another central theme in the project has been modeling and distortion mitigation of wideband analog-

digital (A/D) interfaces in radios. Modeling has been carried out for different nonlinearities like integral nonlinearity, differential nonlinearity and clipping, with special emphasis on frequency domain characteristics and the resulting intermodulation components in radios. Then different post-processing solutions for reducing such intermodulation have been developed, covering iterative detection methods, interference cancellation based solutions as well as inverse nonlinearity type methods. Furthermore, also novel sigma-delta converter solutions have been developed, with special emphasis on scattered or flexible spectrum use cases in which the converter characteristics can be tuned and optimized for such scattered desired signals. Project Volume

500.000€ (TUT), 548.000€ (TKK/Aalto) Participants

The project was carried out by the Department of Communications Engineering,

Tampere University of Technology, Department of Signal Processing and Acoustics, Aalto University (formerly Helsinki University of Technology), and Department of Communications and Networking, Aalto University (formerly Helsinki University of Technology). The project was funded by Tekes, Tampere University of Technology and Aalto University. Collaboration partners included Nokia, NSN, Ericsson, Elektrobit Wireless Communications, and Airspan. Principal Investigators

Prof. Mikko Valkama Tampere University of Technology Dept. Communications Engineering Tel. +358408490756 [email protected] Prof. Risto Wichman Aalto University Dept. Signal Processing and Acoustics Tel. +358400800801 [email protected] Project Website

Future Nokia Radio Description of the Objectives "Future Nokia Radio" ("Tulevaisuuden Nokia Radio") project started 2.1.2006. The project researches and develops flexible wireless mobile solutions that can be applied to broadband applications, to wireless local area networks or DVB-H type connections. The solutions must support also new broadband systems, from which the most important ones are WiMAX and 3.9G-type of concepts. The project searches for solutions that enable many wireless standards in a small size. This requires that the components can be reused and reconfigured according to different standards. Project Participants

STMicroelectronics R&D Oy and Nokia Oyj

Professional Mobile Communications Terminals Viranomaisradiokommunikaation terminaaliplatformin jatkokehitysprojekti

http://www.cs.tut.fi/tlt/DirtyRF/

Publication Statistics For more details, see http://www.cs.tut.fi/tlt/DirtyRF/

Description of the Objectives 2008

2009

2010

in press

Total

Theses Dr.Tech.

0

1

0

2

3

M.Sc.

0

3

4

1

8

Books and Book Chapters

0

0

1

4

5

Journal Articles

7

3

8

2

20

Conference Articles

8

12

17

1

38

International Referee

Professional Mobile Communications terminals support both features and functions of cellular terminals, but added with specific applications, like group and direct voice call services as well as Professional mobile specific features, like security, dispatching support and emergency functions. Hence the requirements for these terminals are wide and customers expect also wide sup-

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port for functionality of cellular terminals, making the development a challenging one for such a niche market. Utilizing common platform elements for the products of various Professional mobile standards voice and data terminals is essential to manage a competitive product portfolio. To tackle the user and market expectations, cellular terminal technologies and subsystems need to be deployed and adapted to the needs of Professional Mobile Communications terminals. There is the strong market demand of these terminal products renewal in pace of the cellular mobile industry while the life-cycle of those terminal in use is long. The purpose of the terminal platform project is the renewal of the existing radio terminal platforms for the evolving professional users needs. It includes the sub-areas of HW, Mechanics, Radio parts, OS, Middleware, Professional Mobile Communications specific radio protocol stacks, Security, UI, Cellular telephony and short messaging applications as well as specific support for group and direct voice services and specific features. Common platform elements should be usable to a wide range of Professional Mobile Communications terminals in the market.

HW development: Major developments of RF, Baseband interface ASIC as well as platform prototype design was done during 2010. In context of GIGA programme, reference development of platform interfaces include: RFID, WLAN, GPS, BT, USB and also auxiliary equipment interface. SW development: The project continued on the development of high speed data protocol stack and radio resource allocation algorithms. High speed data AI testing on the defined radio channels with short messages and packet data. Various SW parts were also developed: SW configuration management, interface drivers etc. UI development and applications: Definition of UI for normal as well as touch screen terminals. Definition of key applications of the professional users has been done. Telephony demo on the HW platform has been implemented. The platform has supported the development of the first high speed data modem. Project Participants

EADS SN OY Jyväskylä, a number of HW and SW subcontractors in Finland. Project Manager

Mikko Ahonen, Project manager Jyväskylä

Methods Company´s internal platform development process C-milestones are used in the development.

Results in General The project is a one-year (2010) extension to the lapsed two-year project on the subject (2007–9).

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Platform technologies for IP radio access networks Target of the Piran project was to support EB’s Mobile WiMAX product business with technology and platform development work. The project was aiming to develop a solid base platform for

the base station product family. Another aspect was to support Mobile WiMAX development processes and development environments. During the Piran project platform was developed also towards other OFDMA technologies, such as LTE. Figure 1. Mobile WiMAX features.

Base Station Platform The second version of the base band hardware was developed during the project. The hardware was a multipurpose Software Defined Radio (SDR) platform and it is later used in another type of OFDMA base station product. The first phase of the Mobile WiMAX software was developed. The software was one the key results of the project and EB’s intend was to reuse this in various products. Following Mobile WiMAX features were developed: Another major software component was Operations and Maintenance (O&M) platform which was also developed during the project. O&M platform was built to support various configuration protocols and management object models for different products.

WiMAX RF Platform Prototypes for the RF-platform, RF-head and power amplifier were developed.

Integration & Validation platform Testing laboratory was designed and developed during the project. TTCN-3 based automation environment was successfully used for Mobile WiMAX verification purposes. TTCN-3 based system is still in use and many projects have used platform built during the Piran project. Project Participants

Elektrobit Wireless Communications Oy Project Manager

Masa Mäkäräinen

L-Band Interference Measurements in Urban and Suburban Environment Description of the Objectives The purpose of the L-Band Interference Measurements in Urban and Suburban Environment (LIME) project is to develop a new method to measure the rise of man made RF noise level in in the mentioned environments. The project has two phases: phase one contains the airborne measurement using the 1.4 GHz 2D radiometer made and operated by the Laboratory of Space Technology/TKK. This measurement campain includes the preliminary and actual test measurements over Helsinki town centre and a set of calibration measurements at varying altitudes using a known interference transmitter as a target on the ground level. The results shall be analyzed so that they represent the actual ground level interference environment in the possible way. Phase two includes two sets of ground level noise measurements at the interesting locations pointed out from the results of the airborne measurements. Set one is made using 1.4 GHz portable radiometer to achieve a good correlation with the airborne measurements and set two using 2.1 GHz portable radiometer at the uplink band of an operating 3G network. Set two will provide improved information not only of the generic urban RF noise but also of the noise level generated by the 3G network itself. These radiometers will be designed and manufactured by the Laboratory of Space Technology/TKK.

The purpose of this effort is to find out if the urban noise environment is really dominated by thermal noise or, as suspect, by manmade interference. This information has importance in defining the receiver specifications for all cellular radio systems and also in improving the capacity control algorithms of 3G networks. Project Participants

Nokia Siemens Networks Oy Project Manager

Jorma Pallonen

New communications technologies for Wireless M2M, Viola Systems, 4.1.2010 Objectives The objectives of the project was to investigate the potential new wireless technologies from the perspective of their applicability to industrial applications, namely to Machine to Machine applications (M2M). The wireless business space is in constant rapid change and new technologies emerge by the day. For Viola it has been always to be on top of the market and therefore this project was kicked off so, that the applicability of such new technologies as 3G 900,CDMA 450, GSM-R, Wimax, Flash-OFDM and LTE to the industrial setting.

Methods or Processes Used We investigated the suitability of the above-mentioned wireless technologies especially from the point of view of their suitability to demanding industrial applications. Particularly reliabili-

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ty of operations was a an area, which was carefully researched. From industrial customer’s point of view it was also important to analyze the redundancy of the communication network architecture. One failure in one base station should not create a situaion, where communication service stops to a critical node (for example a disconnector station in electrical distribution network). The commercial viability was the third decision criteria for the selection of new technologies. Any new technology should fit into the business case and budgets of the end-user organizations.

Project Duration

1 January 2007 to 31 December 2010

The main outcome of the project was a a prestudy, based on which later on two new products were developed. One for GSM-R and another one for 3G (including also 900 MHz). Also CDMA450 early prototypes are now available and being piloted with a Swedish electrical utility. Flash-OFDM (Digita, Finland) was evaluated to be superrior in terms of technology, but was discarded due to commercial viability issues such as longer-term commercial availability products and maintenance services thereof.

During its lifetime, Flecos project was a part of Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme. Flecos is a FiDiPro-project, which has funded the work of Prof. Behnaam Aazhang. Prof. Aazhang is J.S. Abercrombie Professor and Chair in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rice University, Houston, Texas. With the FiDiPro funding he has spent 4 months a year in Oulu, furthermore he has supervised PhD students at CWC throughout the whole year. The project has also funded the work of Prof. Ryuji Kohno from Yokohama National University, Japan. Prof. Kohno has visited Oulu for one month once a year giving a lecture in the field of Medical ICT. Also researcher exchange has regularly taken place within the Flecos-project. It can very well be stated that the Flecos project has reached its objectives, not only in fulfilling the research plan, but also in terms of internationality and mobility.

Project Participants

Description of the Objectives

Jari Lahti, Tapio Santavuori, Terho Into, Jyrki Penttonen

The objective of the project was to develop a flexible physical layer for wireless networks that is opportunistic in allocation of network resources and enables collaboration among terminals of the network. The main motivation for the development of such flexible communication systems is energy and spectral efficiency. Energy efficiency is critical both for battery operated mobile terminals and for the wall plugged in-

Results

Project Manager

Jari Lahti Additional Information

Jari Lahti Viola Systems Ltd. Tel. +358 (0)201 226 226 [email protected] 106

Flexible Wireless Communication Systems (Flecos)

frastructure. Spectral efficiency is essential as the network attempts to support more and more applications and services with limited assigned spectrum.

Methods or Processes Used To achieve the objectives of the project, the Principal Investigators (PIs) considered two coupled methods: opportunistic spectrum sharing based on dynamic spatial reuse and cooperative scheduling with rate and power control. The spectrum sharing methodology leads to discovery and access strategies that allow spectrum reuse by the device-todevice communications as well as femto cells in a cellular radio network. The cooperative methodology leads to discovery, routing, and scheduling for multiple flows traversing through the network. The resulting schedule for each node in the network determines time slots for transmission of each packet in a flow, cooperation protocol, power level, and the resulting rate.

Results Our main result is that even in a spectrally efficient network, device-to-device users can exploit network topology to render some modest gain in additional throughput. The focus was on providing ad hoc multihop access for deviceto-device users transparent to the primary wireless cellular networks while sharing the primary network’s resources. The research resulted in node discovery as well as multihop access protocols that lead to throughput gains and reduction in network power for a cluster of users. We explored the applications of our proposed spectrum sharing methodology to the wireless cellular topologies employing femto cells. Cellular radio networks with femto cells hold the promise

of higher spectral efficiency, higher power efficiency, and a larger coverage area in compared to traditional single tower cellular radio networks. The initial results have proven both spectral and energy efficiency in multiple folds. Our focus was also on allocating resources in this model by optimizing scheduling, routing and power control to address the max-min throughput problem for all flows involved. In general, the time-slotted, fully interfering model we study here led to an NPhard problem. Further, the rate-control element of the mixed-integer program leads to a non-convex problem in the continuous domain. The prohibitive complexity of the joint problem led us to propose a two-pronged approach to determine the resource allocation. The result was a transmission schedule and routes for all packets involved, and power allocations for transmitting terminals selecting the rates of these packets. We demonstrated the performance of our techniques on the max-min throughput problem, while also showing that they are sufficiently general to apply to a wide variety of optimality criteria in which decisions over transmission schedules and packet routing must be made.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 January 2007 to 30 December 2010. 1. C. Serediuc, J. Lilleberg, and B. Aazhang (2010) “A Transmission and Detection Strategy for an Estimate and Forward Relay Channel” to be submitted to IEEE Transactions on Communications. 2. G. Middleton, J. Lilleberg, and B. Aazhng, (2010) “Resource Allocation in Large Multi-Flow Wireless Networks

with Cooperative Links”, submitted to IEEE Transaction on Communication. 3. M. Nokleby and B. Aazhang (2010) “On Energy Efficiency of User Cooperation” to be submitted to IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. 4. B. Kaufman, J. Lilleberg, and B. Aazhang (2010) “Spectral Sharing in Cellular Networks: A Device-toDevice Underlay System” submitted to IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. 5. C. Serediuc, J. Lilleberg, B. Aazhang, “MAP detectin with soft information in an Estimate and Forward Relay Network” Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, November 2010. 6. B. Kaufman, J. Lilleberg, B. Aazhang, “Optimizing user densities for spectrum allocation with applications in femtocell networks” Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, November 2010. 7. M. Nokleby, B. Aazhang, “Rethinking the capacity per unit cost” Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers, November 2010. 8. G. Middleton, B Aazhang and J Lilleberg, “Efficient Resource Management for Streaming Multiflow Wireless Networks," International Conference on Communications, May 2010. 9. M. Nokelby, B. Aazhang, “User Cooperation for Energy-efficient Cellular Communications” International Conference on Communications, May 2010. 10. B. Kaufman, J. Lilleberg, B. Aazhang, “Interference Aware Link Discovery for Device to Device Communication” to be presented at Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, Pacific Grove, U.S.A, 2009.

11. Q. Xue, G. Abreu, B. Aazhang, “Mutual Information of Amplify and Forward DSTBCs over the Random Set Relay Channel” IEEE Information Theory Workshop, Volos, Greece June 2009. 12. S. Summerson, B. Aazhang (2010), "Outage Analysis of Relay Selection and Forwarding Protocols in a MultiRelay Wireless Network," to be submitted to IEEE Trans. on Wireless Comm. 13. B. Kaufman, E. Erkip, J. Lilleberg, B. Aazhang. "Femtocells in Cellular Radio Networks with Successive Interference Cancellation," submitted to the 2011International Conference on Communications. Project Volume

EUR 979 700 Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. The project was funded by Tekes, CWC, and the University of Oulu.    Additionally there was a strong industry involvement in the steering group work. Both Nokia Siemens Networks and Nokia Oyj participated actively in the steering group work. Person in charge for administrative issues

Kirsi Ojutkangas Planning Officer University of Oulu Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) P.O. Box 4500 FI-90014 Tel. +358 (0)8 553 7635 Mobile + 358 (0)40 169 6464 Fax + 358 (0)8 553

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Distributed Decision Making for Future Wireless Communication (DIDES) Project Duration

1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012 During its first years, DIDES project was a part of Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme. DIDES is a FiDiPro-project, which has funded the work of Prof. Tadashi Matsumoto. Prof. Matsumoto is Professor at Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (JAIST), Japan. With the FiDiPro funding he has spent 4 months a year in Oulu, furthermore he has supervised PhD students at CWC throughout the whole year. With the aid of a dual degree agreement of University of Oulu and JAIST, the students in the DIDES project have spent several months per year in JAIST under the supervision of the FiDIPro Professor. It can very well be stated that the DIDES project has reached its objectives up to now (project lasts two more years), by fulfilling the research plan, but also in terms of internationality and mobility. The publications that Prof. Matsumoto and his students have published under DIDES and other projects have been highly recognized and Prof. Matsumoto was appointed an IEEE Fellow as of Jan 1, 2010. The same year he was also recognized as exemplary reviewer of IEEE Communication Letters.

Description of the Objectives The research framework of the Prof. Matsumoto’s plan can be classified by two orthogonal axes, system’s logical hierarchy and operational multiplicity. For communication systems, the logical hierarchy corresponds to the Open System Interconnection (OSI) layer struc108

ture, and the operational multiplicity corresponds to whether the system is either standalone single node or multiple node systems. In short, the major aim of the research is to conduct research work on the Turbo techniques at its final phase. Objectives include unified cross-layer management (network-level optimization and autonomy of distributed large-scale decision-making systems by the belief propagation algorithms), autonomous MIMO system reconfiguration, adaptive resource management in multi-user systems (extend the major scope to more generic resource allocation problems) and source-compression and cooperative communication systems

Methods or Processes Used To achieve the objectives of the project, the Principal Investigators (PIs) considered systematic steps. At first, since the goal of belief propagation over the whole decision-making network is to achieve the network-level optimization, the mutual information has to be calculated from the log likelihood ratio, depending on the each processor’s numerical definition field. This requires that the input-output mutual information transfer characteristics have to be jointly optimized so that the network, as a whole, can achieve the maximum total mutual information between the information transmitted from the multiple users in the network and the each node’s output. Multi-dimensional EXIT analysis should provide a powerful tool towards achieving this goal. Secondly, research work includes pre- and post-processing techniques for multi-user distributed MIMO systems. The research will be started by properly defining the optimality achieved by the pre-coding tech-

niques, where the meaning of the terminology “pre-coding” includes pre- and post-processing at the transmitter and receiver, respectively. In distributed MIMO systems, the up- and downlink duality does not hold, which is the major difference from centralized multi-user MIMO systems. A key mathematical tool is convex optimization algorithms, solutions of which in many cases cannot be obtained analytically. The technique for obtaining the optimal pre- and postprocessing matrices is expected to be iterative, and during the iteration process, the intermediate belief propagated over the distributed MIMO network may well be utilized. Third, system-level parameters yielding the optimal resource allocation may be obtained by iterative techniques, and during the iteration process, the intermediate belief propagated over the network may well be utilized. Each node in the whole network will have to “sense” the characteristics of the system resources that are not used by the node itself, and propagate the results over the whole decision-making network for global optimization. Finally, The Turbo concept should serve as a general framework when solving the single- and multi-user/terminal compression problems. In single-terminal compression, belief propagation takes place only within one single terminal. On the contrary, in multiterminal compression, it may take place either within one single terminal or over the multiple terminals, depending on the network topology and requirements.

Results Up to now, as the project last two more years, the main findings are as follows. A novel equal length compression technique for Markov source, MultiLevel Mapping (MLM) technique, has

been proposed based on the extended modulation mapping technique. Results show that it can achieve loss less compression, if a priori information, fed back from the decoder is perfect. The optimal power allocation for single carrier point-to-point multiple input multiple output (MIMO) systems with iterative frequency-domain (FD) soft cancellation (SC) minimum mean squared error (MMSE) equalization has been derived. A novel suboptimal low-complexity power allocation method has been proposed which explicitly takes into account the convergence properties of the iterative equalizer while transmission power is minimized. Numerical results demonstrate that it can achieve almost equivalent performance to the optimal solution in the terms of equalizer convergence as well as the transmission power. It is also found that the proposed scheme can achieve the lowest transmit power while convergence of the turbo loop at the designed mutual information point is guaranteed. A technique for coding the data from multiple correlated binary sources, with the aim of providing an alternative technique to the correlated source compression using turbo codes has been proposed. Using non-systematic repeat-accumulate (RA) based codes, it is possible to achieve near Shannon/ Slepian-Wolf performance without relying on massive puncturing which is necessary with turbo compression. It is shown that the performance of the proposed method can achieve better compression than punctured turbo code when correlation of the sources is low. Furthermore, the technique is applied to distributed joint source-channel coding and shown to achieve perfect mutual information with lower sig-

nal-to-noise power ratio than symmetric turbo based DJSCC.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010. 1. Karjalainen Juha, Matsumoto Tadashi & Utschick Wolfgang. Convergence analysis of MMSE based multiuser MIMO turbo detector with linear precoding strategies. The 5th International Symposium on Turbo Codes & Related Topics, Lausanne, Switzerland, September 2008. 2. Karjalainen Juha & Matsumoto Tadashi. On the convergence property of an MMSE based multiuser MIMO turbo detector with uplink precoding. ICC 2008, IEEE International Conference on Communications, Beijing, China, May 2008. 3. Karjalainen Juha, Tölli Antti, Matsumoto Tadashi, & Juntti Markku, “On Convergence Constrained Precoder Design for Iterative Frequency Domain MIMO Detector”, ISIT 2009, IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory, June 28 – July 3, 2009, COEX, Seoul, Korea. 4. Karjalainen Juha, Tölli Antti, Codreanu Marian, Juntti Markku, & Matsumoto Tadashi, "Power Allocation for Irregularly Modulated MIMO Signaling with Iterative Frequency Domain Detector", 43rd Annual Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems, and Computers 2009. 5. Valtteri Tervo, Tadashi Matsumoto, & Juha Karjalainen,”Joint SourceChannel Coding Using Multiple Label Mapping”, in Proceedings of IEEE 72nd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 2010-Fall), Ot-tawa, September 6–9, 2010 (Award Paper).

6. Karjalainen Juha, Tölli Antti, Codreanu Marian, Juntti Markku & Matsumoto Tadashi, “Power Allocation for Iterative Frequency Domain MIMO Detector”, accepted for publication in IEEE Trans. Signal Processing. 7. Lu Pen Shun and Matsumoto Tadashi, “A Simple Network Coded Multiple Access Relay System and its Iterative Decoding Technique“, accepted for publication in IEEE VTC2011 Spring, Budapest. 8. Fukawa Kisho, Zhao Dan, Tolli Antti, and Matsumoto Tadashi, “Irregular Repetition and Single Parity Check Coded BICM-ID Using Extended Mapping – Optimal Node Degree Allocation –“ (Invited) ChinaCom, 2010, Beijin. Project Volume

EUR 849 920 Project Participants

The project is carried out by the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland. The project is funded by Tekes, CWC, and the University of Oulu. Additionally there is a strong industry involvement in the steering group work. Both Nokia Siemens Networks and Nokia Oyj participate actively in the steering group work. Person in charge for administrative issues

Kirsi Ojutkangas Planning Officer University of Oulu Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC) P.O. Box 4500, FI-90014 Tel. +358 (0)8 553 7635 Mobile + 358 (0)40 169 6464 Fax + 358 (0)8 553

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3.2 Thematic Group 2: Seamless Networking Focus of the Group Our main topics are related to seamless co-operation of heterogeneous networks, trust, security, Quality of Service, mobility, cross-layer design, seamless services and autonomic networks.

Group’s Cluster/Networks in Finland There are hundreds of people that have participated the thematic group meetings during the 5-years of operation. Their input and interest in the topic is greatly appreciated. We also want to give credit to the following persons that have been actively taken part the meetings and given their valuable input to the thematic group Wiki-roadmap: Asplund Henrik (Aalto), Ikäheimo Jorma (Nethawk), Julku Jorma (Tekes), Keisala Ilkka (TeliaSonera), Ketonen VeliPekka (7Signal), Kojo Markku (Aalto), Korhonen Jouni (TeliaSonera, NSN), Leppinen Timo (Ficora), Mäkinen Jussi (Octopus), Melen Björn (Ericsson), Palola Marko (VTT), Pentikousis Kostas (VTT), Rajahalme Jarno (Nokia), Ranta Mervi (Aalto), Salminen Reijo (Seesta), Sarolahti Pasi (Nokia NRC), Seppänen Kari (VTT), Stranberg Ove (NSN), Suhonen Aleksi (Tampere Univ. of Tech.), Varela Martin (VTT) and Väärämaki Tapio (University of Jyväskylä). Chairman, editor: Dr. Marko Jurvansuu, VTT Secretary: Mr. Jorma Julku, Tekes

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Group Vision In our original vision, we wanted to establish broadband trusted end-to-end connection for mobile terminals. Five years ago GPRS was the main IP connection type with mobile phones and lacked both adequate bandwidth and coverage for most purposes. Now the situation is different. Smart phones with HSPA and Wi-fi technologies provide users with megabit bandwidth and good user experience. In few years, phone will become a internet browsing device for most of the users. This is due to decreasing price and penetration rate of smart phones in the market. Soon, LTE technology will boost the mobile bandwidth capacity and coverage, yet this will be evident mainly in urban areas due to the smaller radio cell size compared to UMTS. It may be interesting to notice, that for now on we will see more and more interest to develop low bandwidth large coverage technologies. This is due to increasing amount of machineto-machine communication (M2M) and need to communicate directly between phones, devices and sensors near-by. The other aim for the thematic group was to provide a convergence of networks with quality, safety and reliability addressing also malicious users and applications in structured/un-structured, fixed/mobile, licensed/un-licensed networks. Unfortunately, this is aim has been progressing slowly. In the convergence part of the vision, users’ terminals would roam from one operator network to another seamlessly and technology independently. Users would have the best connection for their needs, whether it is the bandwidth, quality or price that is their preference. In GIGA re-

search projects and their real life trials we have seen how mobility technologies have matured to such level that they are ready for commercial deployment. However, the business model change would have been too great to allow users free roaming between operators and benefits for both business and users were also left somewhat unclear. At the moment, it is sufficient that the many of the mobile phones are capable of choosing their wireless access automatically as needed, for example Wi-fi connection is established for internet browsing, whilst the voice communication is done over 3G. In the beginning of the thematic group, there were strong opinions against and in favor of flat rate provisioning. Flat rate has indeed become a norm during the years, prices have gone down and the role of mobile data has increased. Much of this due to “mokkula” phenomenon, in which the 3G USB stick provides the broadband to the user instead of traditional fixed line xDSL. The subscription advertisements include now also price/Mbps in addition to voice and SMS/MMS fees. The other long lasting research topic in thematic group is a Quality of Service. In this domain, the problems have traditionally been solved with over provisioning i.e. increasing hardware and communication links. However, the exponential growth of mobile data during the recent years cannot be solved with over provisioning for much longer. It is expected that QoS mechanisms are to be deployed in some extend in the radio networks. This will both cut down the ever increasing hardware expenses and improve user satisfaction.

Most likely developments ••

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Ever increasing penetration of social media services in our daily lives, especially in the mobile domain for now on. It will not only be just social gossiping, but for user and business benefit as well. For example, it is easier to get to the buying decisions, if one knows that the people in trust have recommended the product in question. Focus has turned from mobile phone technology to usability. For now on it is the added value that certain phone can provide the user whether it is the most apps, services, coolest or other factor. Mobile contactless will change how we pay in shops, buses and everywhere. It is not about the NFC as technology itself, but about the business ecosystem that is needed. Western world will eventually follow Japan. Augmented reality will become a new de facto UI for mobile users. It provides the digital eye to see the digital content in our physical world. Cloud technologies will change first how the corporations run their IT, but later this is extended to private users. Amount of devices with communication and “computer skills” will increasing rapidly for now on, almost in same pace as mobile phones spread in early years. At the moment we buy TV set, Blue-ray players, DVB receivers etc. that can and are being connected to internet and it’s services. For example, TV sets have their own AppStores (ref. Samsung) or they run with mobile OS (ref. Android TV).

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2.4 GHz frequency gets overwhelmed by 802.11, Bluetooth and ZigBee devices causing interference and communication low quality in offices, homes and factories.

Activities and Results The thematic group had 23 meetings organized in the Helsinki area and in Oulu hosted by VTT, Tellabs, TeliaSonera, Nokia Research Center, Nokia Siemens Networks, the Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority and Tekes. The main activities of the thematic group were to update the technology vision and roadmap. We would like to thank VTT for use of video meeting premises, which have been in heavy use by the group, many years before the environmental issues become a societal topic. Presentations

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Multi-Access roaming and seamless access projects, Ilkka Keisala, TeliaSonera Standardization as a result of the projects, Jouni Korhonen, TeliaSonera GIGA-VAMOS roadmap, Mikael von Hertzen, SWOT Consulting ITEA Easy wireless, Mirjami Taramaa, VTT 4WARDS EU-project, Ove Strandberg, Nokia Future-Internet, Jouni Korhonen, TeliaSonera VeRHo-project, Tapio Väärämäki, University of Jyväskylä Langaton Mesh verkko, Miska Kaipiainen, Meshcom Technologies Laajakaistaiset Ethernet-pohjaiset monipalveluverkot, Petri Sainio, Teleste

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Ajankohtaista regulaatiosta ja standardeista, Timo Leppinen, Ficora Ajankohtaista taajuusreguloinnista, Petri Lehikoinen, Ficora.

The thematic group visited Nokia Siemens Networks Solution Experience center to see presentations and demonstrations: LTE-emulsion, Videostreaming and download over HSDPA, IHSPA and New Flexi base station. In addition the thematic group visited Nokia Research Lablet Otaniemi and VTT Converging Networks Laboratory in Oulu. One meeting was Tellabs and then the group visited also in Tellabs system testing environment laboratory.

Conclusion Five years period in ICT seems to be long. Hypes, technologies and user needs changes considerably in this time. Still, it gives some pleasure to find out that major part of the predictions in our roadmap were true. For example, in 2007 we predicted the flat rate based charging to become a norm and that the location based services utilizing GPS information and social media will be important part of our daily lives, which have happened. There were also many things in which we were wrong as well. Important lesson was that the technology itself will not guarantee success, for example as with mobile WiMAX or DVB-H. Third lesson is the slowness of the legacy, the interoperability has to be maintained to older devices and the investments to new technology have to wait until the earlier ones are been paid off.

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Project Reports Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe), Aalto University Project Duration

1 January 2006 to 31 August 2008 MERCoNe consisted of a research project and five company projects funded by Tekes. PM&RG (Product Modelling and Realisation Group) of Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) coordinated the combined research project (ryhmähanke) of TKK, Department of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki (UH) and VTT. The five companies – Ericsson, Nethawk, Nokia, Secgo and TeliaSonera – each had their own company project. The MERCoNe consortium of six associated projects (rinnakkaishanke) shared a project plan. MERCoNe project is a model example in a long chain of

projects. Every project had a new project plan containing novel and far reaching ideas backed up by a strong track of research. The other projects in this track were GO, VHO and WISEciti, and the consortium progresses ahead.

Description of the Objectives Multiaccess as such, already has several prominent solutions and even standards. However, while IETF standardizes new networking solutions to welldefined and specific problems typically resulting in a specification of a new protocol or protocol extension, there is less attention on how a number of such building blocks interact when a complete networking system or service is constructed using the building blocks. Since the communications environment is changing sufficiently radically, new mobile networking concepts are required as a response. MERCoNe was created to solve issues related to multi-

access in heterogeneous environments: seamless multi-operator and multi-domain mobility. Networks will have to integrate the capabilities of different networks to an end-to-end, seamless and secure solution for the user. The goals of MERCoNe are summarized in Figure 1 with the a) areas of challenge and b) examples of prototypes implemented for experimentations. MERCoNe considered the implications of heterogeneous wireless systems on the overall network, especially the impact on end-to-end transport and quality of service. MERCoNe also included seamless exploitation of multihoming, multi-access-technology opportunities. Individual data flows of the same device may take different paths across multi-domain networks. Multihoming is not limited to physical interfaces only. A host with a single physical network connection may internally handle multi-homing by having sev-

Figure 1. MERCoNe research: a) areas of callenges and b) examples of integrated prototypes.

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eral logical connections. Workpackages were assignerd to target optimizing wireless networking systems in terms of signaling overhead and network performance and employment of crosslayer notifications and triggers for enhanced overall networking performance. Furthermore, MERCoNe allowed considering new kinds of applications and services for taking full advantage of converging networks. By brokering different viewpoints (e.g. network, application, performance) were taken into account in the design. MERCoNe objectives targeted challenges for integrating and facilitating coherent heterogeneous systems: All in all, MERCoNe served as a common playground for planning, implementing, integrating and brokering research ideas of research partners and ICT parners. Generating a common live test environment using commercial networks provided a basis for structuring and analysis of the big picture of heterogeneous networks. Focused workpackages reached their own specific objectives and the results were gradually integrated. In addition to technical integration, also mappings and relationships of concepts were understood.

Methods or Processes Used MERCoNe was a multiaccess related project. The integration challenges were researched and experimented with proper methods. Experimentation was made more accurate by the availability of real live networks, network analyzers and simulators that several partners brought into the project. Also, trial prototypes and elucidative demonstrations were used as groundwork to discover needs and potential focus for methodologically sound experimentations.

Innovation prototyping methodology provided the project with methods for balanced brokering of viewpoints, into account in experimentation and modelling. By brokering, all viewpoints (e.g. network, application, performance…) were taken into account in the design of systems and experimentations. A key strength of the project was in understanding the wholeness encompassing the network, its triggering, AAA and multihoming etc., and the application and user. Common prototypes were integrated in deep level that facilitated experimentation and analysis to discover generally applicable features of heterogeneous networks. Figure 1 b) shows two examples of experimentation topics and settings, i.e., mobile router and mobile music player instrumentations. Prototypes emphasised experimentation, but worked also as show cases for demonstration and education purposes. Carrying out the joint experimentations in real live networks and applying network analysers and simulators revealed hidden features of multi-access and multioperator environments. To alleviate the problems with geographical and conceptual distance of the project partners, modelling was applied share information with the different involved expertises. SSUR modelling of Innovation prototyping methodology provided means for creating Scenario, Service, Use case and Realization models that allowed explicating, sharing and gaining literacy to the different involved aspects.

Results MERCoNe was carried out as planned and produced more results than expected in the project plan. Comple-

mentary interests, research objectives and expertise allowed forming a consistent wholeness and still ensure deep analysis. The first task for the workpackages was to plan internal integration by planning the focus and approach for experimentation and prototyping. Simultaneously the big picture of the project was processed in joint events and integration meetings were held to discuss and plan the interfaces. Considerable effort was put on information transfer and brokering of viewpoints in workshops and technical meetings. A task force was assigned to coordinate among workpackages the specification and implementation of the common test environment. Figure 2 concludes the MERCoNe big picture of experimentation environment of heterogeneous networks that was implemented using real live networks. Three main achievements were the MERCoNe experimentation environment, experimentations and prototypes, and dissemination of wide variety of public results. Short list of the most important results: •• Several carefully planned experimentations were carried out with sound methodology to produce valid and justified results for the needs of product development. In addition to instrumentations of the experimentations, also trial prototypes and elucidative demonstrations were implemented, which means that ideas were integrated in prototyping and code level. An example of joint prototypes is the integration of results from several workpackages to allow experiments using triggering engine between active application and mobility management. 113

Figure 2. MERCoNe experimentation environment of heterogeneous networks.

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Prototyping efforts lead to generation of publicly available code, mainly open source. Furthermore, architectures, monitoring and security solutions were generated and disseminated in events and with publications. The standardization contribution of MERCoNe was remarkable as research result, dissemination of knowledge and impact to other organizations. Standardization efforts gave project results a practical dimension and evidence of their usefulness. The project members contributed to several major standardization forums, including IETF, IEEE, GSMA and 3GPP. Research directions that are important to Finnish companies were fed from national MERCoNe project into EU IST Framework Programme.

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MERCoNe results were directly used as input for the success of FP6 Ambient Networks project – especially HIP Mobile Router/ Proxy and Triggering. Results were also brought from EU IST into Finnish ICT via MERCoNe. Active cooperation and knowledge transfer between Finnish ICT partners. Common experimentation environment, that utilized real live networks, was designed and implemented for the use of the project. Large consortium exchanged and transferred knowledge continuously between partners and workpackages. Moreover, larger audience was reached with public events and active contribution to GIGA thematic groups and events for results promotion.

Despite of the large size of the project consortium, MERCoNe avoided easily the fate of becoming a fragmented umbrella project. The agile utilization of the rich knowledge and skill resources in the matrix structure of a large consortium was possible because the industrial partners were committed to the project objectives, and the project partners were ready to negotiate on the methods and fundamental issues. Also, project teams consisted of hardworking and skilled individuals, who could take the challenge of the very high set project goals. Therefore, MERCoNe produced not only scientific and engineering results, but also ways to adapt methodology and practices according to the project model.

Publications The list of the numerous publications is at http://www.cs.hut.fi/~pmrg/mercone-pub.pdf Project Volume

Combined research project EUR 1,488,000. Five company projects are not included in this volume. Project Participants

PM&RG (Product Modelling and Realisation Group) of Helsinki University of Technology (TKK), Department of Computer Science at the University of Helsinki (UH), VTT, Ericsson, Nethawk, Nokia, Secgo and TeliaSonera. Project Manager

Project manager Mervi L. Ranta Aalto University Tel. +358 (0)9 4702 4807 [email protected] Coordinator of PM&RG Henrik J. Asplund Aalto University Tel. +358 (0)9 4702 5197 [email protected]

Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe), TeliaSonera Finland Oy Objectives The goal of the MERCoNe research project for TeliaSonera was to develop and evaluate practical solutions for providing seamless user experience with mobile multiaccess capable equipment in a heterogeneous network environment. To achieve this goal, IPv4IPv6 based multiaccess capable mobil-

ity management was developed and evaluated in a heterogeneous network consisting of both 2.5G/3G and wireless IEEE specified access technologies. In addition, necessary means for fast handovers within and between access technologies and administrative domains, handover controllability including network initiated real-time control, secure user management and IPv4IPv6 migration/co-existence were developed and evaluated. Operator grade and optimized AAA solutions that are useful in multiaccess environment also had an important role and solutions to that problem area needed to be studied in both access network and operator core network point of view.

Methods Teliasonera was responsible for the test network for the whole project including the maintenance of this network. The project members had a free access to this network, which offered wireless IP connectivity through TeliaSonera’s commercial radio network (IPv4, IPv6, 2G/3G/HSDPA, WLAN). The IP connections were routed directly to the test network from TeliaSonera’s radio network and TeliaSonera offered also the fixed IPv4 and IPv6 connections to the test network. Other services offered in the test network were DNS (IPv4 and IPv6), IKEv2 IPSec gateway, Mobile IPv4 & Mobile IPv6 home agent and RADIUS servers supporting EAP-SIM and EAP-TLS. For the HIP Based Network Access Protocol work and publication related to that an experimental implementation was done in co-operation with Ericsson. The main goal was to measure and verify the results mentioned in the

publication. The implementation was based on following open source codes: hip4bsd, hostap and freeradius. Co-operation in the consortium, especially with research partners as University of Helsinki and HIIT, was very active and intensive. Besides this project internal co-operation, TeliaSonera utilized an extensive network of external partners (e.g. Huawei, Cisco, NEC Siemens, Orange, Nortel, QualComm, Intel, Dell) primarily in the standardization work done in IETF, GSMA and 3GPP.

Results The project has given TeliaSonera an opportunity to prepare itself on technical level to next generation wireless broadband networks, as 3GPP Release-8 and Release-9 and MobileWimax. The development of core network infrastructure has been one of the most important work items for an operator to guarantee world class, standard based network solutions. TeliaSonera’s work included active contribution to different standardization organisations and forums, e.g. GSMA, 3GPP and IETF. It is worth mentioning that e.g. all IETF work items proposed during the project are now included as part of some wireless network standard, e.g. 3GPP Release-8, 3GPP2 or Mobile WiMAX. From TeliaSonera’s point of view it is essential to transfer the results and knowledge to our internal projects and activities. One of the projects gaining from the MerCoNe work was the Mobile TV pilot, which utilized both the security work done in this project and the developed mobile solutions of WLAN/3G terminals.

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Main Publications and Contributions J. Korhonen, A. Mäkelä, and T. Rinta-aho, "HIP Based Network Access Protocol in Operator Network Deployments. "In First Ambient Networks Workshop on Mobility", Multiaccess, and Network Management (M2NM’07), Sydney, Australia, October 2007. (WP3) S. Tarkoma and J. Korhonen, "Encyclopedia of Mobile Computing and Commerce (EMCC)", chapter Understanding Multilayer Mobility, pages 966–973. IGI Global, April 2007. (WP1) J. Zhang, J. Korhonen, S. Park, and D. Pearce, "TCP Quick-Adjust by Utilizing Explicit Link Characteristic Information", In 3rd International Workshop on Performance Analysis 116

and Enhancement of Wireless Networks (PAEWN’08) 2008, GinoWan, Okinawa, Japan, March 2008. (WP2,4) IETF Draft specifications – Working Group Work Items

J. Korhonen, H. Tschofenig, M. Arumaithurai, and M. Jones, "Quality of Service Attributes for Diameter and RADIUS", draft-ietf-dime-qosattributes-03.txt, IETF, Work in progress, November 2007. (WP3,4) J. Korhonen and H. Tschofenig, "Quality of Service Parameters for Usage with the AAA Framework", draft-ietf-dime-qosparameters-01.txt, IETF, September 2007. (WP3,4) J. Korhonen, J. Bournelle, H. Tschofenig, C. Perkins, and K. Chowdhury, "Diameter

Mobile IPv6: Support for Network Access Server to Diameter Server Interaction", draft-ietf-dime-mip6integrated-07.txt, IETF, November 2007. (WP3) J. Korhonen, J. Bournelle, G. Giaretta, H. Tschofenig, and M. Nakhjiri, "Diameter Mobile IPv6: HA–HAAA Support", draftietf-dime-mip6-split-06, November 2007. (WP3) IETF Draft specifications – Individual submissions

J. Korhonen, J. Bournelle, K. Chowdhury, and U. Meyer, "Diameter Proxy Mobile IPv6: Support For Mobility Access Gateway and Local Mobility Anchor to Diameter Server Interaction", draftkorhonen-dime-pmip6-03.txt, IETF, February 2008. (WP3)

J. Korhonen and U. Nilsson, "Service Selection for Mobile IPv4", draftkorhonen-mip4-service-02.txt, IETF, November 2007. (WP3) A. Mäkelä and J. Korhonen, "Home Agent assisted Route Optimization between Mobile IPv4 Net-works", draft-makelamip4-nemo-haaro-01, IETF, February 2008. (WP1) P. Stupar, S. Das, J. Korhonen and T. Melia, "Diameter extensions for MOS discovery", draft-stupar-dime-mosoptions-00, IETF, February 2008. (WP4) T. Tsou, V. Fajardo, J. Korhonen and T. Asveren, "Diameter routing extensions", draft-tsou-dime-baserouting-ext-03, IETF, June 2007. (WP3,4) IETF Request For Comments (RFC)

J. Arkko, B. Aboba, J. Korhonen, and F. Bari, "Network Discovery and Selection Problem", RFC 5113 (Informational), IETF, January 2008. (WP3) J. Korhonen, U. Nilsson, and V. Devarapalli, "Service Selection for Mobile IPv6", RFC 5149 (Informational), IETF, February 2008. (WP3) T. Melia, E. Hepworth, S. Sreemanthula, Y. Obha, G. Vivek, J. Korhonen, R. Aguiar, and S. Xia, "Mobility Services Transport: Problem Statement", RFC 5164 (Informational), IETF, March 2008. (WP4) TeliaSonera made also during the project many contributions to GSMA and 3GPP. Project Participants

Antti Erkkilä, Ilkka Keisala, Antti Mäkelä, Juha-Matti Järviranta, Juho Seppänen Project Manager

Jouni Korhonen

Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe), Nokia Oyj Objectives The MERCoNe project was aimed at experimenting with multi-access network protocols and solutions in real network environments. The project worked on solving emerging issues related to multi-access, multi-operator environment, and to enabling seamless mobility and interoperation between the domains. MERCoNe was a joint project with Birdstep, Ericsson, Nethawk, Nokia, TeliaSonera, TKK, University of Helsinki, and VTT. Nokia focused on transport protocol experimentations on Symbian end hosts, aiming to address issues in deploying new transport protocols and their enhancements in a mobile end host. The primary focus was on four specific areas: (i) TCP enhancements to improve the performance in wireless communication; (ii) Analysing the Stream Control Transport Protocol (SCTP) – an extensible feature-rich end-to-end transport protocol – in mobile end hosts, leveraging its multi-homing capabilities; (iii) Analysing the Datagram Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) – a new congestion control protocol for non-reliable flows – in mobile hosts for its implementation feasibility in such systems; and (iv) Analysing implementation feasibility of the Host Identity Protocol (HIP) in native Symbian protocol stack. All of the abovementioned protocols were under standardization in the IETF during the course of the project.

Methods or Processes Used In line with project’s general scope, Nokia’s approach was to perform practi-

cal prototype implementations of protocol solutions in the latest mobile devices and evaluate their implementation feasibility and performance in real managed and unmanaged wireless networks. The implementations were made on devices running on Symbian OS, using native Symbian interfaces on Nokia handsets. The implementations were tested and evaluated in the 3G network provided by TeliaSonera, and in different wireless LAN setups, with the special focus on interoperation of the different network environments. In addition, Nokia participated in IETF standardization and scientific publications related to the work conducted in the project.

Results In addition to scientific publications and IETF RFCs, one PhD thesis and one Master’s thesis were published based on the project results. In summary: •• Scientific papers were published on analysing the performance of TCP Quick-Start as a mechanism for the TCP protocol to quickly adapt to the communication characteristics after a vertical hand-off between 3G and wireless LAN networks. One part of the above-mentioned PhD thesis leveraged from these results. •• Multi-homing enhancements for the SCTP protocol were implemented in a Nokia hand-set, and a SCTP implementation using both 3G and wireless LAN access simultaneously was successfully demonstrated in a public event organised by the project partners. The project also participated the SCTP specification work in the IETF and an international interoperability 117

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tests between different vendors with their respective SCTP implementations. DCCP protocol was implemented on a Symbian device and its basic characteristics were evaluated. A report was produced based on the results. The project group participated the IETF standardization work related to DCCP (later, one of the participants has become DCCP working group chair). A Master’s thesis was published on analysing the implementation feasibility of the HIP protocol in Symbian environments.

Project Participants

The participants from Nokia were Ivan Arias Rodriguez, Juha Korhonen, Vladimir Moltchanov, and Pasi Sarolahti Project Manager

Pasi Sarolahti

measured. In this project we were able to co-operate with the leading industrial and research partners in Finland. In addition, these partners are also the main technology drivers also internationally. We gained the most important requirements for test equipment from the project, so we are able to develop our product portfolio further to bring added value and help our customers also with future networks. The main contribution was done in WP5, “Monitoring of multi-access network”. WP5 concentrated to study, how multi – access and multi – operator network shall be measured to get proper information of network behavior and also of the level of QoS seen by the network user and how the measurement results can used as basis for new network enhancements. The WP supported and was based on needs and requirements of all other workpackages in this project.

Results The protocol decoder components based on research results have already been productized and published as part of NetHawk M5 protocol analyser. Refactoring of the call trace application done as part of the project, we have been able to develop call trace components to various network interfaces of Wimax and UMA networks with quick cycle and thus have gained competitive benefit for the NetHawk M5 product. NetHawk also focused to research monitoring of mobile IP networks and protocols in the MerCoNe project. With the LTE technology, IP based protocols have taken big role in mobile networks. The gained knowledge of IP based network monitoring and QoS measurements has already been utilized in developing of NetHawk LTE measurement products.

Additional Information

Pasi Sarolahti [email protected]

Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe), NetHawk Oyj Objectives MERCoNe was a joint research initiative between NetHawk, Ericsson, Helsinki University of Technology, Nokia, Secgo, TeliaSonera Finland, University of Helsinki and VTT. The main goal for NetHawk was to get better understanding how multi – access networks shall be tested and 118

Figure 1. Transport QoS characteristics window of NetHawk M5 analyzer.

In the MerCoNe project, NetHawk has been able gain knowledge of the new technology and connections to the academic, network vendors and network operators. Project results are further utilized in developing network testing and measurement applications for NetHawk M5 protocol analyzer.

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Project Manager

Tuure Mäkelä Additional Information

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NetHawk Oyj Tel. +358 (0)40 3010 300

Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe), Oy LM Ericsson Ab Objectives The overall goal of the project is to study, develop and evaluate practical solutions for providing seamless handover with mobile multiple access capable equipment in a heterogeneous, multi-operator network environment. The main focus of Ericsson Finland will be on scientific publishing and standardization activities. Less focus will be put on the actual prototyping efforts, except in the field of comparing by prototyping the different mobility mechanisms. In summary, the results of project will be published in international conferences and journals and the solutions will be contributed to the standardization bodies, mainly to IETF

Results ••

Fruitful cooperation and knowledge transfer between Finnish ICT partners

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–– MERCoNe served as a practical common playground for experimenting with new research ideas Common Live (using commercial Networks) testbed generated for project use. Integration of ideas also in prototyping and code level –– Many prototypes developed –– Publicly available code (mainly open source) generated Demos, research publications, standard contributions –– Wide and open publicity of results –– HIP base achived RFC standard status Real interest towards HIP based products –– Both Finnish and Swedish Defense Forces are discussing with Ericsson Finnish innovations fed from Tekes project into EU IST Framework Programme –– MERCoNe results directly used as input for the success of FP6 Ambient Networks project, especially HIP Mobile Router/ Proxy and Triggering –– Results also brought from EU IST into Finnish ICT via MERCoNe.

IETF contribution

The base HIP drafts were accepted as experimental RFC status in 2008. This is a major achievement and leap in HIP development in MERCoNe project. In addition, several other drafts around HIP has been worked on. •• Host Identity Protocol (HIP) Architecture, RFC 4423, http://www.ietf. org/rfc/rfc4423.txt

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Host Identity Protocol, RFC 5201, http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc5201.txt Using the Encapsulating Security Payload (ESP) Transport Format with the Host Identity Protocol (HIP), RFC 5202, http://www.ietf. org/rfc/rfc5202.txt Basic HIP Extensions for Traversal of Network Address Translators and Firewalls, http://www.ietf.org/ internet-drafts/draft-ietf-hip-nattraversal-03.txt

Research papers

A delegation Based Approach to Secure Moving Networks Author: Jukka Ylitalo (Ericsson) Submitted: IEEE INFOCOM 2007 Performance Analysis of HIP-based Mobility and Triggering Author: Patrik Salmela (Ericsson), Pekka Pääkkönen, Johnny Choque, Ramon Aguero Submitted: WoWMoM 2008 An Experimental Evaluation of a HIP Based Network Mobility Scheme Author: Jukka Ylitalo (Ericsson), Jan Melén (Ericsson), Patrik Salmela (Ericsson), Henrik Petander Submitted: WWIC 2008 An Integrated Ambient Networks Prototype Author: Patrik Salmela (Ericsson), Pekka Pääkkönen, Johnny Choque, Ramon Aguero Submitted: SoftCOM 2007 Secure Identification and Authentication of Legacy Hosts in Ambient Networks Author: Kristian Slavov (Ericsson), Patrik Salmela (Ericsson), Tony Jokikyyny (Ericsson) Submitted: M2NM 2007

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A Policy System For Simultaneous Multiaccess With Host Identity Protocol Author: Sebastién Pierrel (Ericsson), Petri Jokela (Ericsson), Jan Melén (Ericsson), Kristian Slavov (Ericsson) Submitted: ACNM 2007 HIP Based Network Access Protocol in Operator Network Deployments Author: Teemu Rinta-aho (Ericsson), Jouni Korhonen, Anssi Mäkelä Submitted: M2NM 2007 Demonstrations

The Mobile Router prototype has been presented in four public conferences: •• ECIW’06: Mobile Router was presented at The 5th European Conference on Information Warfare and Security, 1st June 2006. •• PIMRC’06: Mobile Router was presented, including basic SIMA support, at the 17th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications Conference, 11th September 2006. •• IST Summit ’07: Mobile Router with triggering support was presented at IST Summit conference in Budapest, July 2007. •• M2NM’07: Mobile Router with triggering support was presented at M2NM’07 conference, October 2007. Project Participant

Oy L M Ericsson Ab Project Manager

Tony Jokikyyny

120

Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe), Secgo Software Oy Objectives The overall goal of the project is to study, develop and evaluate practical solutions for providing seamless handover with mobile multiple access capable equipment in a heterogeneous, multi-operator network environment. Secgo Software Oy (later Birdstep Technology Oy) aimed at designing an architecture for different triggering mechanism, triggering information, etc. Triggering mechanisms and the related architectures, such as IEEE 802.21, were to be studied.

Methods or Processes Used The work was carried out by initially studying the problem area in theory. After the theoretical study prototype functionality was implemented to demonstrate the problem area. In some cases, as described in the results, this led to implementation of product features that were fully productized.

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Flexible and extensible NetworkEnabler component for detection of changes in different security and mobility parameters and for activation of security and mobility profiles to react on the changes.

One Master's Thesis was completed as part of the project. The thesis is about analyzing the effect of location awareness on handoff decisions. Project Participant

Secgo Software Oy/ Birdstep Engineering Team, Espoo Project Manager

Tom Weckström / Juha Eskelin Additional Information

Juha Eskelin Birdstep Technology Oy Tel. +358 (0)20 740 2555

Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti), University of Helsinki Project Duration

Results

1 May 2008 to 31 May 2010

During the MERCoNe project, SafeMove's ability to react to different mobility situations was significantly improved. New features include: •• Detection of WLAN HotSpots and adjusting the mobility and security settings to allow the user to securely log on to the HotSpot without loosing the open application sessions. •• Detection of Anti-Virus protection status and triggering a quarantine security policy for hosts, which do not have up-to-date protection.

This report summarizes the research work carried out by Aalto University/ Product Modeling & Realization Group (PM&RG), Helsinki Institute for Information Technology (HIIT), University of Helsinki/department of Computer Science (UH), and VTT as part of the research initiative comprised of collaborative research between Arcada, Birdstep Technology, Ericsson Finland, HIIT, PM&RG, NetHawk ltd, M-OAS ltd, Nokia, Finnish Defence Forces/PVTT, TeliaSonera Finland, UH, and VTT.

Description of the Objectives The research work in the project was carried out in four main areas. First. services and economic models relevant for the technical topics in WISEciti were addressed from the business and service deployment and the economic pointof-views. Second, further development of the network infrastructure and components of the Host Identity Protocol (HIP) was carried out, including an implementation of the required support for a globally accessible HIP network infrastructure for setting up a HIPbased public Internet piloting environment in a number of locations with free wireless access. Third, various challenges encountered by a mobile host while establishing and maintaining a network connection in a mobile, heterogeneous multi-access environment were addressed. Forth, a collection of research topics aiming at optimizing resource control, traffic congestion and rate control, and handover security in an mobile environment were carried out.

Methods or Processes Used Innovation prototyping methodology developed by PM&RG was used in WISEciti project to capture the technological enablers, profit models, systems of systems and experimentations. Innovation prototyping methodology consists of SSUR modelling, balanced brokering and experimentation. SSUR modelling provided the theoretical and practical basis for the workshops and off-line questionnaires, that were produced by the balanced brokering techniques. Experimentation cycle facilitated the validation of the captured models. HIIT focused on empirical research involving large amount of prototyping and porting work of Host Identity Proto-

col (HIP) on various hardware platforms, analytical modelling and simulations of channel access protocols, practical deployment and measurements in public WLAN networks such as panOULU, and active participation to IETF meetings and conferences. The research focus of UH was on empirical research in developing, implementing and evaluating various enhancements for efficient end-toend transport of data in mobile environments, experimental evaluation of middle-box device characteristics, and in studying and evaluating security solutions. In addition, participation in the IETF standardization work was active. A distributed control and management framework (DCMF) framework was developed to provide control and management actions for mobile devices as well as for the network side decision-making. For validating and testing the developed framework, a prototype was implemented and integrated to the real heterogeneous environment at VTT’s Converging Networks Laboratory (CNL). In the testbed, DCMF was used for distributed mobility management and access point load balancing. As a part of this work, VTT designed and implemented also a NES (Network Expert System) component to assist decision-making in heterogeneous wireless networks. The expert system operates according to rules and policies where policies are defined by operator e.g. to control how the traffic load is distributed among available networks. The control information exchange between NESs and network entities is done with Triggering Engine. This Self-organizing Map (SOM) based NES is capable of providing solutions to resource and mobility management problems encoun-

tered in coexisting multi-operator networks. Main tests and validations for it were made in a real heterogeneous environment to achieve concrete results how these intelligent algorithms work in a real environment and what are the benefits for end-user services. The implementation work of NES included algorithm prototyping in Matlab environment, which continued with the real implementation and integration to the DCMF at VTT’s Converging Networks Laboratory.

Results A collection of technological enablers instead of single technologies was produced. As a consequence, SSUR modeling was further enhanced to be a tool for creating living roadmaps, that provide a guide for react and anticipate future technological enablers and their technological consequences. PM&RG created a model of ubicomp software architecture comprising layers from physical networking to nomadic applications and distributed user interfaces. The key enablers and systems were realized as prototypes that were used to instrument experimentations. All in all, the Innovation prototyping methodology was proven to be an excellent source of justified and reliable information that can be carried to the product development of companies. Results of PM&RG included also B.Sc. theses on volatile networks Walldén, Valtteri. "Häilyvän verkon sovellusten ja palveluiden suunnittelu", B.Sc. Theses, Aalto University, Espoo, 2010. and gesture recognition Leppäkorpi, Tuomas. "Käsien eleentunnistus - Haasteet ja menetelmät", B.Sc. Theses , Aalto University, Espoo, 2010., as well as conference papers on the role of ubiquitous computing in 121

military context Asplund, Henrik J. and Ranta, Mervi. "Ubiquitous Computing in Military Context", In Proceedings of 2nd International conference of ISMS (Stockholm 2010), International Society of Military Sciences., and the fundamental role of experimentations in pre-product development Ranta, Mervi and Asplund, Henrik J. "Experimentations in pre-product development", In Proceedings of 2nd International conference of ISMS (Stockholm 2010), International Society of Military Sciences.. Some of the key enablers and systems of systems for instrumenting the experimentations were developed during the project, e.g. Tatu Kilappa, " Determining audio buffer size from LAN-WLAN vertical handover delay", Master's Thesis, TKK, 2010. and Nadja Kasinskaja, " User interface for a mobile music player - design and automated event logging ", Master's Thesis, TKK., as well as specifications, e.g. Kati Saarikangas, " EMGdatan analysointi", B.Sc. Thesis , TKK. and Yrjö Peussa, "Datahansikas vuorovaikutusvälineenä haastavissa olosuhteissa", Master's Thesis, TKK. (In Finnish, to appear). Major results by HIIT include HIP protocol implementations on Symbian and embedded Linux, performance measurements on Nokia Internet Tablets, S60 series phones and WLAN access points, distributed WLAN authentication architecture, its prototype and deployment experience, as well as new channel access mechanisms with modified backoff protocol. The research outcome includes contributions to IETF standards, two PhD theses, a large number of conference and journal articles. The UH research in the end-toend transport enhancements result122

ed in a set of cross-layer assisted TCP sender algorithms that were implemented and experimentally evaluated in various handover scenarios L. Daniel and M. Kojo. “Employing Cross-layer Assisted TCP Algorithms to Improve TCP Performance with Vertical Handoffs”, International Journal on Communication Networks and Distributed System, Vol. 1, No.4/5/6, 2008, pp. 433–465., L. Daniel, I. Järvinen, M. Kojo. ”Combating Packet Reordering in Vertical Handoff using Cross-layer Notifications to TCP”, In Proc. 4th IEEE International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, Avignon, France, October 2008., L. Daniel, M. Kojo: “The Performance of Multiple TCP Flows with Vertical Handoff”, in Proceedings of 7th ACM International Symposium on Mobility Management and Wireless Access (MOBIWAC 2009), October 26–27, Tenerife, Spain., Laila Daniel. “TCP Performance with Vertical Handoff”, PhLic Thesis, University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, Series of Publications C, Report C-2008-221, 2008., a survey on the state-of-the art of rate control approaches L. Hyttinen, L. Daniel, I. Järvinen and M. Kojo, “Rate Control Stateof-the-art Survey”, University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, Technical Report C-2010-31, May 2010., and contributions on enhanced TCP algorithms that were followed through IETF standardization P. Sarolahti, M. Kojo, K. Yamamoto, and M. Hata. "Forward RTO-Recovery (F-RTO): An Algorithm for Detecting Spurious Retransmission Timeouts with TCP", Internet RFCs, ISSN 2070-1721, RFC 5682, 2009, M. Kojo, K. Yamamoto, M. Hata, and P. Sarolahti. "Evaluation of RFC 4138", Internet-Draft "draft-kojo-tcpm-frto-eval-02.

txt" (work in progress)., I. Järvinen, and M. Kojo. "Using TCP Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) Information to Determine Duplicate Acknowledgements for Loss Recovery Initiation", InternetDraft "draft-ietf-tcpm-sack-recoveryentry-01.txt" (work in progress). An experimental testbed consisting mainly of Home Gateways was developed and a wide set of experiments with various middle-box characteristics revealed an indication on how current and future protocols interact with the currently deployed middle-box device base S. Hätönen, A. Nyrhinen, L. Eggert, S. Strowes, P. Sarolahti and M. Kojo: ”An Experimental Study of Home Gateway Characteristics”. In Proc. ACM Internet Measurement Conference IMC 2010, November 1–3, 2010, Melbourne, Australia.. In addition, an extensive PhD thesis study on IP mobility in operator networks was completed Jouni Korhonen, "IP Mobility in Wireless Operator Networks", Doctoral dissertation, ISBN 978-952-10-50145, Series A-2008-4, University of Helsinki, 2008., solutions for trust in Host Identities based on public key cryptography were surveyed and evaluated H. Forsgren, K. Grahn, T. Karvi, and G. Pulkkis: "Security and Trust of Public Key Cryptography Options for HIP", In Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Symposium on Trust, Security and Privacy for Emerging Applications (TSP 2010) June 29–July 1, 2010 in Bradford, UK., and a study on the state-of-the art with handover security was carried out Yi Ding, "Securing Handover in Wireless IP Networks", Master's Thesis, University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, Series of Publications C, Report C-2009-36, 2009., Y. Ding, M. Kojo. "Handover Security in Wireless and Mobile Networks", A poster presented in

the 11th Joint IFIP TC6 and TC11 Conference on Communications and Multimedia Security - CMS'2010, 2010, Linz, Austria. Finland. The DCMF framework provides control and management actions and information exchange for mobile devices as well as for the network side decision-making while NES can be trained to assist decision-making in heterogeneous wireless networks. Both of these developed mechanisms were implemented and integrated to a heterogeneous testbed. Performance of the overall implementation was tested in several trials at VTT’s CNL (Converging Network Laboratory). These tests proved the mechanisms feasibility in a real environment and the achieved performance results were very promising. This work produced also several scientific publications J. Pinola and K. Pentikousis, "Mobile WiMAX", in The Internet Protocol Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, June 2008, pp. 19–35.,J.Mäkelä, , K.Pentikousis, V.Kyllönen, "Mobility Trigger Management: Implementation and evaluation", International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Vol.2, No.3, 2009.,Jukka Mäkelä, Markus Luoto, Tiia Sutinen and Kostas Pentikousis. ”Architecture for Distributed Information Service in overlapping Multiaccess Networks” Multimedia tools and applications (MTAP), 2010.,J. Mäkelä, M. Luoto, T. Sutinen, and K. Pentikousis: "Evaluation of an Information Service for enhanced Multiacces Media Delivery", In Proceedings of 3rd European Symposium on Mobile Media Delivery (EUMOB) 2009.,S. Horsmanheimo, J. Eskelinen, and H. Kokkoniemi-Tarkkanen: "NES – Network Expert System for Heterogeneous Networks", In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference

on Telecommunications 2010 (ICT2010), April 2010, Doha, Qatar.,J. Mäkelä, M.Luoto, "Distributed Control and Management Framework for Mobile and multi-access communication", A poster, in proceedings of MobiMedia 2008, 7–9 July, 2008, Oulu, Finland. where the design work and trial tests with the results are described in more detail.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted for publication: 1. L. Daniel and M. Kojo. “Employing Cross-layer Assisted TCP Algorithms to Improve TCP Performance with Vertical Handoffs”, International Journal on Communication Networks and Distributed System, Vol. 1, No.4/5/6, 2008, pp. 433–465. 2. J. Pinola and K. Pentikousis, "Mobile WiMAX", in The Internet Protocol Journal, vol. 11, no. 2, June 2008, pp. 19–35. 3. J.Mäkelä, , K.Pentikousis, V.Kyllönen, "Mobility Trigger Management: Implementation and evaluation", International Journal of Communications, Network and System Sciences, Vol.2, No.3, 2009. 4. Jukka Mäkelä, Markus Luoto, Tiia Sutinen and Kostas Pentikousis. ”Architecture for Distributed Information Service in overlapping Multiaccess Networks” Multimedia tools and applications (MTAP), 2010. 5. A. Lukyanenko, E. Morozov, A. Gurtov. An adaptive backoff protocol with Markovian contention window control, Elsevier Journal of Statistical Planning and Inference. (to appear). 6. L. Daniel, I. Järvinen, M. Kojo. ”Combating Packet Reordering in Vertical Handoff using Cross-layer Notifications to TCP”, In Proc. 4th IEEE

International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications, Avignon, France, October 2008. 7. A. Khurri, D. Kuptsov, A. Gurtov. ”Performance of Host Identity Protocol on Symbian OS”. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC) 2009, pp.1–6, 14–18 June 2009, Dresden, Germany. 8. D. Kuptsov, A. Khurri, A. Gurtov. ”Distributed User Authentication in Wireless LANs”. In Proceedings of the 10th IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM'09), pp.1–9, 15–19 June 2009, Kos Island, Greece. 9. D. Kuptsov and A. Gurtov. "SAVAH: Source Address Validation with Host Identity Protocol". In Proceedings of the First International ICST Conference on Security and Privacy in Mobile Information and Communication Systems (MobiSec 2009), pp.190– 201, 3–5 June 2009, Turin, Italy. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-04434-2. 10. A. Lukyanenko, A. Gurtov, E. Morozov. "An adaptive backoff protocol with Markovian contention window control". In Proceedings of the 6th St. Petersburg Workshop on Simulation (SPWS'06), pp.1–6, 28 June–4 July 2009. 11. D. Kuptsov, O. Garcia-Morchon, K. Wehrle, A. Gurtov. Brief Announcement: Distributed Trust Management and Revocation: Voting Strategies and Consensus. In Proceedings of the TwentyNinth Annual ACM SIGACT-SIGOPS Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC'10), pp.1-2, 25–28 July 2010, Zurich, Switzerland. 123

12. J. Mäkelä, M. Luoto, T. Sutinen, and K. Pentikousis: "Evaluation of an Information Service for enhanced Multiacces Media Delivery", In Proceedings of 3rd European Symposium on Mobile Media Delivery (EUMOB) 2009. 13. L. Daniel, M. Kojo: “The Performance of Multiple TCP Flows with Vertical Handoff”, in Proceedings of 7th ACM International Symposium on Mobility Management and Wireless Access (MOBIWAC 2009), October 26–27, Tenerife, Spain. 14. S. Horsmanheimo, J. Eskelinen, and H. Kokkoniemi-Tarkkanen: "NES – Network Expert System for Heterogeneous Networks", In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Telecommunications 2010 (ICT-2010), April 2010, Doha, Qatar. 15. H. Forsgren, K. Grahn, T. Karvi, and G. Pulkkis: "Security and Trust of Public Key Cryptography Options for HIP", In Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Symposium on Trust, Security and Privacy for Emerging Applications (TSP 2010) June 29–July 1, 2010 in Bradford, UK. 16. S. Hätönen, A. Nyrhinen, L. Eggert, S. Strowes, P. Sarolahti and M. Kojo: ”An Experimental Study of Home Gateway Characteristics”. In Proc. ACM Internet Measurement Conference IMC 2010, November 1–3, 2010, Melbourne, Australia. 17. J. Mäkelä, M.Luoto, "Distributed Control and Management Framework for Mobile and multiaccess communication", A poster, in proceedings of MobiMedia 2008, 7–9 July, 2008, Oulu, Finland.

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18. Y. Ding, M. Kojo. "Handover Security in Wireless and Mobile Networks", A poster presented in the 11th Joint IFIP TC6 and TC11 Conference on Communications and Multimedia Security - CMS'2010, 2010, Linz, Austria. Finland. 19. Laila Daniel. “TCP Performance with Vertical Handoff”, PhLic Thesis, University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, Series of Publications C, Report C-2008-221, 2008. 20. Jouni Korhonen, "IP Mobility in Wireless Operator Networks", Doctoral dissertation, ISBN 978-952-10-5014-5, Series A-2008-4, University of Helsinki, 2008. 21. Andrey Khurri, "Evaluating IP Security and Mobility on Lightweight Hardware", Licentiate Thesis, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, TKK / Tietotekniikan laitos, 2009. 22. Yi Ding, "Securing Handover in Wireless IP Networks", Master's Thesis, University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, Series of Publications C, Report C-2009-36, 2009. 23. Tatu Kilappa, " Determining audio buffer size from LAN-WLAN vertical handover delay", Master's Thesis, TKK, 2010. 24. Nadja Kasinskaja, " User interface for a mobile music player - design and automated event logging ", Master's Thesis, TKK. 25. Kati Saarikangas, " EMG-datan analysointi", B.Sc. Thesis , TKK. (In Finnish) 26. Yrjö Peussa, "Datahansikas vuorovaikutusvälineenä haastavissa olosuhteissa", Master's Thesis, TKK. (In Finnish, to appear)

27. L. Hyttinen, L. Daniel, I. Järvinen and M. Kojo, “Rate Control State-of-theart Survey”, University of Helsinki, Department of Computer Science, Technical Report C-2010-31, May 2010. 28. P. Sarolahti, M. Kojo, K. Yamamoto, and M. Hata. "Forward RTO-Recovery (F-RTO): An Algorithm for Detecting Spurious Retransmission Timeouts with TCP", Internet RFCs, ISSN 20701721, RFC 5682, 2009 29. M. Kojo, K. Yamamoto, M. Hata, and P. Sarolahti. "Evaluation of RFC 4138", Internet-Draft "draft-kojo-tcpm-frtoeval-02.txt" (work in progress). 30. D. Kuptsov, A. Gurtov, and J. Bi. "SAVAH: Source address validation architecture with Host Identity Protocol", InternetDraft "draft-kuptsov-sava-hip-01.txt" (work in progress). 31. I. Järvinen, and M. Kojo. "Using TCP Selective Acknowledgement (SACK) Information to Determine Duplicate Acknowledgements for Loss Recovery Initiation", Internet-Draft "draft-ietftcpm-sack-recovery-entry-01.txt" (work in progress) 32. Asplund, Henrik J. and Ranta, Mervi. "Ubiquitous Computing in Military Context", In Proceedings of 2nd International conference of ISMS (Stockholm 2010), International Society of Military Sciences. 33. Ranta, Mervi and Asplund, Henrik J. "Experimentations in pre-product development", In Proceedings of 2nd International conference of ISMS (Stockholm 2010), International Society of Military Sciences. 34. Walldén, Valtteri. "Häilyvän verkon sovellusten ja palveluiden suunnittelu", B.Sc. Theses, Aalto University, Espoo, 2010.

35. Leppäkorpi, Tuomas. "Käsien eleentunnistus - Haasteet ja menetelmät", B.Sc. Theses, Aalto University, Espoo, 2010. 36. Andrey Lukyanenko."MultiuserRresource-sharing Problem for the Internet", Doctoral dissertation, ISBN 978-952-10-6558-3, Series A-2010-5, University of Helsinki, 2010. 37. Andrey Khurri. "Evaluating IP Security and Mobility on Lightweight Hardware", Doctoral dissertation, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, TKK / Tietotekniikan laitos, To appear. Project Volume

EUR 1 646 668 Project Participants

The project was carried out by Aalto University/PM&RG, Helsinki Institute for Information Technology , University of Helsinki, and VTT in collaboration with the parallel projects by Arcada, Ericsson Finland, NetHawk ltd, M-OAS ltd, and TeliaSonera Finland,    The project was funded by Tekes, Birdstep Technology, Ericsson Finland, Finnish Defence Forces/PVTT, NetHawk ltd,M-OAS ltd, Nokia, and TeliaSonera Finland, Project Manager

Markku Kojo University of Helsinki Tel. +358 (0)9 191 51305 [email protected]

Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti), Oy LM Ericsson Ab Objectives Future networks present various challenges in terms of heterogeneous access networks, multi-access and multi-homing capabilities, and secure connectivity. WISEciti project studied a selected set of challenges in these nearfuture networks. Prototype implementations, experimental evaluation and piloting of the developed solutions, and contributions to the international standardization played the key role in the project. The objectives of the project where Ericsson focused on can be summarized as follows: 1. Identify the business network behind mobility-enhanced network architectures and protocols as well as considering the effects of the envisioned future changes to these architectures upon the dynamics between the technological mechanisms and the evolution of the market. 2. Analyze the deployment of WISEciti services in a seamless heterogeneous network system and piloting them to real end-users for testing and using the results in suggesting improvements to the services. 3. Develop the architecture and components of Host Identity Protocol (HIP) networking further and implement a globally accessible HIP network infrastructure and promote the use of it. 4. Study existing and evolving mobility-enhanced network architectures and their impact on local and global

mobility, including experimentation in real, managed access networks. 5. Study mobility management issues with multi-homing, including practical use cases, effective inter-system or intra-system handover, and movement detection algorithms, and application architectures and APIs for multi-access devices. 6. Develop a set of algorithms for automatic policy selection at the network side, including initial verification of the algorithms through simulations and experimental evaluation in a real test-bed environment. 7. Contribute a selected set of solutions to the international standardization forums (IETF, 3GPP, IEEE, and GSMA).

Methods or Processes Used ••

•• ••

••

••

Close cooperation and knowledge transfer between Finnish ICT partners –– WISEciti served as a practical common playground for experimenting with new research ideas Live testbed generated for project use Integration of ideas also in prototyping and code level –– Many prototypes developed –– Publicly available code (mainly open source) Demos, research publications, standard contributions –– Wide and open publicity of results –– HIP proxy and many other extensions introduced into standards Real interest created towards Host Identity Protocol based products.

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Results

Description of the Objectives

The outcome of the project consisted of two conference papers submitted to international conferences, two technical reports and one doctoral dissertation describing the developed solutions and their performance. The work also led to 13 standardization contributions to IETF in the area of mobility and security protocols, 6 of which became actual standards (RFC). The project also developed large amount of prototype code, which was published in Open Source and demonstrated in several public events.

Communication services and wireless networks are developing rapidly at the moment. Network technologies become faster, mobile devices develop quickly and services are moving to the Internet. TeliaSonera’s scope in this project was to identify problems in the existing network protocols and, to influence to the new solutions through standardization work, and make practical efforts to test new solutions and also to develop new services to this area. We also concentrated to the next generation network topologies. Project scope was not only academic but we concentrated also on practical hands on work.

(Main) Project Participants

Tony Jokikyyny, Jan Melén, Jukka Ylitalo, Pekka Nikander, Patrik Salmela, Petri Jokela Project Manager

Tony Jokikyyny Additional Information

Tony Jokikyyny Oy L M Ericsson AB Tel. +358 (0)9 299 3315 [email protected]

Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti), TeliaSonera Finland Oy Project Duration

1 April 2008 to 31 June 2010 During its lifetime, WISEciti project has been involved in the ‘Converging Networks’ GIGA Tekes technology programme. From 1 January 2004 to 31 January 2005, WISEciti was the continuation to earlier Mercone project, which also was under GIGA Tekes technology programme. 126

Methods or Processes Used TeliaSonera participated actively to the IETF, 3GPP and GSMA standardization work (listing of publications at the end of document and IETF documents that were still Internet Drafts in 1st April 2008 are updated to their current statuses). Standardization is extremely important for TeliaSonera, since it ensures the interoperability in the multi-vendor environment and in the service domain. Standardization work gives also space for own innovations in the long run when the interfaces are interoperable, which in turn gives us a benefit compared to our competitors. GSMA standardization work concentrated on multi-access devices, mainly to the embedded 3G-notebooks. Our scope was also to build early protocol implementations from draft proposals that were still under standardization work. It is very important that we can evaluate if the proposed solutions are good or not. Also service

concept creation and testing help us to see how to utilize new faster networks. Business calculations were also an important part of this activity.

Results TeliaSonera’s active participation to the standardization work resulted to the many IETF drafts and RFCs as well approved GSMA 3GNBK proposals (GSMA project that concentrates on the embedded 3G module implementation in the notebooks). We implemented compression algorithms developed in [5] and built a Peer-to-Peer test environment. We also implemented a Diameter AAA test environment that was used also by other members of this project. We also made scenarios for the future operator peer-to-peer roaming and interconnection networks. GSMA work consisted of GSMA 3GNBK project. This work describes how the embedded 3G module should implement in the PC environment. During the WISEciti project 3GNBK project finished Phase 4 Handbook. IETF standardization focused on 3GPP Evolved Packet Core (EPC) needs for the 3GPP Release-8 and we have now been deploying the outcome of this work in a large extent in EPC for both 3GPP and non3GPP accesses. During the WISEciti project we moved our scope more to new services and service concepts. We created a totally new concept based on the USB stick, so called portable service solution. It consisted of USB stick, portable VPN with SIM card and communication services related to these. We tested this solution with 100 pilot users in Finland and Sweden.

Overall, the most important areas where WISEciti project has strengthened our expertise are: •• Future wireless network architectures and topologies •• Virtualization of the network environment •• Network signaling, protocols like Diameter •• Standardization work in IETF and GSMA •• Important operator roaming and interconnection solutions •• Future terminals and their requirements, especially 3G notebooks •• New services/service concepts.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 April 2008 to 31 June 2010. IETF documents are updated to their current status. 1. Jouni Korhonen, “IP Mobility in Wireless Operator Networks“, Doctoral Dissertation, Report A-2008-4, University of Helsinki, 2008. (WP1WP5). 2. Jouni Korhonen, et al, "Diameter UserName and Realm Based Request Routing Clarifications", IETF RFC 5729. 3. Total 143 Contributions in 3GPP Release-8 CT groups. 1 GSMA contribution. (all Jouni Korhonen) (WP5). 4. Jouni Korhonen, Rapporteur for 3GPP TS 29.303, "Domain Name System Procedures", v8.0.0, 2008. (WP4). Existing IETF work maintenance (as part of WP5 work):

5. Antti Mäkelä, Jouni Korhonen, "Home Agent assisted Route Optimization

between Mobile IPv4 Networks", IETF Draft draft-ietf-mip4-nemo-haaro-03 (WG draft). 6. Jouni Korhonen, et al, "Diameter Mobile IPv6: Support for Network Access Server to Diameter Server Interaction", RFC 5447. 7. Jouni Korhonen, et al, "Diameter Mobile IPv6: Support for Home Agent to Diameter Server Interaction", RFC 5778. 8. Jouni Korhonen, et al, "Quality of Service Attributes for Diameter", IETF RFC 5777. 9. Jouni Korhonen, et al, "Quality of Service Parameters for Usage with the AAA Framework", IETF RFC 5624. 10. Jouni Korhonen, et al, "Diameter Proxy Mobile IPv6: Support For Mobile Access Gateway and Local Mobility Anchor to Diameter Server Interaction", IETF RFC 5779. 11. Jouni Korhonen, Ulf Nilsson, "Service Selection for Mobile IPv4", IETF RFC 5446. 12. Frank Xia, Bechet Sarikaya, Jouni Korhonen, Sri Gundavelli, "RADIUS Proxy Mobile IPv6", IETF Draft draft-ietfnetext-radius, Work in progress, 2010. 13. Antti Mäkelä, Jouni Korhonen: IETF presentations at IETF #72 and #73 meetings. 14. Ilkka Keisala: "RCS PC client service proposal", GSMA 3G Notebook Seattle meeting, June 2009 (WP3). 15. Ilkka Keisala: "Roaming notification", GSMA 3G Notebook London meeting, February 2010 (WP3). 16. Ilkka Keisala: "PLMN name in Shared network", GSMA 3G Notebook Miami meeting, June 2010 (WP3).

Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti), NetHawk Oyj Objectives WISEciti was a joint research initiative between Arcada, Ericsson Finland, NetHawk, Nokia, Seesta, TeliaSonera Finland, TKK, University of Helsinki, and VTT. The project studied various aspects related to the mobility enabling technologies for acquiring insight to the future IP-based mobility solutions and their impact. The main goal for NetHawk was to gain information about testing and measurement of mobile VPN networks and protocols. In this project we were able to co-operate with the leading industrial and research partners in Finland. In addition, these partners are also the main technology drivers also internationally. From the co-operation we got information of the most important requirements for test equipment for testing mobile VPN networks and protocols, enabling us to develop our product portfolio further to bring added value and help our customers also with future networks..

Results The main result from NetHawk point of view was gaining information about monitoring of future IP-based mobility solutions. We studied protocols related to multi-homed IP networks and implemented prototypes of protocol decoders and session tracking applications. An example of multi-homed session monitoring is presented in Figure 1. In SIP, sessions can be correlated by following Call-ID parameter and “hando-

127

meet all objectives of the project. Public key cryptography was used to evaluate and improve security of HIP networks. Animation was used to implement demonstrations of HIP networks.

Figure 1. Example of SIP mobility monitoring arrangement. Proxy Server INVITE

User A

Home NW

Results

200 OK

Foreign NW

ver” can be noticed if one of the parties sends INVITE with new IP address information during session. Using the developed session monitoring prototypes, NetHawk M5 protocol analyser can follow up handovers during sessions. Another output was experimental API for accessing measurement results from NetHawk protocol analyzer; it was delivered to project partners for utilizing it in network measurements. Yet another output was a prototype application for network flow monitoring based to flow information collected to a data base. The application is able to present network flows and statistics in user friendly GUI that greatly helps in network monitoring. The results are further utilized in developing network testing and measurement applications for NetHawk M5 protocol analyzer. Project Manager

Jorma Ikäheimo Additional Information

NetHawk Oyj Tel. +358 (0)40 3010 300 128

user B

user B

WISEciti-Secinfra – Secure Network Infrastructure of Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens Objectives The objectives of WISEciti-Secinfra were •• to implement a globally accessible HIP network infrastructure •• to develop HIP based mobile VPN solutions and create additional use of the implemented HIP network infrastructure •• to collect and analyze information about HIP use •• to implement demonstrations of HIP networks •• to evaluate and improve security of HIP networks •• to develop business models for the design and use of mobile IP based network technology.

Methods The project used network design and installation methods in the implementation of a globally accessible HIP. Information search methods were used to

Implementation of a Globally Accessible and Operational HIP Network Infrastructure with HIP Nodes for Multiple Operating System Platforms

HIP DNS extension has been installed and tested in the open Internet subdomain hip.arcada.fi. All available HIP environments (FreeBSD HIP, InfraHIP and OpenHIP) with Rendezvous Servers are installed and mobility has been tested with successful ping tests for all HIP environments and successful video streaming tests with OpenHIP. The Wireshark protocol analysis tool has been updated for HIP. Successful registration and Base Exchange with a Rendezvous Server (HIP for FreeBSD and InfraHIP) has been carried out. A Web based DNS registration service of remote HIP users has been designed for the Internet subdomain hip.arcada.fi. A HIP application for test purposes is being designed. A WLAN is installed in hip.arcada.fi. Mobile HIP VPN Application

Experimentation with OpenHIP in a SSL VPN tunnel based on OpenVPN has been carried out. A VPN connection has been successfully created. However, Update messages to the server contain a wrong IP address because of routing features of OpenVPN, when mobility has been tested with OpenHIPv0.6 by switching to a WLAN when a network cable is disconnected. Mobility tests by random state changes on two network

interfaces between “up” and “down” for an OpenVPN/OpenHIPv0.7 client have been successful. Experimentation with OpenHIP in a SSH VPN tunnel based on ExpanDrive has been carried out. A VPN connection has been successfully created and mobility has been successfully tested by switching to a WLAN when a network cable is disconnected. However, mobility fails when the network connection is switched from a WLAN to a wired LAN by connection of a network cable. Experimentation with a generic proxy based on Overlay Convergence Architecture for Legacy Applications (OCALA) and a HIP plug-in has been carried out. Necessary software has been installed. Software version problems and compatibility problems re-

main to be solved. Research work is still in progress. Experimentation with a specific HIP proxy continues. Modification of OpenHIP software to support a mobile Road Warrior VPN connection to a private network has started. Security Issues

Security of routing as well as security of mobility management has been evaluated for mobile networks. Solutions for trust in Host Identities in HIP networks have been proposed and evaluated. HIP Animation

An animated HIP environment has been designed and implemented as a Flash application in Arcada University of Applied Sciences (see http://people.

arcada.fi/~bergstr/HIP/). The logistics of data communication on different layers of a HIP network and the details of HIP data packets can be studied in this animated environment. The user interface to the animated environment is shown in Figure 1. The interface consists of four main scenes that can be opened from the scene menu (1). The available main scenes are: 1. Plain TCP/IP communication 2. Plain HIP/TCP/IP communication 3. ESP protected HIP/TCP/IP communication 4. Mobile HIP/TCP/IP communication. In all main scenes a user can observe the data communication between two network nodes on different network layers.

Figure 1. The elements of the user interface are: (1) Scene menu, (2) Detail Menu, (3) Control panel, (4) Layer menu, (5) Flow bar, (6) Audio text area, and abbreviations and definitions area.

129

Business Models for the Design and Use of Mobile IP based Network Technology

The empirical research in Finland identified four existing business models, i.e. (1) Conventional GSM / 3G cellular mobile network operator business model, (2) @450 mobile network operator business model, (3) WLAN operator business model, and (4) Community shared WLANs. These four business models where analyzed from a consumer value perspective. The analysis showed that the business models of today are very much technology fragmented from a consumer perspective. In addition to this the conducted research indicated that the influencing factors of future business models can, according to preliminary results, be divided into three categories: Business role factors, regulatory factors and political factors.

130

In Proceedings of the Third IEEE International Symposium on Trust, Security and Privacy for Emerging Applications (TSP 2010) June 29–July 1, 2010 in Bradford, UK.

Project Manager

Dr. Tech. Göran Pulkkis Arcada University of Applied Science Mobile phone +358 (0)50 5564111 [email protected]

Book Chapter

Additional Information

K. Grahn, J. Karlsson, and G. Pulkkis, "Secure Routing and Mobility in Future IP Networks", In Handbook of Research on Mobility and Computing: Evolving Technologies and Ubiquitous Impacts, M. Cruz-Cunha and F. Moreira (Eds.), IGI Global, Hershey PA, USA. (to appear)

Homepage of the WISEciti project http://www.cs.helsinki.fi/group/wiseciti/

Theses

The objective of the Mobile Open Access project was to create a platform that integrates seamlessly wired and wireless access systems, and provides the end-users an uninterrupted service experience when performing vertical handovers between the access network technologies used in the system. The aim was to cooperate with the WISEciti project and utilize the results of it to the extent that was considered as reasonable. The platform and software used was intended to use open source components as the basis and develop own elements to the areas that are needed for the system to operate properly. The service provisioning was intended to use the open access principle as much as possible, even in the area of cellular systems which have been totally vertical in the service provisioning, before the vendor specific services have become available in the smartphones.

Publications

Johan Fröjdman (2008). "Installation and evaluation of a HIP infrastructure", BSc Thesis, Arcada University of Applied Sciences. Mathias Mårtens (2010), "Implementations of Mobile Virtual Private Networks", BSc Thesis, Arcada University of Applied Sciences.

Conference Papers

Project Volume

L. Bergström, J. Fröjdman, K. Grahn, J. Karlsson, and G. Pulkkis: "Host Identity Protocol (HIP) as a Virtual Learning Object", In Proceedings of 2008 Informing Science + IT Education Conference, June 22–25, 2008, Varna, Bulgaria. G. Pulkkis, K. Grahn, M. Mårtens, and J. Mattsson: "Mobile Virtual Private Networking", In T. Zseby, R. Savola, and M. Pistore (Eds.) Future Internet – FIS 2009 Second Future Internet Symposium, FIS 2009, Berlin Germany, September 1–3, 2009, Revised Selected Papers, pp. 57–69, 2010, Springer, Germany, ISBN 978-3-642-14955-0. H. Forsgren, K. Grahn, T. Karvi, and G. Pulkkis: "Security and Trust of Public Key Cryptography Options for HIP",

EUR 202 000 Project Participants

WISEciti-Secinfra was carried out by Arcada University of Applied Sciences as a part of the WISEciti (Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens) project, which is a joint research initiative between Arcada University of Applied Sciences, University of Helsinki/Department of Computer Science, Helsinki University of Technology/Product Modelling & Realization Group (PM&RG), Helsinki Institute of Information Technology, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, the Finnish Defence Forces Technical Research Centre (PVTT) and the IT companies Ericsson Finland, Nokia, TeliaSonera Finland, Nethawk Ltd, M-OAS Ltd, Birdstep Technology.

Mobile Open Access Objectives

Results The main outcome of the project is a functioning demonstration platform as a proof-of-concept of the possibilities of the system. The proof-of-con-

cept system is based on a Elastix 2.x appliance which is based on an open source PBX system asterisk, and the other elements around it to establish a complete unified messaging system. The system seamlessly and with high system level security combines cellular access networks, both circuit switched and packet switched services within, and local area wireless networks, and provides mechanisms for seamless handovers between these for circuit switched voice calls to be handed over as VoIP calls in any packet access network and in reverse, as well as for any service utilizing packet switched access technologies to be hahded over to any other access technology, and the service provisioning is totally independent of the access technology used (as well as of the operator in question). The terminals in the demo system are tablets, smartphones and various legacy devices, including even ancient POTS devices and faxes. The demo is running in a stable manner and has in practice all the main features that any commercial unified messaging system has, including charging, monitoring, customer care features etc etc, and is running on a cheap commercial notebook with reasonable capacity characteristics.

E!2023 ITEA Easy Wireless (EW), VTT

Project Participant

Methods or Processes Used

Mobile Open Access Systems M-OAS Oy

The methods and processes used in the project, were mainly considering real field trials and laboratory experiments. The beginning of the project involved wide literature studies on the QoS techniques, measurements, and mobility protocols. After careful research on the benefits of different approaches, decisions, on which direction to take the experimental part, were made. It was

Project Manager

Reijo Salminen Additional Information

Reijo Salminen Mobile Open Access Systems M-OAS Oy Tel. +358 (0)9 6899 5288 [email protected]

Project Duration

05/2004 to 10/2007 During its lifetime, EW project has been involved in two Tekes technology programmes. During the first year of the three year project, the project was a part of Tekes’ Networks of the Future (NETS) technology programme. After this, the project has been under Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Description of the Objectives The EW project was a common funded project under EUREKA/ITEA with several partners from Spain, Belgium, Holland, Norway, and Finland. The objective of the whole project was to provide service continuity for mobile users. The aim was to ensure transparent connectivity as users are transitioning between different wireless network technologies. This includes addressing issues like: roaming, Quality of Service (QoS), and inter-working between heterogeneous networks. One of the main focuses of the Finnish consortium (consisting of NetHawk, Plenware, and VTT) was in QoS measurements & monitoring.

found that there was no such a QoS measurement tool available that would be needed in the project, and thus, it was decided to be implemented. The developed tool with commercial analyzers were used in studying and analysing of numerous different cases and setups of different networks (fixed, GSM/GPRS, WCDMA & HSDPA, WLAN (IEEE 802.11b,g), WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d)) with different protocols, settings, etc. The experiments involved networks in VTT’s Converging Networks Laboratory (e.g., VTT’s 3G network), but also commercial operator networks like 3G/ WCDMA were studied. Because of the experimental nature, equipment (computers, GPS devices, data cards, measurement tools) were acquired during the project. Much of the total effort in the project was put to implementation and testing of the new tools and methods. The project had more basic research elements when examining new protocols and methods. Some theoretical work was involved, while mostly simulators were used. Mainly, network simulator ns-2 was used, but also OPNET and MATLAB were used in the project.

Results The project produced a strong competence to the area of QoS and especially to QoS measurement. The real value of this cannot be directly measured. After EW, VTT has very good prerequisites for applying to even more advanced QoS related research projects, and also, direct commercial assignments can be sold more easily. Novel end-to-end real time QoS measurement software called QoSMeT was developed. In addition, as a final 131

step, the QoSMeT tool was enhanced to function in a multipoint QoS measurement system in cooperation with the commercial NetHawk’s M5 analyzer. In addition, VTT carried out and published several performance studies of the new radio access technologies, QoS methods, and service continuity methods. Also, a novel approach to priority queuing was taken by using Weighted Fair Queuing. The project produced also a demonstration platform, where QoS (e.g., DiffServ) and continuation of service (e.g., with MobileIP) methods, can be tested and measured. This demonstration platform is very valuable research tool and also it is a set where the developed methods can be easily demonstrated to potential customers. Numerous internal and ITEA reports and international publications are produced in the project, increasing the scientific credibility of VTT in this field. With the gained knowledge, VTT has been able to take part to new research project preparations considering the same topics. One important preparation is the direct continuation of the EW, Easy Wireless 2, which has been prepared under EUREKA CELTIC. About half of the EW-2 partners were also involved in EW, while the other half is consisted of new partners bringing new ideas. The project has got funding and will start during 2008. When considering commercialization of the results, QoSMeT tool has already gained a lot of interest among several companies. The next phase is that VTT will sell QoSMeT related knowledge in project form, and also seeks op-

132

portunities for licensing the tool. Plans for further development of QoSMeT exist, and the tool will live long after the EW project. Several potential customers exist already. VTT has participated to several conferences, seminars, and exhibitions to market the results. The main event of EW was the international EW workshop held in cooperation with the IST Mobile Summit in Budapest at 5.7.2007

Publications The following publications were produced in the project: International journal papers

K. Pentikousis, M. Palola, M. Jurvansuu, P. Perälä: “Active Goodput Measurements from a Public 3G/UMTS Network”, IEEE Communication Letters, 2005. K. Pentikousis, “Wireless data networks,” The internet protocol journal, 2006. J. Prokkola, T. Bräysy, “A Detailed Study of a CDMA Based Approach to Enhance Ad Hoc Network Performance,” In Elsevier Ad Hoc Network Journal, Vol. 5, Issue 7, 2007. pp. 1149–1172. International conference papers: P. Perälä, M. Jurvansuu, J. Prokkola, ”Combined Terminal and Network Measurement System for Bottleneck Localization,” Submitted to Tridentcom 2008. M. Koivula, M. Taramaa, P. Ruuska, “Differentiated Services and Vertical Handovers Supporting Multimedia in Heterogeneous Networks,” The 18th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC'07), Sept, 2007.

M. Jurvansuu, J. Prokkola, M. Hanski, P. Perälä, ”HSDPA Performance in Live Networks,” In proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC’07). Glasgow, Scotland, 24 – 28 June, 2007. pp. 467–471. J. Prokkola, M. Hanski, M. Jurvansuu, M. Immonen, ”Measuring WCDMA and HSDPA Delay Characteristics with QoSMeT,” In proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC’07). Glasgow, Scotland, 24–28 June, 2007. pp. 492– 498. P. Perälä, M. Varela, “Some Experiences with VoIP Over Converging Networks,” In Proceedings of the Measurement of Speech, Audio and Video Quality in Networks workshop (MESAQIN'07), Prague, Czech Republic, June 2007. M. Palola, M. Jurvansuu, and J. Korva, “Breaking down the mobile service response time,” Proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Conference on Networks (ICON 2004). Singapore, 16– 19 Nov. 2004 . IEEE. US (2004), 31–34. J. Prokkola, T. Vanninen, T. Bräysy, “On the Effect of Radio Channel Propagation Models to the Ad Hoc Network Performance,” Military Communications Conference (MILCOM 2005), Atlantic City, USA, Oct 17–20, 2005. P. Ruuska, J. Prokkola, “Supporting IP Endto-end QoS Architectures at Vertical Handovers,” Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Advanced Information and Applications - Volume 2 (AINA’06), IEEE Computer Society Press. Los Alamitos, Ca. (2006), p. 927.

M. Taramaa, S. Frantti, “Fundamental Features of Ad Hoc Networks' Simulations,” WSEAS International Conference on Data Networks, Communications and Computers, Bucharest Romania, 16-18 October 2006. T. Frantti, “Cascaded Fuzzy Congestion Controller for TCP/IP Traffic,” In proceedings of Joint 2nd International Conference on Soft Computing and Intelligent Systems and 5th International Symposium on Advanced Intelligent Systems (SCIS&ISIS 2004). Yokohama, Japan, 2004. International conference tutorials

K. Pentikousis and M. Immonen, “Quality of service in heterogeneous networks: current status, examples, and open issues,” Tutorial presented in ISCC’06. M. Huusko, K. Pentikousis, “Quality of service in heterogeneous networks,” Tutorial presented in the 8th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium (APNOMS2005), Okinawa, Japan, 2005. National journal papers

M. Immonen et al., “Missä on yhteytesi pullonkaula – Mittaukset selvittävät verkon todellisen suorituskyvyn,” Prosessori, elektroniikkasuunnittelun erikoisnumero, 2006. M. Immonen et al., “Verkkosotkut ojennukseen – Laatua multimediaan,” Prosessori, elektroniikkasuunnittelun erikoisnumero, 2005.

Theses

Project Volume

M. Hanski, “A Tool for Monitoring Endto-end Quality of Service in IP Networks,” Master's thesis. University of Oulu, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Oulu, Finland. 2005. M. Taramaa, “Performance Optimization of an Ad Hoc Network,” Master's Thesis, University of Oulu, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Oulu, Finland. 2005. M. Koivula, “VoIP in an AODV-based ad hoc network,” Master's Thesis, University of Oulu, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering. 2006. P. Perälä, “Multipoint Measurement for Bottleneck Localization on E2E Path,” Master’s Thesis, University of Oulu, Department of electrical on Information Engineering, Finland, 2007.

EUR ~ 1 700 000 Project Participants

The Finnish consortium of the EW project was carried out by VTT, NetHawk, and Plenware. The project was funded by Tekes. Project Manager

Jarmo Prokkola, (Milla Huusko (2004–2006)) VTT Tel. +358 (0)20 722 2346 [email protected]

The total number of literal outputs that are originated in the EW project are given in the following table. Publications

2004

2005

2006

2007

Total

2

1

1

4

2

3

6

13

1

1

1

3

1

2

5

10

Conference tutorials

1

1

2

National journal papers

1

1

2

Invention reports

1

Theses (M.Sc) International

2

Journal papers Conference papers

2

1

Internal reports

3

5

1

International deliverables

2

3

3

 

 

2 9

2

10

TOTAL

38

133

E!2023 ITEA Easy Wireless (EW), NetHawk Oyj Objectives The Easy Wireless project focused on service and service continuity QoS testing for mobile users. The aim was to ensure transparent connectivity when users are transitioning between different wireless network technologies. Network Technologies considered in the project included existing and emerging standards like 802.11, Hiperlan2 (HL2), Bluetooth, GPRS, EDGE, WCDMA, CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA and UWB. NetHawk focused on finding solutions for reliably testing methods that are needed in heteroge-

neous network environment. Especially QoS and related measurements whose establish E2E QoS and analysis methods like throughput, jitter and delay.

Results EW project was an ITEA program project, there were multiple academic and industrial partners from Finland, Norway, Spain and Netherlands. Co-operation with the international consortium was successful and provided a lot of contacts that would otherwise been hard to establish. Co-operation with Finnish partners VTT and Plenware made possible to implement a innovative multi-point QoS measurement system, that has already been great help in

improving our QoS measurement solutions for NetHawk M5 protocol analyser. The main outcome of the project was a functioning prototype of multipoint QoS measurement application that can by used to find performance bottlenecks from the network under test. The application was integrated as part of the international project demonstration and demonstrated in public project events. Another outcome was an experimental API for accessing measurement results from NetHawk M5 protocol analyzer. The project also studied call and session tracking, key performance indicator and radio optimization measurements and developed prototype applications to be used as

Figure 1. Session/transaction statistics view of NetHawk M5 analyzer with counts & rates for the most important parameters.

134

part of protocol analyzer. The results are further utilized in developing network testing and measurement applications for NetHawk M5 protocol analyzer. Project Manager

Jorma Ikäheimo Additional Information

NetHawk Oyj Tel. +358 (0)40 3010 300

E!2023 ITEA Easy Wireless (EW), Plenware Group Oy Objectives The EW project was a common funded project under EUREKA/ITEA with several partners from Spain, Belgium, Holland, Norway, and Finland. The objective of the whole project was to provide service continuity for mobile users. The aim was to ensure transparent connectivity as users are transitioning between different wireless network technologies. This includes addressing issues like: roaming, Quality of Service (QoS), and inter-working between heterogeneous networks. One of the main focuses of the Finnish consortium (consisting of NetHawk, Plenware, and VTT) was in QoS measurements & monitoring. Project Participants

Plenware Group Oy Project Manager

Kalle Takkinen Additional Information

Luka Milovanov, Quality Manager Cybercom Finland Joukahaisenkatu 1, 20520 Turku

E!3187 CELTIC Easy Wireless 2 (EW-2), VTT Project’s active period

03/2008 to 08/2011 EW-2 started under Tekes’ GIGA technology programme, and the original plan was that the project would end at the same time with the program, i.e., at the end of year 2010. However, because of the international consortium part of the project was delayed several months, the Finnish part of the project was extended accordingly. Thus, the project still continues after GIGA until to the end of August 2011. => Because of the project’s continuation, NOTE: The results given in this report are not the final results of the project. For example, it is highly likely that several publications will still be done during the final year.

Description of the Objectives The EW-2 project is a joint funded research project under EUREKA/Celtic with 7 partners from Spain and Finland. In the preparation phase, partners from Holland, France, and Turkey were also present, but they unfortunately did not get funded. The objective of the whole project is to enhance user experience of mobile users in heterogeneous networking environment. This can be achieved e.g., by using and enhancing Quality of Service (QoS) methods in the core and/or access networks. However, if the available networks do not support QoS, one way to enhance quality is to perform intelligent vertical handovers. In the predecessor of EW-2, the EW-1 project (2004–2007), the aim was to provide a full end-to-end QoS con-

nectivity over different networks. Methods for achieving this were found, but in turned out that this will not happen in the near future. The problem is the difficulty to perform the required modifications to the existing infrastructure. In EW-2, a more practical approach is taken: The focus is put to solutions that could be sufficiently easily implemented in the existing networks. One of the main focuses of the Finnish consortium (consisting of NetHawk, BaseN, and VTT) is in QoS measurements & monitoring. In this, NetHawk has the main focus in enhancing their measurement tools and providing them with new features. BaseN focused to collation and visualization of chunk of measurement results. VTT’s main goal has been the exploitation of the measurement results with the goal of enhancing the user experience. This includes also measurement technology development beyond what was achieved in EW-1. VTT seeks answers to the questions: How capitalize on the measurement results and what new applications are there them. Naturally, VTT also helps the companies in achieving their goals.

Methods or Processes Used The Finnish part of the EW-2 project is performing mostly near term (1–5 years to the market) research. Thus, the used methods and processes consider mainly laboratory experiments and field trials. The goal has been to produce at least a technology demonstration from all the major things studied in the project. The knowledge level in the field was already high, mostly because of the successful EW-1 project, so only a brief update was needed in the literature study in the beginning of 135

the project. Because of the experience, there was already a clear focus where to start the experimental part. However, as it is natural for a research project, the accurate focus of the project has evolved during the project. Since from the beginning, concrete effort was put on cooperation between partners and also other projects where similar topics are studied to avoid overlapping work. Good experience has been got form this, and it is important to realize that a single project cannot do everything. For example, it was decided that scalable video coding will not be studied in EW-2, even though it clearly is a method to enhance user experience. This topic is studied in other projects, like Celtic SCALNET, which EW2 cooperated with. Another example is WLAN’s QoS mechanism (IEEE 802.11e), which also clearly could go under EW2. Instead, EW-2 cooperated with EU [email protected] project, which is more specialized to that topic. In the beginning of the project, it was found that the QoS measurement knowledge gathered earlier with EW-1 was still very much valid and the work was continued towards greater challenges. It was also found that even though QoS measuring has recently gain interest by many companies and new tools are continuously being developed, the exploitation of the measurement results – especially in the case of real-time passive measurements – is still a quite fresh research area. Thus, VTT took this as their main research direction. Much of the research & development work has been done in VTT’s Converging Networks Laboratory (CNL) in Oulu. Also, a lot of tests, demonstrations & performance analyses have been done in public net136

works. Public networks, as they are, are important, since, the goal is to develop something that can be easily added to the existing networks. The networks involved in the work include at least fixed, WCDMA & HSPA, WLAN (IEEE 802.11b, g, n), WiMAX (IEEE 802.16d & e), and @450 (FlashOFDM). Beyond EW1, in EW-2 more focus has been put also to the radio interface phenomena, requiring the use of spectrum analyzers and signal generators, widening the scope. Because of the experimental nature, equipment (computers, GPS devices, mobile phones, data cards, measurement tools) are being acquired during the project. While the project has been mostly experimental work, some theoretical work has been also carried out related to the development of new algorithms.

Results During EW-1, VTT already gained strong expertise on QoS methods and measurements. With EW-2, this knowledge has reached commercially notable level: VTT has been able to assist companies in e.g., developing QoS measurement solutions. Also, the numerous EW-1 and EW-2 publications on performance studies of network technologies and public access networks has brought commercial benefits as contract research projects on performance testing. Moreover, a spin-off company from VTT was formed in 2009 partially based on the topics of Easy Wireless. VTT’s Qosmet tool has been developed forward including many novel features with the aim to exploit the results in a straightforward fashion. As an example of real-time measurement exploitation, a novel QoS-based terminal guided handover (HO) solution

was developed in the project. The solution allows a user to enjoy good quality, while the intelligent HO manager handles automatically the network selection based on the quality. The enhanced lightweight measurement solution (Qosmet) allows fast detection of network quality problems. The quality can be observed with a single novel quality indicator (developed in EW2), which is recognized the user’s application, and calculates the quality directly for that application. The new application/traffic flow identification algorithm is also developed partially in EW-2. Another example of direct measurement exploitation is the Regressive Access Control (REAC) test bed being developed in EW-2 by VTT. In this, the network or a network segment is handled as a black box, and with passive measurements, one is able to perform AC at the edges of the network, leading to guaranteed QoS without making any modifications to the elements inside the network. In the measurement side, VTT has also build enhancements to its active lightweight mobile phone / laptop measurement tool Moset. As an internally funded project, VTT launched a bit simplified public version of the tool with name Mobiilimittari (http://www. mobiilimittari.fi). With NetHawk, VTT has been studying new ideas for enhancing the measurement capabilities of their tool, M5. In particular, VTT has studied the passive measurement side and multi-point measurement capabilities. NetHawk’s M5 is taken as part of the EW-2 demonstration platform located in VTT’s CNL. BaseN’s focus in the project was data collation and visualization. VTT assisted them to develop a QoS map visu-

Client side

alization tool, showing the actual quality of the networks in a map, and not as typically, the signal strength or BS coverage, which often do not tell the whole truth. VTT’s Moset tool was integrated with the BaseN’s platform. During the work, several invention reports have been made, of some of which, are now already in patent application phase. Most of the inventions are such that a proof-of-concept has been already implemented to the EW2 demonstration platform. VTT has also produced many publications and two theses of which one is a doctoral thesis. Finally, numerous internal and Celtic-level reports have been produced. There are still many ideas in the reports, which have not yet been published, and, thus, is it expected that before the end of the project, several publications

Virtual channel

(~ 2–5) will be still done. Also, it is expected that more invention reports (~ 1 –3) will come, since there are still some noted but unexplored topics around the project’s focus. The results of the project are advertised in many ways, of which the most obvious ones are the publications and the participation to the scientific conferences. Also, events like EUREKA Celtic event or GIGA Results promotion have been found as good channels to disseminate information. VTT promoted EW-2 results also in the Future of the Internet Conference 2009 in Prague, where VTT had a demonstration booth. Moreover, VTT upkeeps the EW-2 Finnish demonstration in CNL and it is shown continuously to different groups of people visiting the lab. The demonstration has

Server side

been shown dozens of times to hundreds of people. Currently, VTT is continuing EW-2 until the end of August 2011. In addition, there are projects with similar topics ongoing, and VTT is participating to new preparations, seeking for continuation to the QoS main topic, heading continuously towards new challenges.

Publications The following publications were produced in the project: International journal papers

A. Barbuzzi, P. H J. Perälä, G. Boggia, K. Pentikousis, “Evolution in Radio Resource Allocation from GPRS to HSPA and LTE,” submitted to IEEE Communications Magazine at 23.09.2010. 137

138

International conference papers

National journal papers

Project Volume (Total)

P. Perälä, M. Jurvansuu, J. Prokkola, ”Combined Terminal and Network Measurement System for Bottleneck Localization,” In proceedings of Tridentcom 2008. J. Prokkola, P. Perälä, M. Hanski, M. Varela, “Multipoint QoS measurements,”A poster, in proceedings of MobiMedia 2008, 7–9 July, Oulu, Finland. M. Majanen, P. Perälä, T. Casey, J. Nurmi and N. Veselinovic, ”Mobile WiMAX Handover Performance Evaluation,” In proceedings of ICNS 2009, Valencía, Spain, April 20.–25.2009. J. Prokkola, P. Perälä, M. Hanski, E. Piri, ”3G/ HSPA Performance in Live Networks from the End User Perspective,” In Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC 2009), 15–18 June, 2009. Dresden, Germany. M. Hirvonen, J.-P. Laulajainen, “Two-Phased Network Traffic Classification Method For Quality of Service Management,” In proceedings of IEEE ISCE 2009. E. Piri, J. Pinola, I. Harjula, and K.Pentikousis, ”Empirical Evaluation of Mobile WiMAX with MIMO, “ In Proc. 5th IEEE Broadband Wireless Access Workshop (co-located with IEEE GLOBECOM), Hawaii, USA, November 2009. P. H. J. Perälä, A. Barbuzzi, G. Boggia and K. Pentikousis, “Theory and Practice of RRC State Transitions in UMTS Networks,” In Proc. 5th IEEE Broadband Wireless Access Workshop (co-located with IEEE GLOBECOM), Hawaii, USA, November 2009. P. Pääkkönen, J. Prokkola, A. Lattunen, “Instrumentation-based tool for latency measurements,” submitted to ICPE 2011 at 01.11.2010.

J. Prokkola, et al., ”Verkonvalinta – saumattomasti ja älykkäästi, Passiivinen mittaus avuksi verkonvalintapäätöksiin,” Prosessorilehti, 01/2010.

EUR ~ 1 100 000

Theses

J. Prokkola, “Enhancing the performance of ad hoc networking by lower layer design,” A doctoral thesis, Faculty of Technology, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, University of Oulu, Oulu 2008. ISBN: 978-951-42-8931-6, 978-951-428932-3 (PDF). Available in URL: http:// herkules.oulu.fi/isbn9789514289323/ isbn9789514289323.pdf. M. Hirvonen, “Two-Phased Network Traffic Classification Method for Quality of Service Management,” Master's thesis. University of Oulu, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering, Oulu, Finland. 2009.

Project Participants

The Finnish consortium of the EW project was carried out by VTT, NetHawk, and BaseN. The Finnish part of the project was funded by Tekes and the participating parties. Project Manager

Jarmo Prokkola Senior Research Scientist, Dr. Tech. VTT Tel. +358 (0)20 722 2346 [email protected]

The VTT’s part of the dissemination of EW-2 project is listed with numbers in the following table.

Theses (M.Sc) Theses (Dr.Tech) International journal articles International conference papers National journal papers

2008

2009

2010

1 1 2

5

1 1 1

IPR Invention reports Patent applications

4 1

1

Reports Internal reports International deliverables

2011

4

3 5

2 7

Many publications likely to still appear

Publications

Total 1 1 1 8 1

4 2

9 12

Commersialisation Spin-offs

1

1 TOTAL

40

E!3187 CELTIC Easy Wireless 2 (EW-2), NetHawk Oyj Objectives Easy Wireless 2 project aims at improving user experience and access dependability in the context of heterogeneous mobile and wireless systems by means of analyzing improving service continuity refining the dimensioning and deployment rules with the help of scenario analysis. To serve this objective several areas of research will be investigated including seamless roaming quality service and continuity aspects.

Results

an end user while maintaining QoS. In this WP, QoS and Service Continuity are studied in common level mainly from the architectural point of view. Also, the performances of different proposals & existing techniques are evaluated. We have been researching measurement methods and tools, including multi-user version of protocol analyser, monitoring systems, objective voice quality measurement, visualization of network flows using message sequence charts and Portable OS independent coding using .NET Linux/mono. An example of project current results is architechture for NetHawk QoS measurement, as presented in Figure 1.

NetHawk has prepared internal QoS demos as well as taken part to consortium demonstrator activity. We have participated to Paris Celtic event 2009 taking advantage of the opportunities for contacts with other projects participants. EW2 has prepared it own project stand presenting two demonstrators in the Project Booth. This stand raised interest among other Celtic Event Participants. Project Manager

Jorma Ikäheimo Additional Information

NetHawk Oyj Tel. +358 (0)40 3010 300

Figure 1. NetHawk QoS measurement system.

Easy Wireless 2 project is still ongoing, scheduled end is September 2011. The project is a follow-up project of Easy Wireless (2004–2007). The international part of EW was performed under EUREKA ITEA, while EW-2 will be performed under EUREKA CELTIC. The consortium is having participation from Spain, and Finland. From Finland, VTT and BaseN are participating in addition to NetHawk. All the Finnish partners are seeking new opportunities in the area of networking performance measurements & monitoring, making the prerequisites for cooperation very good. During the first part of the project NetHawk has focused researching of monitoring and measurement of IP and telecom/IP networks, QoS measurement, monitoring systems, and visualization of measurement results and in platform independent programming. NetHawk is the leader of consortium network architecture work package. The overall objective of this WP is to provide seamless network access for 139

E!3187 CELTIC Easy Wireless 2 (EW-2), BaseN Oy Objectives Easy Wireless (EW2) -project will study QoS ja service continuity measurements in current and future networks. Easy Wireless 2 aims at improving user experience and access dependability in the context of heterogenous mobile, wireless and satellite systems by means of analyzing improving service continuity refining the dimensioning and deployment rules with the help of scenario analysis. The aim is to ensure transparent connectivity when users are transitioning between different wireless network technologies. Project Participants

BaseN Oy Project Manager

Sujit Wings

Protocols for Future Wireless Networks (FWN) Objectives The objective of the FWN project was to develop and analyze novel link layer solutions for future wireless networks, in particular future evolutions of the 3GPP based technologies. The results should be contributed to the public in the form of research papers and proposals for standards in 3GPP. The developed concepts should support the new requirements coming from emerging technologies, i.e. the solutions should support significantly higher bitrates, provide lower latency and improved QoS sup-

140

port. The solutions should also consider the expected application characteristics, which in many cases involve transmission of infrequent small packets, so called “chatty applications”.

Methods or Processes Used The work in the project focused on concepts for emerging cellular standards, namely UTRAN Long term evolution (LTE) and WCDMA High Speed Packet Access Evolution (HSPA evolution). The work consisted of concept work, i.e. developing novel solutions to meet the foreseen requirements of these emerging systems as well as performance evaluations through system simulations.

Results The outcome of the project consisted of three conference papers submitted to various international conferences describing the developed solutions and their performance. The work also led to more than 20 standardization contributions to 3GPP in the area of link layer protocols. Further two Master of Science theses were supervised. Part of the project funding was used to subcontract researchers at TKK focusing on developing new radio resource management concepts. The subcontracted work resulted in two additional publications in international conferences. Solutions based on the work done in the project have been accepted by 3GPP and is now part of the HSPA and LTE standards. (Main) Project Participants

Mats Sågfors, Anna Larmo, Stefan Wager, Riikka Susitaival, Johan Torsner

Project Manager

Johan Torsner Additional Information

Johan Torsner Oy LM Ericsson AB Tel. +358 (0)9 299 3580 [email protected]

MeshNode – Wireless Mesh Technology Objectives Objective of the MeshNode project was to develop a mesh technology package that can be licensed to device manufacturers and system integrators. The major goals were implementation of the mesh routing protocol for Windows XP and Linux platforms, reference design devices for OEM customers, piloting, security features and evaluation. Originally an objective of developing a hardware platform existed, but due to problems with manufacturing schedules the focus was shifted into using existing hardware for piloting as well as adaption for variety of already existing platforms.

Methods Project was divided to three phases roughly consisting of basic functionality, documentation & additional features and performance enhancements & cost reduction. The three phases were furthermore divided to 21 tasks totaling 76.5 man-months of work. The work was done in full by Meshcom R&D organization in co-operation with pilot users.

E!3187 CELTIC SCALNET – Scalable Video Coding Impact on Networks (SCALNET), VTT Project Duration

1 of April 2008 to 31 of December 2010

Wi-Fi Wireless Interface

Bluetooth Wireless Interface

GSM / GPRS / UMTS Wireless Interface

Ethernet/Backbone Wired Interface

Results Core functionalities of the driver were implemented: reactive routing, security, performance optimizations and support for both Linux and Windows XP. Main objectives of the project were reached and the driver was finalized during the project R&D processes of Meshcom were also developed during the project. The driver was made available for five platforms and evaluated with pilot users. Minor modifications were also done based on the feedback to improve the viability of technology on markets.

Nowadays MeshDriver has been released with open source license (GPLv3) as well as commercially. It can be downloaded from http://embedone.com/projects/meshdriver/. Project Manager

Miska Kaipiainen Additional Information

Marko Nieminen [email protected] http://embedone.com/projects/ meshdriver/

This project was conducted by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the context of the Celtic/EUREKA SCALNET project. The project was partly funded by Tekes. The international project consortium had nine partners from three European countries: Austria, Finland and Spain. The Finnish partners were Digita, Maxisat, Sanoma Entertainment and VTT. The Celtic project duration was from August 2008 until the end of September 2010. VTT’s own project had a longer duration from April 2008 to December 2010 and it was a part of the Tekes Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Description of the Objectives The target of the SCALNET project was to identify the impacts and the required enhancements on core, access and home networks in order to utilize efficiently the H.264 Scalable Video Coding (SVC) technology. The project aimed to study the interoperability of network and application layers by providing a control interface between network protocols and video processing equipment. The main innovation was envisioned in the introduction of scalable video over heterogonous networks, with an in-depth study on content adaptation aspects, delivery control and network provisioning or QoS. The major results planned for SCALNET included an architecture optimised for the

141

transport and storage of SVC content in heterogeneous networks as well as a test and demonstration platform built before large-scale deployment of the SVC technology for the benefit of the key players in this area. The main focus of VTT and the Finnish consortium was to build a demonstration platform which can be used to evaluate and validate the usage of SVC in commercial services operated using multiple devices and heterogeneous networks. The goal was to define different use cases and scenarios for SVC services, and based on these, to develop and demonstrate novel mechanisms for adaptive SVC video transmission in heterogeneous networks.

Methods or Processes Used The technical work in SCALNET was conducted in four work packages and one work package was allocated for management, standardization and dissemination activities. All software and demonstrator development was based on a thorough requirement analysis conducted in the beginning of the project. The requirements were derived from a set of novel use cases and scenarios identified for SVC use in heterogeneous networks by the project partners. Four use cases were selected for more detailed investigation and to be demonstrated with the test and demonstration platform. The requirements were used to define the SCALNET system architecture for adaptive transmission of SVC in heterogeneous network environments. The architecture specifies all the required system elements, including entities implementing functions for access control and management; adaptive streaming of SVC; SVC-encoded 142

video packaging and playout; and feedback signalling, and their interfaces. The software for the SCALNET system components was implemented under two of the technical work packages, one being responsible for the server-side entities and another of the client-side ones. The architecture itself was presented in project deliverables as well as in a conference paper written in co-operation between the project partners. The development of the system components was split between the partners, and VTT was responsible of the design and the implementation of the Adaptation Decision Taking Engine (ADTE) and the client-side User and Context Management Module (UCMM). These were integrated into two of the common demonstrators built in the project: the advantages of SVC demonstrator and the session handover demonstrator. In addition, VTT worked on its own demonstrator showing the multi-interface streaming of SVC. The first version of the multi-interface streaming demonstrator was built using VTT’s own SVC streaming platform, and the second version used the SCALNET SVC streaming server implemented based on the Darwin Streaming Server as well as modified versions of the MPlayer and Open SVC Decoder. The prior two were extended to include the required multi-session streaming capabilities and multi-interface support, and for the Open SVC decoder, VTT managed to improve its error resiliency and contributed the results to the open source project. To support dynamic adaptation in the SCALNET demonstrators, VTT also developed two context information sources: one for QoS data and the other for link-level/routing information. These were used to facilitate the required

feedback information collection to trigger adaptation. The feedback information signalling was handled by the UCMM and the actual decisions were taken by the ADTE or a dynamic network interface selection engine in the multiinterface streaming case. Finally, various performance tests were specified and conducted for the demonstrators, and the test results were contributed to deliverables and scientific publications. The different demonstrators were also presented to the public in various events during the project.

Results As a whole, the international SCALNET project produced 30 deliverables; defined 4 novel use cases and 20 scenarios to show the usage and benefits of the SVC technology; specified a complete architecture for SVC provisioning in heterogeneous network environments; and finalized four demonstrators illustrating the system operation in the context of different use cases. The demonstrators were presented to the public in different events. The SCALNET project also organized the SVCVision workshop in the context of the Mobimedia’10 conference in Lisbon, Portugal in cooperation with the ICT-OPTIMIX project. The main results produced by VTT during the project include contributions to project deliverables; SCALNET system component software that was used in the common demonstrators; and two versions of the multi-interface streaming demonstrator. The multi-interface streaming demonstrator can be used to show the benefits of SVC in a multi-homing scenario where the user is able to receive the best possible vid-

Figure 1. The multi-interface streaming of SVC demonstrator.

eo quality by utilizing two or more access networks in the video delivery, simultaneously, depending on their availability. Figure 1 illustrates the demo setup. In the demo, the enhancement layer substream can be stopped (e.g. by unplugging the Ethernet cable from the client device) and restarted without disrupting the video playout; only the visual quality of the video is affected. The project results contributed to several scientific papers presenting the SCALNET system architecture, the demonstrators and their test results. They also provide a good basis for VTT to obtain follow-up projects, to reuse the SCALNET software components and demonstration platform in future systems demanding adaptive video delivery as well as to assist companies in the deployment of the SVC technology. For the companies involved, SCALNET gave extensive knowledge and new ideas for the use and benefits of the SVC technology. The project also defined and demonstrated a concrete approach for deploying an end-to-end adaptive SVC streaming system to a heterogeneous network environment, which the companies are able to adopt when building their own systems.

Publications The following publications were submitted or published by VTT during the period 1st of April 2008 to 31st of December 2010. 1. T. Sutinen, H. Rivas: “Cross-layer assisted network selection for multiinterface video streaming”, submitted to ICC'11. 2. M. Ransburg, E. Martínez, T. Sutinen, J. Ortiz, M. Sablatschan, H. Hellwagner: “Scalable Video Coding Impact on Networks”, in SVCVision Mobimedia, Lisbon, Portugal, 2010. 3. T. Sutinen, J. Knuutinen, M. Luoto: “Multi-interface streaming of scalable video”, demo paper, in SVCVision Mobimedia’10, Lisbon, Portugal, 2010. 4. J. Vehkaperä, S. Tomperi: “Replacing Picture Regions in H.264/AVC Bitstream by Utilizing Independent Slices”, in ICIP’10, Hong Kong, China, 2010. 5. T. Sutinen, J. Vehkaperä, H. Hyväri, S. Sykes, M. Kiskola, E. Pipatti, T. Tiainen: ”Video mukautuu käyttöympäristöön”, in Prosessori magazine, December, 2009. 6. S. Tomperi: “Replacing picture regions in H.264/AVC bitstream by utilizing independent slices”, Master’s Thesis, Department of Electrical and

Information Engineering, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 2009. 7. E. Piri, T. Sutinen, J. Vehkaperä: “Crosslayer architecture for adaptive realtime multimedia in heterogeneous network environment”, In EW’09, Aalborg, Denmark, 2009. Project Volume

EUR 857 142 Project Participants

The project was carried out by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the context of the EUREKA/Celtic SCALNET project. The project was funded by Tekes and VTT. The Celtic project consortium consisted of Maxisat, Digita, Sanoma Entertainment and VTT from Finland; RiS and the University of Klagenfurt from Austria; and Moviquity, DS2 and the University of Murcia from Spain. VTT acted as the technical coordinator in the international project from its start to its end, and as the administrative coordinator in the period of May – September 2010. Project Manager

Tiia Sutinen VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Tel. +358 (0)20 722 7022 [email protected] 143

E!3187 CELTIC SCALNET – Scalable Video Coding impact on Networks (SCALNET), Digita Oy, Sanoma Entertainment Oy, Maxisat Oy Project Duration

1st of April 2008 to 31st of December 2010 This project was conducted by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the context of the Celtic/EUREKA SCALNET project. The project was partly funded by Tekes. The international project consortium had nine partners from three European countries: Austria, Finland and Spain. The Finnish partners were Digita, Maxisat, Sanoma Entertainment and VTT. The Celtic project duration was from August 2008 until the end of September 2010. VTT’s own project had a longer duration from April 2008 to December 2010 and it was a part of the Tekes Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Description of the Objectives The target of the SCALNET project was to identify the impacts and the required enhancements on core, access and home networks in order to utilize efficiently the H.264 Scalable Video Coding (SVC) technology. The project aimed to study the interoperability of network and application layers by providing a control interface between network protocols and video processing equipment. The main innovation was envisioned in the introduction of scalable video over heterogonous networks, with an in-depth study on content adaptation aspects, delivery control and network provisioning or QoS. The ma-

144

jor results planned for SCALNET included an architecture optimised for the transport and storage of SVC content in heterogeneous networks as well as a test and demonstration platform built before large-scale deployment of the SVC technology for the benefit of the key players in this area. The main focus of VTT and the Finnish consortium was to build a demonstration platform which can be used to evaluate and validate the usage of SVC in commercial services operated using multiple devices and heterogeneous networks. The goal was to define different use cases and scenarios for SVC services, and based on these, to develop and demonstrate novel mechanisms for adaptive SVC video transmission in heterogeneous networks.

Methods or Processes Used The technical work in SCALNET was conducted in four work packages and one work package was allocated for management, standardization and dissemination activities. All software and demonstrator development was based on a thorough requirement analysis conducted in the beginning of the project. The requirements were derived from a set of novel use cases and scenarios identified for SVC use in heterogeneous networks by the project partners. Four use cases were selected for more detailed investigation and to be demonstrated with the test and demonstration platform. The requirements were used to define the SCALNET system architecture for adaptive transmission of SVC in heterogeneous network environments. The architecture specifies all the required system elements, includ-

ing entities implementing functions for access control and management; adaptive streaming of SVC; SVC-encoded video packaging and playout; and feedback signalling, and their interfaces. The software for the SCALNET system components was implemented under two of the technical work packages, one being responsible for the server-side entities and another of the client-side ones. The architecture itself was presented in project deliverables as well as in a conference paper written in co-operation between the project partners. The development of the system components was split between the partners, and Digita was responsible of task 5.4, Tests of the prototypes. The research work in Digita concentrated to broadcast related use of SVC. Two main methods used were learning by working with demonstrators and more conceptual planning of potential use of SVC in operational services. Sanoma Entertainment’ role was to verify the results as a cable network service provider and possible exploiter of the SVC technology. Sanoma Entertainment’s work focused in the work packages 2 and 5. In WP2 Sanoma Entertainment created scenarios and use cases. In WP5 Sanoma Entertainment participated in the integration and demonstration of the selected common use cases. Maxisat participated primarily in the design and testing of the scenarios, prototypes and demonstrators described in the project documentation. In particular, testing over DSL connections was performed, in close cooperation with and using components from VTT and the other partners.

Results As a whole, the international SCALNET project produced 30 deliverables; defined 4 novel use cases and 20 scenarios to show the usage and benefits of the SVC technology; specified a complete architecture for SVC provisioning in heterogeneous network environments; and finalized four demonstrators illustrating the system operation in the context of different use cases. The demonstrators were presented to the public in different events. The SCALNET project also organized the SVCVision workshop in the context of the Mobimedia’10 conference in Lisbon, Portugal in cooperation with the ICT-OPTIMIX project. The main results by and for Digita were: 1) Contribution to project deliverables 2) Contribution to demonstrators and their testing 3) Increased knowledge related to SVC 4) Potential use cases and methods to implement them 5) Networking with the project partners. Sanoma Entertainment’s results were a more thorough knowledge of possible advantages, disadvantages and various uses of SVC technology in the core network level as well as the terminal level. Networking with partners in Finland and Europe in this area was a benefit itself, too. For Maxisat, the results are the ability to utilise the technology produced in the project to extend and improve its product offerings: TV over DSL and TV to mobile phones, and video-on-demand over DSL and to mobile phones. It is expected that Scalnet technologies will reduce costs and enable enhanced services once they have matured into professional grade products. The knowledge and contacts gained in

the project have been, and continue to be valueable. Project Participants

The project was carried out by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in the context of the EUREKA/Celtic SCALNET project. The project was funded by Tekes and VTT. The Celtic project consortium consisted of Maxisat, Digita, Sanoma Entertainment and VTT from Finland; RiS and the University of Klagenfurt from Austria; and Moviquity, DS2 and the University of Murcia from Spain. VTT acted as the technical coordinator in the international project from its start to its end, and as the administrative coordinator in the period of May – September 2010. Digita Oy

Markku Kiskola Current contact Vesa Erkkilä [email protected] Sanoma Entertainment Oy / Welho

Eskoensio Pipatti Chief of R&D [email protected] com Maxisat Oy

Stephen Sykes / Tommi Blom [email protected]

Advanced Broadcasting Solutions 2006–2007

and development in the area of digital broadcasting technologies in several projects during the previous years. Focus has been in IP-multicasting point to multipoint architecture. Evolution of broadband connection technologies has opened opportunities also to use point to point configuration for TV and radio applications. Also other consumer file transmission applications needing high bit rates are evolving rapidly. High Definition (HD) TV transmission needing higher bit rates is also covered. Objectives of the RTT-ABS project are to study technologies related to TV and radio content delivery to consumers via modern broadcast and broadband networks. IP Datacast over DVBH research activities are related to Audio/Video quality issues and for file delivery mechanisms. Extensions towards interactivity and seamless functionality between different networks are essential parts of the DVB-H application evolution. The RTT partners include: Nokia, TeliaSonera Finland (TSF), Finnish Broadcasting Company (YLE), Digita, Teleste, SWelcom, Welho (HTV), Elisa, and MTV3. Tampere University of Technology (TUT), Helsinki University of Technology (HUT) and Åbo Akademi (ÅA) have been sub-contractors for RTT during last years. On top of this, RTT has made successful subcontracting with small and medium sized enterprises (SME) annually, which is also included to this RTT-ABS project plan.

Objectives Project Participants

RTT-ABS (Advanced Broadcasting Solutions 2006) part of the GIGA Technology Programme. RTT (The Radio and Television Technology Research Company) has carried out research

Radio- ja televisiotekniikan tutkimus RTT Oy Project Manager

Martti Saarelma

145

Interconnected Home Broadband Networks (InHoNets) Project Duration

1 January 2006 to 31 March 2008 InHoNets project was involved in Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Description of the Objectives The research aimed at ensuring reliable and secured broadband end-toend connectivity between peer devices within one home; the peer devices can also be in multiple sites in several wireless home networks. This is a challenging environment since the target recipient is a consumer without ICT expertise. Overall, the first project phase (1.1.2006–31.12.2006) focused on connectivity issues within single home network, while the second phase (1.1.2007–31.3.2008) concentrated on interconnecting multiple home networks together. During the project, different approaches and techniques were studied and evaluated, mostly deriving from the recent Internet technologies developed in IETF and W3C.

Methods or Processes Used We studied how broadband enabled devices and applications can communicate with each other in a heterogeneous network and device environment, how the user interfaces can be adapted for different kinds of devices, and tried to find most appropriate internetworking architectures for connecting multiple homes together. The architectural variants included both operator and service provider controlled architectures, as well as end-user controlled ar146

chitectures. Several proof-of-concept implementations were used in evaluation phases. The project also analyzed and developed solutions to provisioning movement detection capability for devices roaming between home networks and external networks, extended and studied the feasibility of the P2P content sharing architecture and automatic configuration in a home networking environment. Authentication and authorization of the devices, users and services to each other, managing the access permissions and a threats of the wireless home network environment were researched as well. Business oriented subtask analyzed possible operator and non-operator business models for home networking, defined business scenarios based on the most likely business models, developed transformation of business scenarios into alternative operator strategies, and implemented the main components of these strategies in an operator business game. Finally, user requirements study to ensure that the created architecture reflects the management concepts relevant to home users, as compared to professional network managers was conducted.

Tasks and Results Network Interconnectivity and Content Sharing

The intention of this work was to provide a solution for interconnectivity among several homes for accessing stored content. The emphasis was on providing a solution for Finnish households. A pragmatic approach was undertaken to achieve a balance between what is practical today and what can be

reasonably achieved in the future. Today's demands are: •• Providing as little inconvenience as possible to the home owner •• Ensuring that much of the configuration remains as technically transparent as possible to the home owner •• Promoting new revenue opportunities by allowing operators to set up, deploy and manage valueadded home wireless gateways, services and infrastructure to facilitate connectivity and content sharing among homes. Future anticipated demands on home networks include: •• A remotely accessible home gateway which serves as a springboard for home owners to interconnect with other homes •• A network platform that can be extended to support content distributed throughout devices in the home •• Wide-scale mobility in devices associated with the home. Our approach of using IPv6 overlay networks to interconnect homes, while preserving existing IPv4 practices, yielded practical and useful results. IPv6 is a mature technology, and home networking is ripe for the adoption of IPv6. However, a misconception commonly exists that it is a straightforward process for using IPv6 in the home. The general hesitation of Finnish operators in deploying native IPv6 to the home implies that there is still a long way to go before end-to-end content and service reachability can be realised easily by a home owner. At the same time, no infrastructure actually exists in Finland for allow-

ing Dynamic DNS IPv6 addresses to be registered. Owing to this, the approach undertaken by combining a 6to4 tunneling approach between the home gateway and a 6to4 relay in FUNET, and announcing prefix advertisements so that devices in the home network automatically acquire IPv6 addresses without any explicit tunnel creation, is an extremely feasible task. This type of deployment can be easily carried out by an operator, a 3rd party service provider, or a technically adept home owner. It must be emphasised that all experiments on the home gateway were done in the firmware for live equipment (i.e an adsl modem + wireless router), and not on a PC emulating a home gateway. The feasibility of long-term remote maintenance of the home gateway was demonstrated by incremental add-ons throughout the lifetime of the project. Such increments included the introduction of a remote access VPN server, firewall rules allowing the usage of IPv4, IPV6 as well as Mobile IPv6, and the introduction of multiple home subnets and correlated wireless SSIDs allowing the home domain to be partitioned into "visitor access" and "secure access" zones. Performance of the gateway was not adversely affected by the introduction of these new features. Movement detection and automatic service discovery experiments proceeded concurrently with the network interconnectivity experiments providing useful insight into how context sensitive applications, middleware or protocols can rapidly obtain low-level interface and address information, changes and perform rediscovery for essential services. Movement detec-

tion experiments were conducted in IPv4, IPv6 and Mobile IPv6 while service discovery was conducted in IPv6 and Mobile IPv6. Experiments in content-sharing resulted in the successful creation of a novel content sharing model and prototype that was capable of supporting community participation in accessing content distributed in several homes, as well as mobile devices associated with homes using either VPN or Mobile IPv6. The model aims to overcome shortcomings seen in today's P2P and filesharing networks; The design of the components allowed users with regular web browsers on lightweight clients such as mobile phones to access the content, and a time-limit on the lifetime of the content availability can also be defined. Moreover, the model did not rely on central servers, non-sharing disincentives or sharing quotas that commonly plague today's content sharing networks. An end-to-end reachability is assumed, so IPv6 is considered a logical solution. However, as the architecture is network agnostic over IPv4 and IPv6 since it relies on hostnames and URLs instead of IP addresses, it can also be used in IPv4 devices if the necessary NAT and port forwarding steps are performed. In all experiments, VPN, home services as well as content reachability was accomplished over SSL. UPnP connectivity between home networks

In this subtask we work on how to make UPnP capable devices and their services of one home network available to other home networks. We used the gateway technique where each of the home networks has a gateway to control the UPnP devices and their services. The gate-

way controls which devices and services of its home network are accessible from other networks. It also manages the devices and services that are available from other home networks. We have implemented our architecure and tested it using some real life UPnP devices such as Nokia N95, N770. During testing we have found some problems related to Nokia devices and our implementation. Below we describe the evaluation of ourt implemented architecture. •• The device description document of the Nokia devices are written using a single sentence which makes us to change our code in order to find the different variables related to device and service specification. •• We used the embedded part of the device description document to store the devices and services that are available from other networks. Nokia devices are not capable of finding those embedded devices. This thing needs to be investigated more. •• Security part of the home network connectivity is done using a simple method. We require that each of the home networks should agree with a pre-shared key with host home network. This key is used for initial communication with the host home network and then a new key is generated by the host home network which is used for further communication. The security part can be improved by using PKI infrastructure. In conclusion we can say that gateway architecture provides a simple way to manage the UPnP devices and services among several home networks. There is 147

a need to test the implementation with more real life UPnP devices, possible from different vendors. The Next Steps in Signaling suite was considered as a solution for the middlebox (firewall and NAT) problem and as a supporting technology for the UPnP based access to services. NSIS would enable an application or an operating system (based on open sockets) to control the state of a middlebox and in case of NAT it could be used to create an architecture that hides the internal IP addresses. However due to the immaturity of available research software, the verification could not be completed no definite conclusion was reached. Security and authentication in home networking

The purpose of this task was to investigate different techniques available for authenticating devices in home networks and develop new ones. We started the research on pairwise associations by first providing a literary survey. The research was then continued with a usability test of different pairing mechanism. Our results strengthen the results of previous work which we used as basis of our own research. In addition, a comparative survey paper analyzing secure pairing protocols was published. In this work new information about the usability and implementation security of pairing protocols has been achieved. Also several vulnerabilities, where things can go wrong due to careless and ignorant implementation, have been identified. The research then continued to efforts to create an authenticated key between a group of devices, with the size of a group larger than two. The practical simulations and user tests for group se148

curity associations were started but the implementation of them was not completed due to lack of suitable research resources. MAC-layer Security

In this task several questions how to improve and enable MAC layer security solutions for wireless devices have been investigated. During the first year the research effort was in enhancements on the Wibree security specification. This was done in licenciate thesis work from where a preliminary draft is available. During the second year, an implementation of the elliptic curve system required for Bluetooth Simple Pairing association models. Especially the efficiency of the implementation was improved for standard NIST curves. From this work, a draft paper was written. In addition, the research included methods for establishing joint randomness for a group of devices. A draft paper was written including the results from simulations performed in the subtask. The motivation for this work originates from the privacy system of Wibree, but can be applied to improve efficiency of private addresses and session key generation in general. This is a promising new idea for future research. Operator Strategies and Business Models for Digital Home/ Home Networks

The purpose of this task was to clarify the possible futures of digital homes and the related business opportunities available to operators. Industry Scenarios for Digital Homes

Digital homes are a major business opportunity for several types of ICT companies. Market experimentation with

many kinds of business and product strategies is likely to keep families confused about how to acquire products and services and from whom. Because the technical complexity of digital homes will increase over time, managing complexity is becoming a strategic battleground. Those companies that can help families manage the complexity are likely to have a key role in digital home markets. Based on an industry scenario method and expert interviews, four possible management scenarios were identified: Locally Centralized, Globally Centralized, Global Specialists & Local Janitors, and Do-It-Yourself. This analysis brought some insight to the dynamics of digital home evolution. Business models of digital homes

Each industry scenario brings different types of companies to lead the market. The success of (access network) operators also depends on the dominating scenario and may include following business models: Bit-pipe Model, CPE Distribution Model, Service Intermediary Model, Update Aggregator Model, and Total Management Provision Model. This analysis, although qualitative only, helped to clarify the strategic options of operators within each industry scenario. Techno-Economic Modeling of Digital Homes

The aim of the study was to conduct a techno-economic analysis of digital homes and evaluate the development of the digital home market based on the identified industry scenarios. The evaluation was carried out by constructing a spreadsheet to model the expenditures of an average digital home in four different environments in terms of consump-

tion habits and position of different players in the market. The expenditures were classified under operational and capital expenditures experienced by households to build and upkeep a digital home. The digital home model produced a separate estimate of expenditures for each of the four scenarios, which indicate that the scenarios are somewhat optimistic, since the total expenditures in all four scenarios exceed the estimate based on a linear growth derived from existing statistics. Besides the estimate for total expenditures, perhaps an even more important and valuable figure received from the analysis, is the number of devices per household. As could be expected the number is the lowest in the do-it-yourself –scenario, which resembles the current situation the most. In the other three scenarios leasing of digital home equipment has a very strong influence on the total number of devices. The more common it is to lease devices, the higher the total number is. Plug’n’Play Devices and User Interfaces

This work was conducted in two phases. The first half concentrated on local interfaces between users, networked (entertainment) devices, services and in-home content. The second part extended the local scope to provide remote access and content sharing between interconnected home networks and the Internet. In both cases it was required, that a heterogeneous set of user interface (UI) devices could be used to control any networked (remote) home entity, in a location independent manner. In order to realize this requirement, there has to be a common communication language and a communication protocol that is understood by all partic-

ipants. In the real world, however, there is a diversity of competing middlewares and proprietary APIs that hinder the interoperability matters. This work proposed an abstraction layer atop currently available (and future) middlewares, proprietary APIs and legacy interfaces. The differences between target implementations are converged by bridging adapters, and a similar procedure is applied to the UI engines in form of UI ports. These adapters are interconnected by a hub application that is capable of routing the normalized common speak between participants at local scope. The hub can also route messages in the extended scope, so it is possible to use the same normalized language in Internetbased remote control operations. Furthermore, when two or more hubs are linked together, home networks can be interconnected in order to share locally networked entities and content between home communities. After some iterations, a RESTful API with a symbolic namespace and XML payload was chosen for the common language. The gained benefits of using REST include simplicity, statelessness, and scalability. The use a symbolic namespace for devices means that the hub can use late binding and resolve device references at local scope, thereby helping in NAT and non-routable IP address issues. Adding XPath-enhanced URIs makes access even more powerful. Benefits of XML include interoperability, declarativity, self-documenting nature, and the ability to use XSLT transformations. The downsides of REST seem to be client-server nature (difficult to push events), loss of cache and lexical conventions of URIs (e.g., "foreign" languages). XML is also quite verbose and its handling requires some computing resources.

HTTP was initially used as the sole candidate for the home-to-home connectivity protocol. It seemed well suited for the task because of its close binding to REST, and because it is able to penetrate firewalls more easily. However, the client-server architecture might not be the best solution for the task at hand. Towards the end of the project, XMPP was discovered as a viable alternative to HTTP. It provides client-server, push and broadcast messaging, and supports presence, location independence and many other usable properties that might be utilized in the scope of this work. It seems that XMPP should be preferred over HTTP at least in hometo-home and Internet-based remote control scenarios. However, RESTful API worked equally well over XMPP as it did for HTTP. A proof-of-concept application was realized as part of this work to test the proposed RESTful declarative framework. The overall results were quite promising, as control and access of remote devices, services and content could be considered identical to those at the local scope. Extending the boundaries of home networks beyond firewalls can make parts of our homes ubiquitous.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 January 2006 to 31 March 2008. Journals and Articles

Karri Huhtanen, Bilhanan Silverajan, Jarmo Harju: "Utilising IPv6 over VPN to Enhance Home Service Connectivity". Terena Special Issue for the Journal of Campus-Wide Information Systems, 2007. 149

Kristiina Karvonen, Timo Kiravuo, Jari Kleimola, Bilhanan Silverajan: ”Yksin tai yhdessä: Kodit verkottuvat yhteen”. Prosessori 12/2007. Conference and Workshop Papers

Rafiqul Chowdhury, Andres Arjona, Janne Lindqvist, Antti Ylä-Jääski: " Interconnecting multiple home networks services". 15th International Conference on Telecommunications (ICT08), 16–19 June, 2008, St Petersburg, Russia. Jari Kleimola and Petri Vuorimaa: "RESTful Declarative Framework for Extended Home Entertainment Networks". Fifth IEEE Consumer Communications & Networking Conference (CCNC 2008), 10–12 January 2008, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. Bilhanan Silverajan and Jarmo Harju: "Factoring IPv6 Device Mobility and Ad-hoc Interactions into the Service Location Protocol." IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN 2007), Dublin in October 2007. Jukka Valkonen, Aleksi Toivonen, and Kristiina Karvonen: "Usability Testing for Secure Device Pairing in Home Networks." In Anne Bajart, Henrik Muller, and Thomas Strang, editors, UbiComp 2007 Workshop Proceedings, September 2007, Innsbruck, Austria, 2007. M. Tallberg, H. Hämmäinen and J. Töyli: “Teaching Service Competition through Mobile Operator Business Game”, in Learning with Games 2007, 24–26 Sepember, 2007, Sophia Antipolis, France, 2007. Kristiina Karvonen and Janne Lindqvist: "Usability Improvements for WLAN Access". Proceedings of 12th International Conference on

150

Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International 2007), 22.–27.7.2007, Beijing, China (Human-Computer Interaction, Part I, HCII 2007, LNCS 4550-0549, pp. 549-558) Kristiina Karvonen, Pauli Vesterinen, and Jukka Manner: "Easy-to-Use Firewall Management for Home Users." Proceedings of Workshop on Usable IT Security Management (USM'07), July 18, SOUPS 2007, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA, U.S. Jani Suomalainen, Jukka Valkonen, and N. Asokan: "Security Associations in Personal Networks: A Comparative Analysis." In Frank Stajano, Catherine Meadows, Srdjan Capkun, and Tyler Moore, editors, Security and Privacy in Ad-hoc and Sensor Networks 4th European Workshop, ESAS 2007, Cambridge, UK, July 2–3, 2007, number 4572 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, pages 43–57, 2007 Timo Nordlund, Mathias Tallberg, Heikki Hämmäinen: "Scenarios for Management of Digital Homes." 6th Conference on Telecommunication Techno-Economics (CTTE 2007), 14.– 15.6.2007, TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland. Jari Kleimola and Petri Vuorimaa: "Declarative techniques in Distributed Media Center system". W3C Workshop on Declarative Models of Distributed Web Applications, 5–6 June 2007, Dublin, Ireland. URL: http://www. w3.org/2007/02/dmdwa-ws Kaisa Nyberg and Jukka Valkonen: "Wireless Group Security Using MAC Layer Multicast." In Proceedings of 8th IEEE International Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks (WoWMoM), 2007.

Kostiainen, K, Rantapuska, O, Moloney, S, Roto, V, Holmström, U, Karvonen, K: "Usable Access Control inside Home Networks", in Symposium proceedings of The Third IEEE International Workshop on Trust, Security, and Privacy for Ubiquitous Computing, June 18 2007, Helsinki, Finland. Karri Huhtanen, Bilhanan Silverajan and Jarmo Harju: "Utilising IPv6 over VPN to Enhance Home Service Connectivity", Terena Networking Conference held in Copenhagen 21–24 May 2007. Jukka Valkonen, N. Asokan, and Kaisa Nyberg: "Ad-Hoc Security Associations for Groups". In Security and Privacy in Ad-Hoc and Sensor Networks, Third European Workshop, ESAS 2006, Hamburg, Germany, September 20–21, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, number 4357 in Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2006. Master’s Theses

Lauri Salminen: “Scenario-Based TechnoEconomic Analysis of Digital Homes”. Master's thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2008. Pauli Vesterinen: "Käyttäjälähtöinen palomuurin hallinta". Master's thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2007. Rafiqul Chowdhury: "UPnP connectivity between Home networks". Master's thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2007. Jaana Wikström: "Kotiverkkojen tulevaisuus - Käyttäjäkeskeinen näkökulma". Master's thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2007. Timo Nordlund: "Scenarios and Operator Business Models for Management of Digital Homes". Master's thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2007.

Project Volume

EUR 900 000

Mobile Multi-access Techniques (MMVP)

Project Participants

Project Duration

1 September 2005 to 31 December 2007

Software Releases

The project was carried out at Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland and Tampere University of Technology, Tanpere, Finland.    The project was funded by Tekes, Nokia, Ericsson, YLE, Digita and Elisa.

The following software packages were released during the project (MIT license).

Project Manager

Robin Laurén: “User Centered Access Control for Home Networks”, Master's thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2007. Jukka Valkonen: "Ad-Hoc Security Associations for Wireless Devices". Master's thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2006.

Prof. Antti Ylä-Jääski Helsinki University of Technology Tel. 040-5954222 email: [email protected]

Distributed Media Center: http://www. tml.tkk.fi/~jkleimol/DMC/DMC.htm Home connectivity: http://www.tml.tkk. fi/~mchowdhu/Home1_tar.gz Mobinfo: http://kooditakomo.cs.tut.fi/ projects/mobinfo/ Sharetool: http://kooditakomo.cs.tut.fi/ projects/sharetool/

2006

2007

2008

Total

1

5

1

7

Theses Dr. Lich.Tech. M.Sc. International Books

The goal of this research project was to develop accessibility methods with a single phone number, which was easy to use. Since the implementation of accessibility services operated on a mobile environment, it must be lightweight. The research covered analysis of existing accessibility technologies, improvements of usability features, and design of a new protocol. The new features of accessibility services were demonstrated through detailed evaluation studies.

Results

Chapters in books Journal papers Conference papers

Our goal was to study and develop new methods and protocols to enable mobile communications, navigation, and hybrid PBX solution. In addition, Telephone Number Mapping (ENUM) and Near Field Communication (NFC) have been studied. The key issue was to take into account the current standards and a mobile environment with poor memory and processing resources.

Methods

The total number of literal outputs that are originated in the CUBS project are given in the following table. Publications

Description of the Objectives

1 1

11

1 2

14

National Journal papers

1

1

Conference papers Laboratory reports

4

6

1

11

Total

6

24

4

34

New implementation of accessibility service and new NFC gateway protocol were designed and developed as results of this research project. NFC gateway protocol is an application level protocol designed for communication between mobile phone and NFC gateway. NFC gateway protocol is light and it is based on request response technique,

151

i.e. mobile phone sends a service request and the server side confirms that the requested service is either available or unavailable. NFC gateway then decides what to do after receiving the mobile identification and NFC tag identification from the client. We have implemented our proposed NFC gateway service protocol with Telephone Number Mapping (ENUM) environment. ENUM wraps user’s various contact information behind a single contact identifier. Contact addresses have different priorities depending on the situation. Normally user has to change contact priorities manually which can become laborious or user may even forget to carry out these updates. We have sought to improve the procedure by attaching RFID tags to different communication devices. In our implementation, we have used RFID tags to tell the service where we want our incoming calls to be routed. A tag can be attached for example to a computer and can be read by an NFC client. The client then sends the service request message to the NFC gateway, which knows the locations of each and every RFID tag. As the NFC gateway receives the sender ID and RFID tag ID information, it will know where to route all incoming phone calls for that user. Our implementation is illustrated in Fig. 1 NFC gateway checks received sender identification and RFID tag identification and if the RFID tag is allocated to the sender, the NFC gateway generates a new ENUM update request and sends the update to the ENUM server. The NFC gateway knows what to do after it has verified Sender ID and NFC tag ID. In our solution the NFC gateway 152

Figure 1. NFC gateway service implementation architecture.

generates an update request directing all incoming calls first to a VoIP-client and then to a mobile phone.

Publications P. Koski, J. Ylinen, P. Loula, The SIP-Based System Used in Connection with a Firewall, Proceedings of the Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications and International Conference on Internet and Services (AICT/ICIW 2006), 19–25 February 2006, Guadeloupe, French Caribbean. L. Iso-Anttila, J. Ylinen, P. Loula, A Proposal to Improve IKEv2 negotiation, Proceeding of International Conference on Emerging Security Information, Systems and Technologies, SECURWARE 2007, October 14–20, Valencia, Spain. Tino Kiviharju. Converting ENUM number to an application unique string by using the name service. MSc Thesis, TTY Department of Information technology, 2005, 73 s.

Lari Iso-Anttila. Analysing IKEv2 key exchange in IPSec network. MSc Thesis, TTY Department of Information technology, 2006, 61 p. Jarno Norgård. Use of Citrix Management tools in remote connections. MSc Thesis, TTY Department of Information technology, 2007, 82 s. Tino Kiviharju, "ENUM korvaa pian käyntikorttisi", Prosessori 12/2006, s. 38–41. Project Volume

EUR 375 000 Project Participants

Tampere University of Technology, Pori Nokia Networks Satakunnan Puhelin Oy Project Manager

Senior Researcher Jorma Ylinen Tampere University of Technology, Pori +358 (0)2 627 2700 Additional info

http://trc.pori.tut.fi/

Management solutions for the wireless broadband services in the multiaccess networks (LaiLa) Project Duration

1 June 2006 to 31 May 2008 During its lifetime, Laila project has been involved in one Tekes technology programme called Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Description of the Objectives The main goal in this study project was to evaluate solutions for quarantining Quality of Service (QoS) of the different network technologies (3G / HSDPA / EDGE, Flash-OFDM / @450, IEEE 802.11 and IEEE802.16) such a way that the end user has always good and reliable connection available. The used network

technologies should themselves respond handovers and adapt to the end user’s needs. These things were measured with the different quality of service approaches. In addition, IEEE802.16 QoS issues were developed and studied with the simulations.

Methods or Processes Used IEEE802.16 network’s performance at the quality of service point of view were studied with the network simulator (ns2) [1]. We built WiMAX’s PHY and MAC layers to ns2 simulator environment and developed open issues, which were not specified by IEEE802.16 standard. Such open issues were eg.: •• scheduling solution for the IEEE 802.16 base station •• adaptive Contention Resolution for VoIP Services in the IEEE 802.16 Networks

Figure 1. @450 network performance test setup.

••

ensuring the QoS requirements in 802.16 Scheduling.

The simulator makes it possible to flexible modify and change of variable set of system parameters that have an influence on IEEE802.16 network’s performance. Real network quality of service tests were mainly done with heavy loading IPtv applications with the heterogeneous networks (@450, WLAN, 3G and fixed networks). One example of the quality of the experience (QoE) tests is shown in the figure 1. In this test scenario, we were able to explore how service operator can offer different AllIP services through Digita’s @450 access network.

Results The simulations concentrated on developing IEEE802.16 QoS scheduling methods. The developed methods improved clearly the performance of the QoS of the IEEE802.16 system [25]. Practical QoS measurement results with ITU-T’s PESQ and IETF’s OWMAP techniques with applications IPtv and VoIP showed that different kind of wireless networks suffer the lack of the QoS requirements. The jitter and end-toend delay were the most vulnerabilities at the point of the end user’s QoE during the vertical handovers between the used technologies (@450, 3G, WLAN).

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 June 2006 to 31 May 2008. Bachelor Theses

"IP-netwotk performance measurements", Riku Kuismanen, 2006 (in Finnish). 153

"Access methods for the wireless networks", Timo Joensuu, 2006 (in Finnish). "Single-Sign-On and SAML", Ismo Kyrönlahti, 2006 (in Finnish). ”VoIP- call’s quality at @450- networks”, Petri Eskelinen 2008 (in Finnish) ”MIPv4 home agent’s stress tests ”, Joni Purojärvi (in Finnish) Master Theses

"Performance tests of the IPtv services in heterogenious access networks”, Riku Kuismanen ja Henrik Martikai-nen, 2006 (in Finnish) "IPS- system evaluation with NetFlown ”, Marko Andersson, 2006 (in Finnish). "Dynamic sharing of the network resources", Lasse Laaksonen, 2007. (in Finnish) "Data charging in 3G networks", Ismo Kyrönlahti, 2007 (in Finnish). "Adaptive Mobile Multiedia Services", Michael Chukwu, 2007. "Mobile IPv6 interoperability with different device environments", Riku Ahonen, 2007. (in Finnish) ”OSS/J –API and SID –data models possibilities for the inetgration of the network management systems, Anssi Pannula, 2007. (in Finnish) ”Mobile IP and VoIP:n call QoS measurements, Juha Huikari, 2008. (in Finnish) ”Layered multicasting”, Jouni Kuusinen, 2008. (in Finnish)

154

Scientific publications

References

"Ensuring the QoS requirements in 802.16 Scheduling", A. Sayenko, O. Alanen, J. Karhula, T. Hämäläinen, in the Proceeding of The 9th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, lokakuu 2006. "Adaptive Contention Resolution for VoIP Services in the IEEE 802.16 Networks", A. Sayenko, O.Alanen, and T.Hämäläinen, accepted to be published in the Proceedings of The 8th IEEE Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, 2007. "Scheduling solution for the IEEE 802.16 base station", A. Sayenko, O.Alanen, and T.Hämäläinen, in the Special Issue of Computer Networks, Elsevier, 2007. "Adaptive Contention Resolution Parameters for the IEEE 802.16 Networks", A. Sayenko, O.Alanen, and T.Hämäläinen, in the ACM/IEEE International Conference

[1] http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/ [2] "Ensuring the QoS requirements in 802.16 Scheduling", A. Sayenko, O. Alanen, J. Karhula, T. Hämäläinen, in the Proceeding of The 9th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Modeling, Analysis and Simulation of Wireless and Mobile Systems, lokakuu 2006. [3] "Adaptive Contention Resolution for VoIP Services in the IEEE 802.16 Networks", A. Sayenko, O.Alanen, and T.Hämäläinen, accepted to be published in the Proceedings of The 8th IEEE Symposium on a World of Wireless, Mobile and Multimedia Networks, 2007. [4] "Scheduling solution for the IEEE 802.16 base station", A. Sayenko, O.Alanen, and T.Hämäläinen, in the Special Issue of Computer Networks, Elsevier, 2007. [5] "Adaptive Contention Resolution Parameters for the IEEE 802.16 Networks", A. Sayenko, O.Alanen, and T.Hämäläinen, in the ACM/IEEE International Conference

Project Volume

EUR 264 000 Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Telecommunications laboratory, University of Jyväskylä, Finland.    The project was funded by Tekes, Arena Partners, Digita, SysopenDigia and WTS Networks.

Dr. theses

Project Manager

"Quality of Service for Triple Play Services in Heterogeneous Networks", Olli Alanen, 2007.

Prof. Timo Hämäläinen University of Jyväskylä Tel. +358 (0)14 260 3292 [email protected]

Trustworthy Internet: Overlay Infrastructure for Trusted Computing and Communications (TrustInet)

TrustInet project is one of few strategic project funded 100% by Tekes in Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme. The TrustInet project was led by senior scientists Prof. Martti Mäntylä, Prof. Antti Ylä-Jääski, Dr. Arto Karila, Adj. Prof Pekka Nikander, Adj. Prof. Andrei Gurtov, Adj. Prof. Dmitry Korzun.

above. Thus, in our vision, our research will enable trustworthy Internet service platforms that connect the service consumers and providers with each other to enable services and service delivery mechanisms. To achieve the vision, the project carries out original research in co-operation with an extensive international partner network; create prototype technologies, platforms, and solutions; perform experiments; influence the standardization of the field; and contribute to researcher education. Its main objective is to raise and maintain the level of competence of the participating groups at world class level.

Description of the Objectives

Methods or Processes Used

Trust is the fundamental enabler for information ecosystems where services are consumed and produced. In today's information economy, trust is the necessary foundation for secure interoperability, and central to the successful realization of what's possible on the Web. Unfortunately, the present Internet falls short of this objective in several respects as evidenced by viruses and worms, denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, and junk mail that plague end users. Another set of threats is created by the increasing data collection practices, compromising users’ privacy. These problems appear to become even more acute if functionalities such as terminal mobility are introduced in the existing Internet infrastructure. The TrustInet strategic research project will study how the trustworthiness of the Internet can be heightened by adding a slim overlay infrastructure on the top of the existing IP networks. The light overlay infrastructure builds a new kind of a network layer platform for the services

The central hypothesis of the work envisaged in the project is that a trustworthy Internet can be built on the existing IP infrastructure adding security and privacy as a light overlay infrastructure, rather than re-building the infrastructure from ground up. The general approach is to avoid investing in new network infrastructure but rather build on the existing IP infrastructure. A P2PSIP overlay architecture has been developed and implemented by the project in cooperation with industrial partners and standardization body IETF. The project adopted a range of research methods, starting from experimental prototyping and empirical evaluation in research testbeds such as PlanetLab, to long-term vision architectures and mathematical models of game-theoretic behaviour in the Internet. The project collaborated closely with International Computer Science Institute at Berkeley, where several researchers from the project visited during 2005–2009.

Project Duration

1 January 2005 to 31 March 2009

Results The TrustInet project produced outstanding academic and research results. Several doctoral and master thesis, journal and conference articles were published. The project has broad impact on the industry and created several spinoff projects. Doctoral theses. Overall 4 doctoral theses were made during the project. Teemu Koponen and Kristiina Karvonen have defended their PhD theses and obtained the degree. The title of Teemu Koponen’s thesis was "A Data-Oriented Network Architecture" (defended in 2008) and Kristiina Karvonen’s thesis was “Bridging the Gap between Users and Trust. Applying Methods of Usability and User-Centred Design to Computer Security” (defended in 2007). Additionally, Andrey Lukyanenko and Janne Lindqvist have made the necessary publications during the project and their theses are in completing stages. Master theses. There were 6 master thesis completed during the project. Publications. Total 7 journal papers and over 32 conference papers were published by TrustInet. Some publications were in best forums in the field, including ACM Sigcomm and ACM Performance Evaluation Review. International relations. A strong network of international connections with leading world institutions in USA, China, Russia, India, Germany, and Sweden was built. Researcher exchange and joined subprojects were arranged with most of these partners. Impact in companies and research communities. The TrustInet project has organized open full-day research seminars twice a year, where researchers from other groups and representatives

155

of Finnish companies were attending. Results were presented during Internet Research Task Force (IRTF) meetings and results of the project affect the future Internet activities worldwide. Spin-off projects. TrustInet participants have initiated several projects based on ideas generated during the research process. These include Berkeley-Finland Center on Novel Internet Architectures, EU project Publish Subscribe Internet Routing Paradigm (PSIRP), book on Host Identity Protocol (HIP): Towards the Secure Mobile Internet (jointly with InfraHIP II project). Research testbed. During TrustInet, a research testbed consisting of a server farm with high-speed (1 Gbps) fiber Internet connection to Funet was constructed at HIIT. The servers enable running experimental software in firewall-free environment using virtual machines. HIIT has joined PlanetLab consortium as first site in Finland and at the moment provides four servers to the global research community.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the project duration. B. Nechaev, V. Paxson, M. Allman, A. Gurtov, On Calibrating Enterprise Switch Measurements, to appear in Proc. of ACM SIGCOMM Internet Measurement Conference, 2009. A. Lukyanenko, A. Gurtov, V. Mazalov, Applying a reputation metric in a twoplayer resource sharing game, in Proc. of The Third International Conference on Game Theory and Management (GTM'09), June 2009. A. Lukyanenko, A. Gurtov, Towards behavioral control in multi-player network games, in Proc. of GameNets'09. 156

J. Heikkila, A. Gurtov, Filtering SPAM in P2PSIP communities with web of trust, in Proc. of MobiSec'09, June 2009. D. Korzun, A. Gurtov, A Local Equilibrium Model for P2P Resource Ranking, to appear in ACM SIGMETRICS Performance Evaluation Review, August 2009. D. Korzun, B. Nechaev, A. Gurtov, Cyclic Routing: Generalizing Look-ahead in Peer-to-Peer Networks, in Proc. of he 7th IEEE International Conference on Computer Systems and Applications, May 2009. J. Koskela, J. Heikkila, A. Gurtov, A secure P2P SIP system with SPAM prevention, to appear in ACM Mobile Computer Communications Review, 2009. D. Korzun, B. Nechaev, A. Gurtov, CRChord: Improving Lookup Availability in the Presence of Malicious DHT Nodes, HIIT Technical Report 2008-2, December 2008. J. Lindqvist and J-M. Tapio, Protecting Privacy with Protocol Stack Virtualization, in the 7th ACM CCS Workshop on Privacy in Electronic Society – WPES 2008, Alexandria, Virginia, USA, October 27th, 2008. J. Koskela, J. Heikkila, A. Gurtov, A secure P2PSIP system with SPAM prevention, poster at ACM Mobicom, September 2008. J. Lindqvist, "Yksityisyyden suoja verkotutetussa yhteiskunnassa", Book Chapter. TUVJ 1/2008 Silmät auki. Tietoyhteiskunnan uhat ja mahdollisuudet Silmät auki! Tietoyhteiskunnan uhat ja mahdollisuudet. Toim. Ville Eloranta. Eduskunnan tulevaisuusvaliokunta. ISBN 978-951-53-3043-7 (nid.) ISBN 978-951-53-3044-4 (PDF). J. Lindqvist, System-Wide Privacy Protection for Mobile Computers, two-

page extended abstract for Hotmobile Doctoral Consortium. T. Aura, J Lindqvist, M. Roe, A. Mohammed, Chattering Laptops, in proceedings of the 8th Privacy Enhancing Technologies Symposium (PETS), Leuven, Belgium, July 23–25, 2008. A. Markkola and J. Lindqvist, Accessible Voice CAPTCHAs for Internet Telephony in The Symposium on Accessible Privacy and Security (SOAPS '08) part of 2008 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security (SOUPS), July 23, 2008, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. V. Mazalov, I. Falko, A. Gurtov, A. Pechnikov, Arbitration in a P2P-system, in Proc. of 13-th International Symposium on Dynamic Games and Applications, July 2008. J. Koskela, A HIP-based peer-to-peer communication system, International Conference on Telecommunications, 2008. 16–19 June 2008, Proceedings CDROM ISBN: 978-1-4244-2036-0, Page(s): 1-7, St. Petersburg, Russia, June 2008. D. Korzun, A. Gurtov, A Diophantine Model of Routes in Structured P2P Overlays, ACM Performance Evaluation Review, 35(4), p. 52–61, March 2008. A. Lukyanenko, A. Gurtov, Performance analysis of general backoff protocols, Journal of Communications Software and Systems, 4(1), March 2008. A. Gurtov, D. Korzun, A. Lukyanenko, P. Nikander, Hi3: An Efficient and Secure Networking Architecture for Mobile Hosts, Computer Communications, 31 (2008), p.2457–2467. O. Ponomarev, A. Gurtov, Using DNS as an Access Protocol for Mapping Host Identifiers to Locators, to appear in Proceedings of Routing in Next Generation Workshop, Madrid, Spain, December 2007.

D.Andersen, H.Balakrishnan, N.Feamster, T.Koponen, D.Moon and S.Shenker, Holding the Internet Accountable, In Proc. of ACM Hot Topics in Networks, November 2007. M. Demmer, K.Fall, T.Koponen, and S.Shenker, Towards a Modern Communications API, In Proc. of ACM Hot Topics in Networks, November 2007. D.Korzun, A.Gurtov, An infrastructure for mobile application communications, In Proc. of Russian Conference on Scientific service in Internet, October 2007. A.Lukyanenko, On the optimality and the stability of backoff protocol, In Proc. of NEW2AN 2007. (with Univ.of Kuopio), September 2007. J.Lindqvist, Privacy in Networked Mobile Device Configuration, Doctoral Colloquium at the 9th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp 2007 - DC), September 2007. J.Lindqvist, Talk on Privacy-Preserving Access Point Discovery for Mobile Devices (privacy-preserving rendezvous), in International School on Foundations of Security Analysis and Design (FOSAD 2007), September 2007. T.Koponen, M.Chawla, B.Chun, A.Ermolinskiy, K.Kim, S.Shenker, I.Stoica, A data-oriented (and beyond) network architecture, ACM Sigcomm 2007, August 2007. J.Lindqvist, E.Vehmersalo, M.Komu and J.Manner, Enterprise Network Packet Filtering for Mobile Cryptographic Identities, two-page abstract presented in the posters session at the USENIX 2007 Annual Technical Conference, August 2007.

J.Lindqvist, Privacy-Preserving WLAN Access Point Discovery, two-page abstract presented in the posters session of 16th USENIX Security Symposium, August 2007. J.Hautakorpi, J.Koskela, Utilizing HIP (Host Identity Protocol) for P2PSIP (Peer-topeer Session Initiation Protocol), drafthautakorpi-p2psip-with-hip-00.txt, July 2007. K. Karvonen, Users and Trust: the New Threats, the New Possibilities, In Proc. of The 4th International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, July 2007. K.Karvonen, J.Lindqvist, Usability Improvements for WLAN Access, Proceedings of The 12th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (HCI International 2007), July 2007. C.Hota, J.Lindqvist, K.Karvonen, A.YlaJaaski, C.K.J.Mohan, Safeguarding Against Sybil Attacks via Social Networks and Multipath Routing, in Proceedings of The International Conference on Networking, Architecture, and Storage, 2007 (NAS 2007), July 2007. K. Karvonen, Enabling Trust between Humans and Machines. Proceedings of The European e-Identity Conference, eema's 20 th Annual Conference, June 2007. J. Lindqvist, IPv6 is Bad for your Privacy, Whitepaper and talk in DEFCON 15, June 2007. E. Uzun, K. Karvonen, N. Asokan, Usability Analysis of Secure Pairing Methods, to appear in Proceedings of Usable Security (USEC'07), February 15-16, 2007, Trinidad&Tobago, a workshop co-located with The Eleventh Conference on Financial Cryptography and Data Security (FC'07), LNCS

J. Lindqvist and M. Komu, Cure for Spam over Internet Telephony, in 4th IEEE Consumer Communications and Networking Conference - IEEE CCNC 2007, Las Vegas, USA, 11–13 January 2007. J. Lindqvist, IPv6 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration Considered Harmful, in Military Communications Conference - MILCOM 2006, Washington, D.C., USA, October 23– 25, 2006. K. Karvonen, It Takes a Lunatic, and Other Stories about Online Trust, ACM CSCW, November 2006. P. Nikander, Aiming for open and fair markets and balanced privacy, US-EU Cyber Trust summit, November 2006. A. Gurtov, Overview of HIP Infrastructure, AMICT'06, August 2006. D. Korzun, A. Gurtov, On Scalability Properties of the Hi3 Control Plane, Elsevier Computer Communications, 29(17):3591–3601, November 2006. D. Korzun, A. Gurtov, On Applying Linear Diophantine Equations to Route Modeling in Self-Organizing Networks, Elektrosvyaz, 6:34–38, June 2006. R. Leino, Urkinta kasvaa netissa kauhuvauhtia, Tekniikka&Talous, 29.9.2006. Theses

T. Koponen, A Data-Oriented Network Architecture, PhD thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, October 2008. A. Markkola, Preventing Spam in Internet Telephony – Implementation and Usability Evaluation, Master's Thesis, May 2008. A. Myllyniemi, Privacy for WLAN Discovery, Master's Thesis, May 2008. K. Karvonen, Bridging The Gap Between Human And Machine Trust, PhD thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, May 2007. 157

Project Volume

Juha-Matti Tapio, Palomuurien keskitetty hallinta, Bachelor Thesis, University of Helsinki, February 2007. K. Karvonen, Bridging the Gap between Human and Machine Trust, May 2007. S. Varjonen, Security in 3G networks, Master thesis, University of Helsinki,October 2006. J. Lindqvist, Privacy in Network Configuration, PhD thesis, defended June 2009. Aleksi Toivonen. Usability Testing of Secure Device Pairing. Master’s thesis, TKK/ HIIT, 2009. Theofanis Kilinkaridis. Usable Security for Mobile P2P VoIP. Master’s thesis, TKK, 2009. A. Lukyanenko, Selfish resource sharing in computer networks, PhD thesis (in completion stage).

EUR 1 800 000

Future Mobility Middleware (Fuego Core 2007)

Project Participants

Project Duration

The project was carried out by the Helsinki Institute of Information Technology (HIIT) and Telecommunications and Multimedia Laboratory (TML) of Helsinki University of Technology. The project was funded by Tekes as a strategic research project.

1 January 2007 to 31 December 2007

Project Manager

Adj.Prof, Dr. Andrei Gurtov Helsinki Institute for Information Technology Helsinki University of Technology Tel. +358 405963729 [email protected]

The total number of literal outputs that are originated in the TrustInet project are given in the following table.

Theses

2006

2007

2008

2009

Total

1

2

3

4

10

1

1

2

4

PhD PhLic

0

Masters

1

1

2

2

76

International

5

17

12

7

41

Books

1

1

Book chapters

1

1

Journal articles

2

Conference articles

3 2

National

3

2

7

17

7

5

32

0

0

0

2

Journal articles

1

1

Conference articles

1

1

Laboratory reports

1

1

1

3 Total

158

86

Description of the Objectives The Fuego Core 2005/7 Project – running from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2007 – was the core project of the Fuego Research Program in the Helsinki Institute for Information Technology (HIIT). It continued the work on future mobile middleware started in the Fuego Core (2002/4) Project that run from February 2002 to December 2004. Fuego Core 2005/7 Project concentrated on three fundamental areas in future mobile middleware: middleware communication, mobile distributed event system and Sync/XML data access. Our main objectives were to enhance the achievements of the Fuego Core (2002/4) Project and to contribute to international standardization, particularly to W3C.

Methods or Processes Used The research project was divided into five work packages: •• WP1: State of the Art Review •• WP2: Specification •• WP3: Implementation •• WP4: Experimentation •• WP5: Middleware Standardization In addition to the work package structure, which characterizes the organization of the work and deliverables, the project had five work items: 1) XML Processing and Messaging, 2) Mobile Distributed Event System, 3) XML Synchronization and Data Access, 4) Software Configuration Management, and 5) Desktop search.

The project also participated in the European Science Foundation (ESF) project MiNEMA .

Results General The main result of the project was the specification of the middleware service set for mobile computing and a Java and Web Services-based prototype implementation. The project participated in standardization by contributing to W3C’s Efficient XML Interchange (EXI) Working Group. The results of the project were disseminated in relevant scientific conferences and workshops. Scientific, or Technological Applications, or Product / Service

The key middleware services developed in the project were: the event service, wireless SOAP and messaging service, and XML-aware synchronizing file system. The middleware services developed in the project are not end-applications themselves, but building blocks for current and future mobile applications.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Commercial Impact / Customer Satisfaction

Accepted for publication in Elsevier Computer Networks, Special issue: Middleware Challenges for Next Generation Networks and Seamless Services. To appear. J. Kangasharju, T. Lindholm, S. Tarkoma. XML Security with Binary XML for Mobile Web Services. Invited submission from ICWS 2006 to the Journal of Web Service Research. S. Tarkoma. Palvelualusta mobiilimaailmaan. Prosessori magazine R&D issue, 2007. J. Kangasharju. Efficient Implementation of XML Security for Mobile Devices. In IEEE International Conference on Web Services, July 2007. J. Kangasharju, T. Lindholm, R.S. Kalyanaraman, S. Tarkoma, K. Raatikainen. Collaborative XML Editing on Small Devices: An Application of Mobility Middleware. Pervasive 2007 demonstration track. J. Kangasharju, S. Tarkoma. Benefits of Alternate XML Serialization Formats in Scientific Computing. ACM/IEEE Workshop on Service-Oriented Computing Performance: Aspects, Issues, and Approaches. In conjunction with HDPC 2007. E. Lagerspetz, T. Lindholm, S. Tarkoma. Dessy: Mobile Desktop Search. ACM DIAL M-POMC 2007.

The project was open source in nature and did not aim at direct commercial impact.

7.

Educational Impact / Dissemination

Demonstrations

The main educational impact of the project was in the form of academic theses (1 Ph.D. thesis). In addition, project members gave presentations in courses at the Helsinki University of Technology.

A public demonstration event was held at Nokia Research Center in December, 2007. The implementation of the middleware system was demonstrated by showing various interactions using the communication and synchronization services. The demonstrations included online and offline document collaboration with mobile devices. A public demonstration was

Publications 1. J. Kangasharju, T. Lindholm, S. Tarkoma. XML Messaging for Mobile Devices: From Requirements to Implementation.

also given at the international Pervasive 2007 conference. Deliverables

••

•• ••

•• •• ••

State of the Art in Enablers for Applications Using Future Mobile Middleware Specification of Fuego Middleware Service Set 2007 Implementation and Documentation of Fuego Middleware Service Set 2007 Design of Experimentation 2007 Evaluation of Experimentation 2007 Fuego Standardization Report 2007.

Theses

Jaakko Kangasharju. XML Messaging for Mobile Devices. PhD thesis, University of Helsinki, defence January 26th, 2008. Project Volume

The total workload and funding of the project are shown in the table below. 2007 Man-months

38

Tekes funding

160 000 €

Company funding

  40 000 €

Project Participants

Nokia TeliaSonera Helsinki Institute for Information Technology HIIT Project Manager

The project manager was Ph.D. Sasu Tarkoma. The scientific leader of the project was Professor Kimmo Raatikainen. Additional Info

The group and project WWW-page is available at http://www.hiit.fi/mobic 159

Algorithms for Broadband Infrastructure (ABI) Project Duration

1 January 2006 to 30 April 2009

Description of the Objectives The general objective of ABI was to obtain fundamental results on various algorithms related to future broadband networks, including the development of new solutions. Such results, in the form of both scientific papers and software, were aimed at on three focus areas of the project: 1. Wireless mesh networks 2. Overlay networking 3. Monitoring and statistics

Methods or Processes Used •• •• •• •• •• •• •• ••

Queueing theory Optimization theory Stochastic geometry Random graph theory Theory of extremal distributions Simulation Multi-thread C programming of protocol software C++ programming for experimental p2p software.

Results Wireless mesh access networks

The modelling and analysis work in the wireless mesh area focused on the following main areas. Simple and robust dimensioning methods of wireless mesh networks (and more general data networks) from data traffic point of view based on a per-flow throughput performance criterion were developed [LPV06, LPV07, LPV09]. Improvement of

160

the file transfer performance of HSDPA systems by exploiting knowledge of the actual flow-level file sizes were studied. In a non-time-varying channel setting the system corresponds to an M/G/1 queue and the benefits are substantial [AL07]. Additionally, the case with time-varying channels combining opportunistic scheduling was studied [AL08]. Fundamental performance limits of large (infinite) multihop networks were also analyzed. The maximum achievable capacity in a single time slot corresponds to the maximal spatial reuse problem (or, in graph theory terms, to the maximum weight independent set problem). It was analyzed in [NVL08, NVL09b], where new computationally efficient methods were developed for the problem. Those results gave an upper bound for the capacity. Significantly tighter upper and lower bounds for the actual maximal flow were derived in [NVL09a] by using linear programming formulations. UH developed two novel software solutions related to mobility management: •• a new distributed mobility management protocol and signalling application operating over the NSIS protocol stack (see below), and •• a separate interface and route monitoring middleware to help applications in getting notifications if any routes or new hosts appear on the network. Teemu Huovila designed the solution, implemented it and demonstrated the functionality at ABI events. This work has since then been accepted for presentation at an IEEE conference [HM10].

Overlay networking algorithms

VTT (Hannu Reittu in particular) had earlier obtained important results on large random network topologies, where the node degrees are independently drawn from a distribution having infinite variance. Such topologies have interesting “Internet-like” features that help to understand how complex networks can obtain globally advantageous properties like very small distances without central planning. This work was continued in ABI by showing that although shortest paths typically visit “core” nodes with very high degrees, the topology has so much redundancy that the overall connectivity is not reduced much when all core nodes above some threshold are removed – the distances just get longer [NR09/IM]. These results were additionally published in the form of a semi-popular article in a special issue of IEEE Network on the scalability of Internet. Finally, coarse traffic modelling was incorporated into a mean-field version of the network model [Nor09]. VTT and TKK had developed in an earlier project (PAN-NET) the concept of an entirely trackerless BitTorrent-like file sharing system. The idea is to rely on randomness: peers contact each other randomly and, basically, download a chunk in each contact if possible. However, in its pure form this principle leads to a “rare chunk phenomenon”: one chunk becomes extremely rare, and the performance deteriorates. Some kind of favouring the download of a rare chunk was necessary, but this is non-trivial when there is no tracker functionality. First, a flash-crowd scenario was studied, both by simulations [NPR06,NPR07] and by running the PANNET client in PlanetLab [NPRBT07]. Then

the scenario was changed to continuous arrival of new peers, and the work focused on the stability of the systems. The functioning of various algorithms was analysed in simplified models with two chunks only. Finally, an original algorithm was developed that yields stable performance with any input rate of (although they leave the system immediately having obtained all chunks). The results were presented in the centennial seminar of Erlang’s formula in Copenhagen, and a journal paper was submitted afterwards. TKK also developed Markovian models of BitTorrent-like file sharing applications which allowed new insights to be obtained on the performance p2p file sharing applications. Models were developed for several scenarios: flash crowd setting [SA06], impact of physical topology in overlay routing [SAV06] and impact of different chunk selection policies [SA07]. The results formed a part of the PhD thesis of Riikka Susitaival, see [Sus07]. Fountain coding, developed by M. Luby et al, provides an appealing coding method for so called erasure channels. Analyzing the properties and optimizing the so-called degree distribution of the Fountain Coding method was considered in [ETV06,HTV07]. Ideas exploring the use of an initial round of uncoded packets combined with Fountain Coding-like principles was considered in [TV07,TV08]. Finally, the case of applying Fountain Coding ideas were applied for real-time streams in [TV08,TV09]. The results constitute the PhD thesis of Tuomas Tirronen (to be defended in Spring 2010). Another kind of forward error correction (FEC) was studied by Sebastian

Siikavirta (UH). We seeked to provide knowledge how well an open FEC algorithm based on Reed-Solomon coding works on a mobile device, in particular to understand the worth of using FEC on a mobile phone. The algorithm was implemented and experiment on a Nokia N800 Internet Tablet and our analysis showed that the CPU can actually perform enough calculations to fill the wireless link to its fullest. Signalling protocols, monitoring and statistics

One central theme in ABI was the development and standardization of network signalling protocols in the Internet Engineering Task Force. The work resulted in numerous IETF contributions and software products, including •• a high-performance implementation of the NSIS GIST transport protocol •• multicast extensions to GIST to enable signalling for a multicast service •• a remote API to enable deployment of NSIS signalling over nonGIST capable devices •• a monitoring signalling application (Mon NSLP) that provides a new abstraction and middleware for easy development of new network signalling applications, and the two mobility-related software items mentioned earlier above. The two first items were created by Nuutti Varis. The resulting new multicast extensions were incorporated into the standards-based GIST implementation. Experiments showed that our design works very well. A demonstration multicast application was implemented

to verify the design. We were not able to quantify and benchmark our standard GIST implementation against other open source implementation because they either had serious bugs, did not follow the standard specification, or had design issues which caused them to be mediocre solutions. After the project, we have continued working with the GIST implementation and are running performance measurements on high-performance routers. The remote API and monitoring application were created by Lauri Liuhto and integrated with our GIST software. Demonstration applications for network monitoring were implemented and successfully demonstrated in several ABI events. Publications about this work did not finish during the official project phase, but we have continued on these topics and will get a number of publications out in the near future. Moreover, UH (Tommi Saviranta) implemented the DCCP Congestion Control ID 4 (CCID 4) for VoIP packet flows into the Linux kernel and made large experiments to understand, how DCCP behaves with other competing TCP flows over a residential 1 Mbps access link. We also compared different CCID algorithms to understand how well the CCID 4 actually works. The results indicated that the proposed algorithm is not perfect and in many cases another CCID would be a far better option. ABI’s development of statistical methods concentrated on the new methodology which can be used to obtain an analytical model of dependence of two random variables, e.g., TCP flow size and flow duration, from the statistical analysis of corresponding measured values. The analytical model of depend-

161

ence can then further be used to estimate, both analytically and statistically, the ratio of the two random variables which in case of TCP flow size and duration is interpreted as the rate of the TCP flow. The methodology also contains a novel tool to test that the achieved statistical estimate of the rate is good. See [MK09] for details. Inter-disciplinarity

Besides the research objectives, ABI also set as its goal a closer collaboration between two research activity types, the model-based analytical research and the creation of working protocols and protocol software. As regards shared knowledge and discussion, this objective was realised well through almost monthly meetings of all participating people. Actual inter-disciplinary collaboration was realised in context of the mesh network report, monitoring techniques and FEC solutions.

Publications The following documents produced by ABI were published or accepted for publication. E. Hyytiä, T. Tirronen and J. Virtamo: “Optimizing the Degree Distribution of LT Codes with an Importance Sampling Approach”, in RESIM 2006, 6th International Workshop on Rare Event Simulation, Bamberg, Germany, 2006. P. Lassila, A. Penttinen and J. Virtamo: “Dimensioning of wireless mesh networks with flow-level QoS requirements”, in The 3rd ACM International Workshop on Performance Evaluation of Wireless Ad Hoc, Sensor, and Ubiquitous Networks (PE-WASUN 2006), Torremolinos, Spain, 2006.

162

I. Norros, B. Prabhu and H. Reittu: “Flash Crowd in a File Sharing System Based on Random Encounters”, in Inter-Perf, Pisa, Italy, October 2006. R. Susitaival, S. Aalto and J. Virtamo: “Analyzing the dynamics and resource usage of P2P file sharing systems by a spatio-temporal model”, in International Workshop on P2P for High Performance Computational Sciences (P2P-HPCS06) in conjunction with ICCS, Reading, UK, pp. 420–427, 2006. R. Susitaival and S. Aalto: “Modelling the population dynamics and the file availability in a BitTorrent-like p2p system with decreasing peer arrival rate”, in International Workshop on Self-Organizing Systems (IWSOS), Passau, Germany, pp. 34–48, 2006. J. Manner, G. Karagiannis and A. McDonald: “NSLP for Quality of Service Signaling”, Internet Draft, 2006. T. Huovila, P. Lassila, J. Manner and A. Penttinen: “State of the Art Analysis of Wireless Mesh Technologies”, 2006, ABI project technical report. S. Aalto and P. Lassila: “Impact of size-based scheduling on flow level performance in wireless downlink data channels”, in ITC 20, Ottawa, Canada, 2007. E. Hyytiä, T. Tirronen and J. Virtamo, Optimal Degree Distribution for LT Codes with Small Message Length, in INFOCOM 2007, 26th IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications, pp. 2576–2580, 2007, Anchorage, Alaska, USA. P. Lassila, A. Penttinen and J. Virtamo, Dimensioning methods for data networks with flow-level QoS requirements, in the 32nd IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), Dublin, Ireland, 2007.

I. Norros, V. Pehkonen, H. Reittu, A. Binzenhöfer and K. Tutschku, Relying on randomness u2014 PlanetLab experiments with distributed file-sharing protocols, in NGI 2007, Trondheim, Norway, May 2007. I. Norros, B. Prabhu and H. Reittu, On uncoordinated file distribution with non-altruistic downloaders, in ITC 20, Ottawa, Canada, June 2007. R. Susitaival and S. Aalto, Analyzing the file availability and download time in a P2P file sharing system, in NGI 2007, Trondheim, Norway, May 2007. T. Tirronen and J. Virtamo, Performance Analysis of Divided Random Linear Fountain,in Global Telecommunications Conference 2007, GLOBECOM'07, pp. 520-526, 2007, Washington, DC, USA. T. Sanda, X. Fu, S. Jeong, J. Manner, H. Tschofenig, Applicability Statement of NSIS Protocols in Mobile Environments, Internet Draft, 2007. F. Le Faucheur, J. Manner, D. Wing, A. Guillou, RSVP Proxy Approaches, Internet Draft, December 2007. F. Le Faucheur, J. Manner, A. Narayanan, A. Guillou, RSVP Extensions for PathTriggered RSVP Receiver Proxy, Internet Draft, December 2007. J. Manner, L. Liuhto, N. Varis and T. Huovila, Peering Data for NSIS NSLPs, Internet Draft, 2007. J. Manner, GIST over DCCP and TLS, Internet Draft, 2007. J. Manner, M. Stiemerling and H. Tschofenig, Authorization for NSLP, Internet Draft, 2007. R. Susitaival, Traffic engineering in the Internet: From traffic characterization to load balancing and peer-to-peer file sharing, PhD Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2007.

I. Norros and H. Reittu, Network models with a 'soft hierarchy': A random graph construction with loglog scalability. IEEE Network 22:2, 2008. P. Lassila and P. Kuusela, Performance of TCP on low-bandwidth wireless links with delay spikes, European Transactions on Telecommunications 19:6, 653–667, 2008. S. Aalto and U. Ayesta, Recent sojourn time results for Multilevel Processor-Sharing scheduling disciplines. Statistica Neerlandica, vol. 62, pp. 266–282, 2008. V. Pla, J. Virtamo and J. Martínez-Bauset, Optimal robust policies for bandwidth allocation and admission control in wireless networks. Computer Networks, vol. 52, pp. 3258–3272, 2008. I. Norros and H. Reittu, Urn models and peer-to-peer file sharing. PHYSCOMNET’08, April 2008, Berlin. Extended abstract. G.S. Paschos, P. Mannersalo and T.M. Bohnert, Cell Capacity for IEEE 802.16 Coverage Extension 2nd IEEE International Broadband Wireless Access Workshop, Las Vegas, USA, 2008. V. Pla, J. Virtamo and J. MartínezBauset, Optimal Robust Policies for Bandwidth Allocation and Admission Control in Wireless Networks. in Valuetools 2008, 3rd International Conference on Performance Evaluation Methodologies and Tools, 2008, Athens, Greece. E. Hyytiä and J. Virtamo: Near-optimal load balancing in dense wireless multihop networks. NGI 2008, Krakow, April 2008. T. Tirronen and J. Virtamo, Greedy approach for efficient packet erasure coding. 5th International Symposium

on Turbo Codes and Related Topics, Lausanne, September 2008. J. Nousiainen, J. Virtamo and P. Lassila, Forwarding Capacity of an Infinite Wireless Network. In Proceedings of ACM MSWiM, pp. 177–184, Oct. 2008, Vancouver, Canada. P. Lassila and S. Aalto, Combining opportunistic and size-based scheduling in wireless systems. in Proceedings of ACM MSWiM, pp. 323– 332, 2008, Vancouver, CA S. Aalto and U. Ayesta, Optimal scheduling of jobs with a DHR tail in the M/G/1 queue. in Valuetools 2008, 3rd International Conference on Performance Evaluation Methodologies and Tools, 2008, Athens, Greece. T. Tirronen and J. Virtamo, Finding fountain codes for real-time data by fixed point method. ISITA2008, Auckland, December 2008. J. Manner, A. McDonald, IANA Considerations for the IPv4 and IPv6 Router Alert Option. Internet Draft, February 2008. J. Manner and R. Bless, What is Next Steps in Signaling anyway - A User's Guide to the NSIS. Internet Draft, IETF, January, 2008. J. Manner, G. Karagiannis and A. McDonald, NSLP for Quality of Service Signaling. Internet Draft, 2008. T. Saviranta, DCCP VoIP-sovellusten kuljetusprotokollana. MSc. thesis, University of Helsinki, 2008. S. Siikavirta, Toistokorjausalgoritmit multimedian siirrossa matkapuhelinverkoissa. MSc. thesis, University of Helsinki, 2008. N. Varis, Multicast support for GIST. MSc. thesis, University of Helsinki, 2008. J. Nousiainen, Forwarding capacity of an infinite homogeneous wireless

network, Master's Thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2008. P. Lassila and A. Penttinen, Survey on performance analysis of cognitive radio networks. Helsinki University of Technology, 2008. Project report. E. Jokinen, Verkkokoodaus. B.Sc. thesis (in Finnish), December 2008. P. Lassila, A. Penttinen and J. Virtamo, Dimensioning of data networks: a flow-level perspective. European Transactions on Telecommunications, vol. 20, pp. 549–563, 2009. M. Markovich and J. Kilpi, Bivariate statistical analysis of TCP-flow sizes and durations. Annals of Operations Research 170:1, 199–216, 2009. I. Norros and H. Reittu, On the attack resistance of power-law random graphs in the finite mean, infinite variance region. Internet Mathematics, 2009, accepted. S. Aalto, U. Ayesta and R. Righter, On the Gittins index in the M/G/1 queue. Queueing Systems, 2009, accepted. I. Norros and H. Reittu, On the stability of two-chunk file-sharing systems. In "100 yeas of queueing - The Erlang Centennial". Copenhagen, April 2009. J. Nousiainen and P. Lassila, Approximating maximum directed flow in a large wireless network. IEEE ICC, June 2009, Dresden, Germany. T. Tirronen and J. Virtamo, Performance Analysis of Sliding Window Based Erasure Correction for Real-Time Traffic. NGI'09, Aveiro, Portugal, July 2009. I. Norros, A mean-field approach to some Internet-like random networks. ITC 21, Paris, September 2009. J. Nousiainen, J. Virtamo and P. Lassila, Maximum weight independent sets in an infinite plane. ITC 21, Paris, September 2009.

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Project Volume

T. Tirronen, Sliding Window-Based Erasure Correction Using Biased Sampling. in 4th International Conference on Systems and Networks Communications, ICSNC 2009, pp. 144–152, 2009, Porto, Portugal. T. Sanda, X. Fu, S. Jeong, J. Manner and H. Tschofenig, Applicability Statement of NSIS Protocols in Mobile Environments. Internet Engineering Task Force. Internet Draft, March 2009. J. Manner, R. Bless, J. Loughney and E.B. Davies, Using and Extending the NSIS Protocol Family. Internet Engineering Task Force. Internet Draft, March 2009. T. Huovila and J. Manner, A distributed end host mobility protocol for mesh networks. Information Technology: New Generations 2010 (ITNG'10), April 2010.

EUR 1 720 000 Project Participants

The project was carried out by Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), Helsinki University of Technology (TKK) and University of Helsinki (UH).    The project was funded by Tekes, Ericsson, Nokia / Nokia Siemens Networks and VTT. Project Manager

Research Professor Ilkka Norros (VTT) Tel. +358 40 563 6628 [email protected]

The total number of literal and software outputs that are originated in the ABI project are given in the following table. Publications

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Total

International Journal papers

4

Conference papers

5

7

9

6

Standardization contributions

1

6

3

2

Project reports published on web site

1

2

Published software items

1

PhD theses

1

Master theses Total

164

4

15

1

28 12 3

9

10 1

4 7

8

22

4 21

66

Broadband Ethernet Multi Service Networks (Laajakaistaiset Ethernetmonipalveluverkot, LEM) Objectives The objective of the LEM project was to create technology knowledge for Ethernet based network products and IP based high speed subscriber networks. In the first phase this project was technology learning project. The ultimate target was solution for 100Mbit/s – 1 Gbit/s broadband connections to all cable tv subscribers based on utilising existing coaxial cable access networks. The solution had to be compatible with existing cable modem systems and cable tv infrastructure. One requirement for the project was modularity. The same hardware and software components should also be used in IP based video surveillance networks and products.

Methods or Processes Used The project consisted of four different subprojects: Ethernet based network solutions, optical systems, digital video processing and management systems. All subprojects were carried out simultaneously and the R&D ended up to integration testing of the final network solutions. The concept creation and definition work was carried out as in house research project and the actual implementation project was done together with R&D partners. R&D partners were mainly Finnish technology vendors.

Results The project was complicated and multi dimensional. The technology learning was one important target and the most important was development of the new product platforms and concepts. The learning process gave us skills to move to the next level in Ethernet and IP technology. Several new product concepts were created in this three year project. The most challenging was the ETTH concept (Ethernet ToThe Home), which make possible 10Mbit/s symmetrical Ethernet connectivity in cable tv network without any extra set top boxes. Later the data rate was increased to 100Mbit/s. The developed technology consists of Ethernet switches, high speed RF data modems and special passive broadband network devices. The optical systems subproject was mainly research project. We made feasibility study together with VTT about PON (Passive Optical Networks) and in our R&D we studied different DWDM and CWDM concepts. As result of this project the new high density optical transmitter platform HDO and optical multi wavelength transmission system OPX were developed. The Digital video processing subproject focused on MPEG-4 codec, video recording and image analysis development. Together with TUT (Tampere University of Technology) we developed DSP based MPEG-4 encoder platform, which was used in Teleste’s video surveillance products.

The management systems covered configuration , network element and service management aspects. The work was done for above mentioned product platforms.

Community Connect Description of the Objectives

Concilio Mobile Gateway Suite

Concilio Community Connect –solution (CCS) is a server solution, that bridges Circuit Switched GSM/3G mobile networks with internet communities and internet voice and messaging systems. CCS allows use of existing mobile phones for making voice calls to internet services like WLM, Google Talk, Yahoo and for instant messaging using SMS on the handset. Also it allows posting messages to FaceBook type of social media and to subscribe newsfeeds. CCS brings internet community presence to the native contact application of existing mobile phones and allows users to update their own community presence status using SMS turning presence into a dynamic communication tool.

Description of the Objectives

Project Participant

Concilio’s Project DGSM enables VoIP benefits to all 2G/3G mobile handsets - even the oldest models by connecting 2G/3G circuit-switched radio access network to the Internet. For new Wi-Fi capable handsets Concilio’s Project DGSM makes roaming between 2G/3G and Wi-Fi networks seamless using standard mobile numbers without need for cumbersome dual numbering schemes or client software. Concilio’s Project DGSM converts VoIP networks, including P2P ones, into mobile core networks and makes Wi-Fi networks look like cellular radio access networks.

Concilio Networks Oy

Project Participants

Teleste R&D team and R&D partners Project Manager

Petri Sainio Additional Information

Ilkka Ritakallio Teleste Oyj Tel. +358 (0)400 228 658 [email protected]

Project Participant

Concilio Networks Oy

165

IPv6 compatibility Objectives In this project, the objectives are to analyze the different alternatives for implementing a Mobile VPN product that is IPv6 compliant to gather customer requirements, to establish a roadmap for IPv6 compliance, to schedule the implementation and finally to implement the IPv6 compliance in the product portfolio.

Methods or Processes Used Birdstep's enterprise Mobile VPN product utilizes Mobile IPv4 and IPsec to enable VPN experience that easy-to-use and tolerant for unreliable and sometimes slow mobile networks. IPsec is used for authenticating the communicating parties and encrypting the network traffic.

166

Mobile IP v4 is used for maintaining the VPN sessions even in situations where the underlying access network connection changes. IPv6 protocol brings new requirements for such a VPN. The IP mobility protocols are heavily dependent on the IP protocol version and Mobile IP protocol in particular is drastically different for IPv4 and for IPv6.

Results The project is still ongoing and not all the results are known at the time of writing this. Specifically, the primary objective of making the product fully IPv6 compliant is still work-in-progress. As intermediate results, the awareness of IPv6 within the engineering team has been raised, IPv6 laboratory has been set up to support various

IPv6 enabled access and core network scenarios. Various implementation alternatives have been studied and prototyped and the implementation work is underway. Project Participants

Birdstep Technology Oy Project Manager

Juha Eskelin Additional Information

Juha Eskelin Birdstep Technology Oy Tel. +358 (0)20 740 2555

3.3 Thematic Group 3: Network Support Focus of the Group The thematic group focused on area termed Network Support Systems and Services. Area includes networks operations support systems and business support systems and Customer Relationship Management. The main objectives of the group were: •• market study of the Network Support focus area •• assist SME companies to find new business opportunities •• networking of the companies, research institutes and universities •• dissemination of the research results (research organizations) •• dissemination of the information by presentations of the companies/activities and by public seminars •• inform the participants about the important events of the field. All these objectives were addressed to some degree by the thematic group activities. However, most focus was paid to the market study, networking and disseminating information.

Group’s Cluster/Networks in Finland The persons actively involved to the work of the thematic group were: Pekka Belt (University of Oulu) Chair 2006– 2008, Eero Laine (Oulu Innovation, Octopus) Chair 2008–2010, Jouko Sankala (Nethawk Oyj), Jyrki Huhta (Clarified Networks), Marko Palola (VTT), Jor-

ma Hämäläinen (Creanord), Matti Möttönen (University of Oulu), Heikki Hänninen (Netcare Finland), J. Marko Heikkinen (Tekes), Ilkka Ritakallio (Teleste), Jouko Kortelainen (Tellabs), Juha Holkkola (Nixu), Veli-Pekka Ketonen (7signal), Tom Weckström (Segco), Ilkka Norros (VTT), Jorma Kilpi (VTT), Timo Tepponen (BaseN) and Jorma Mellin (PDC Song). In addition several experts visited the thematic group meetings to present their activities in the field. We also want to thank all these persons for their contribution to the thematic group work.

Network Support Systems and Services market study Main purpose in market study was to get the definition and division of the Network Support Systems and Services market, its size and growth. The market study was done by SWOT Consulting as an external consultant and published in autumn 2008 (http://www.tekes.fi/programmes/Giga/Documents).

Other Activities and Results The thematic group had 10 meetings organized in the Helsinki area and in Oulu hosted by VTT, University of Oulu, Centre for Economic Development, Transport and the Environment and Tekes. The main activities of the thematic group were to define and steer Network Support Systems and Services market study, plan international marketing activities, to organise the thematic group seminar and to follow up on the technology development with presentations by group members and experts from the field.

Seminars The thematic group organized a thematic group 3 kick-off meeting 16.10. The thematic group participated also in organizing public seminars on 1.4.2008 and 20.10.2009 under the title “GIGA Results Promotion”. The seminars aroused very wide interest and had more than 100 registered participants. Seminar on Network Support Systems and Services market study was arranged at 11.6.2008 with program: •• Network Support Systems & Services-business, Mikael von Hertzen, SWOT Consulting Oy, Finland •• NSSS-business possiblities, Sami Kangasharju, SWOT Consulting Oy, Finland •• SME companies in changing telecommunications value chain, Hannu Flinck, Nokia Siemens Networks Oy •• New operator concept, Virtual operator, Jouni Vahtera, Aina Group Oyj •• Company case Creanord, Jorma Hämäläinen, Creanord Oy.

Conclusion In general, the thematic group activities attracted good participation and made a clear contribution to the objectives set. The participants felt that this is a unique group in Finland in its field and it included the most important national players both from the company and research sides. The thematic group members participated actively in the steering market study, which was considered especially valuable by the group members.

167

Project Reports Crosslayer Solutions and Network Support for Broadband Wireless (CrossNet), VTT Project Duration

1 January 2008 to 30 June 2010 During its lifetime, CrossNet project has been involved in Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Description of the Objectives The CrossNet project was a crosslayer network support function and optimization research and development project for evolving broadband wireless access standards. The goal was to connect the existing physical layer simulation and hardware emulation models to the high layer network emulators and testers. This provides opportunities for network testing equipment development and network protocol crosslayer optimization in practical networks and products. The main application system was the 3G Long Term Evolution (LTE) system and standard. The final goal of the CrossNet framework was to build wrap-around LTE eNb testing environment.

Methods or Processes Used Practical work in the project was based on real case studies. Tools, methods and processes of the project were developed according to the experiences of the case studies and validated by performing tests and monitoring in real context.

168

The project was divided into two phases. During Phase I (2008), the emphasis concentrated more on software components of the system, whereas during Phase II (2009), also implementation issues brought into the picture. Moreover, the exact objectives for the second phase were defined during first phase. Following case studies were under work during the main project: •• Wrap-around LTE testing environment; Main case study was the building of research prototype of wrap-around testing environment for eNB of Long Term Evolution LTE. •• Work station testing study; Simulation-based integration testing study describes a practical case study where a simulation-based integration testing approach with a graphical test case editing was experimented. •• Hybrid Testing study; The hybrid testing proposes merging of different testing activities in a manner that they can be executed in same testing environment. The goal of the hybrid testing approach is to alleviate the need for maintenance of multiple test environments and test artifacts. In the case study hybrid testing environment was used for various testing phases that are typically executed in its own testing environments. •• Software model development and testing; This study was to implement the required sub-set of LTE protocols needed to connect the developed L1/L2 simulators or

••

testbeds to the higher layer protocols and equipment. Testing activities were performed in Network Processor Unit (NPU) environment. Application testing study; The aim of this study during CrossNet project was the LTE system performance from the point of view of the application.

Tool development was performed within Elektrobit and NetHawk product family.

Results The main result in the project was the CrossNet common laboratory. Results are disseminated in publications, seminar and demonstrations. Overall view to the project work and results is collected to technical final report of the project.

Publications The following publications were written in CrossNet project: Hybrid Approach for Protocol Testing of LTE System; A Practical Case Study, Juho Perälä, Petri Jurmu, Jarno Pinola, VALID2010 Conference. ‘Varmuutta tietoliikennejärjestelmiin’ article about CrossNet results will be published in Prosessori magazine in the beginning of year 2011. White paper ‘Towards Efficient Testing of Future Telecommunication Standards’ Following publications are currently under preparation

Towards continuous integration with simulation-based integration testing; Practical case study, Petri Jurmu, Juho Perälä, Jarno Pinola not approved in

TAIC PART 2010. It will be updated and submitted to another conference. Conference publication ‘Wrap-around testing environment for eNB base station’.

Crosslayer Solutions and Network Support for Broadband Wireless Access (CrossNet), University of Oulu (CWC)

Seminars

Project Duration

••

Public Testing solutions for 4G Radio Access Technologies -seminar was arranged 19.6.2010 in Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT to disseminate results of the project.

Demonstrations

••

Several demonstrations for industrial companies.

Project Volume

EUR 387 480 Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu and by VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.    The project was funded by Tekes, EXFO NetHawk Oyj, Elektrobit System Test Oy, Nokia Oyj, Nokia Siemens Networks Oy, CWC and VTT. Project Coordinator

Petri Jurmu VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Tel. +358 (0)40 535 2341 [email protected]

1 April 2008 to 30 June 2010 During its lifetime, Crossnet project has been involved in Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Description of the Objectives The objective of the project was to create software models of physical (PHY), medium access control (MAC) and radio link control (RLC) layers in order to connect them to Nethawk’s EAST network simulation tool, which is able to simulate operation of upper layers of desired target system. In this way we are able to build a testing platform with full protocol stack, on which future wireless broadband solutions can be tested and developed. The target system is 3GPP UMTS Long Term Evolution (3G LTE). All sublayers were to be developed according to 3GPP specifications. Methods or Processes Used Work has been carried out in two target environments. RLC and MAC layer were developed in prototype environment on Network Processor Unit (NPU) using C programming language. NPU enables us to process the packets easily with features such as checksum calculation and checking, automatic retransmission, operation on packet headers etc. PHY layer has been implemented on desktop PC in Matlab®. The model is

based on OFDM simulation models developed previously in CWC. Communication with EAST as well as between layers is done through UDP packets. All layers can be tested independently which makes future research work easier.

Results At the end of the project we were able to achieve the main goals of the work. Communication with Nethawk’s EAST network simulator is working in both directions as expected. Models of both RLC and MAC sublayers of layer 2 are running on network processor unit. Communication and data exchange with PHY layer on separate PC has also been established. As Crossnet project has proved to be a success, a continuation of the development in new project is planned. Established platform will serve as a base for future work and will be expanded into 3G Long Term Evolution Advanced (3G LTE-A) technology. Project Volume

EUR 350 000 Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Centre for Wireless Communications (CWC), University of Oulu and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. The project was funded by Tekes, Elektrobit, Nethawk, Nokia, Nokia Siemens Networks, VTT and CWC. Project Manager

Marek Skowron University of Oulu Tel. +358 (0)8 553 2835 [email protected]

169

Crosslayer Solutions and Network Support for Broadband Wireless Access (CrossNet), NetHawk Oyj Objectives The CrossNet project focused on crosslayer optimization and testing tool development to support the R&D, deployment, installation, optimization and testing of future wireless networks. The project included parallel activities by two research units (CWC, University of Oulu; and VTT Technical Research Centre) and by four participating companies (Nokia Siemens Networks, Nokia, Elektrobit and NetHawk). Evolving access network technologies, all-IP solutions, and especially the

central role of the eNB in the LTE architecture increase the importance of eNB and terminal testing in LTE networks. As one of the pioneers of protocol testing, NetHawk bas been developing testing tools for functional and load testing for wireless and core network protocols since 1991. However, LTE technology creates new testing needs that require better access to air interface and internal interfaces of the eNB. Also, the role of the terminal/eNB SW testing in workstation environment will increase. Furthermore, due to the increased QoS and QoE needs of the mobile applications, the end-to-end testing (terminal userservice provider) should be possible as early and as realistic as possible already in the workstation testing phase. The main objective was to create a proto-

type of a testing system that allows testing of the LTE protocol stacks up to the application level both in workstation and with real terminal/eNB HW, using the same test scenarios and equipment.

Results The main concrete result by CrossNet project from NetHawk point of view was that we succeeded to combine the existing expertise of radio access technology and networking technology amongst the project partners and build up the CrossNet laboratory. The high-level architecture of the CrossNet laboratory environment is presented in next figure. The NSN LTE eNB prototype is the System Under Test (SUT). NetHawk EAST500 test equipment communicates with the eNB and can also use simulated radio channel provided by EB PROPSim C8. NetHawk EAST500 handles the test case execution and management. NetHawk M5 is used for monitoring simultaneously several system interfaces and provides information of the message exchange procedures on all protocol levels of the communication protocol stack. This wraparound testing concept enables flexible testing of SUTs with varying characteristics. Project Manager

Jouko Sankala Additional Information

NetHawk Oyj Tel. +358 (0)40 3010 300

170

Crosslayer Solutions and Network Support for Broadband Wireless Access (CrossNet), Elektrobit System Test Oy Overview CrossNet project (Crosslayer Solutions and Network Support for Broadband Wireless Access) focused on cross-layer optimization and testing tool development to support the deployment, installation, optimization and testing of future wireless networks. CrossNet_EB project studied air interface testing in those future networks. The goal was to connect the physical layer simulation models and hardware emulation instruments to the high layer network emulators and testers. This enable possibility to develop systems for comprehensive air interface testing. The target technology was 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) but also other potential new wireless standards and technologies were kept into scope of the project.

Project implementation and results During 2008 EB focused on development of physical layer tester for upcoming LTE standard. With the tester user can generate signal to test LTE receivers and capture/analyze signal to test LTE transmitter. Prototypes of the tester were implemented and verified. Tester is not eventually taken into use in Crossnet laboratory but building blocks for LTE were developed in the project. In 2009 EB studied the requirements for LTE air interface testing and radio channel emulation. Studies were not limited to LTE standard only but requirements for forthcoming new wireless standards were investigated wide-

ly. Based on the studies requirements for new features of radio channel emulator were identified. Those features include enhanced capability to emulate long channel sequences as well as new user friendly and cost efficient methods to use measured radio channel characteristics in laboratory emulation. Also methods to implement larger radio channel emulation systems to support complex MIMO configurations as well as network level testing were studied and one selected method was implemented and further verified. New features are available for use of Crossnet and its successor project called Atlas.

Dissimilation Elektrobit participated seminar ‘Testing Solutions for 4G Radio Access Technologies’ in June 2010 and presented part of product results there. Project Participants

of broadcast and unicast network technologies. The work was divided into three tasks: •• DVB-H network components •• Network support and novel networking solutions •• New service concepts and service pilots. The first task focused on designing and developing DVB-H transmission system suitable for laboratory and field testing, and enabling local mobile broadcast services. The second task focused on designing and developing networking components compatible with results of task 1, enabling a common service platform combining different IP based access networks, including GPRS/UMTS, WLAN, WiMAX and DVB-H. In the third task different service concepts were designed, implemented and piloted on field trials and exhibitions.

Elektrobit System Test Oy

Results

Project Manager

Results of task 1

Seppo Salonen

The main result of task 1 is an ETSI and OMA standards compatible DVB-H tranmission system, DVB-H LITE. The general architecture of DVB-H LITE is illustrated in Figure 1. DVB-H LITE consists of the following modules: 1. ESG LITE ESG LITE is a Service Guide generator for mobile TV services. It is compatible with OMA BCAST 1.0 (http://www.openmobilealliance.org/ Technical/release_program/bcast_ v1_0.aspx) and bmcoforum 2.0 profiles (http://bmcoforum.org/index.php?id=191). It supports multilingual TV program guide, channel logos, operator specific service selection and interactivity features.

GAP Project Duration

GAP project was part of Tekes GIGA – Converging Networks technology programme, during period of January 1st 2007 to December 31st 2008.

Objectives The objective of GAP project was to study, develop and implement new methods and solutions for the more efficient delivery of end-user servicesin wireless communication networks. The focus was on efficient integration

171

It is controlled via a web interface. ESG LITE is implemented in Java and runs on GNU/Linux OS or Windows XP (or later). 2. FLUTE LITE FLUTE LITE is a filecast transmitter utilizing the FLUTE (File Delivery over Unidirectional Transport) protocol, as described in IETF RFC 3926 (http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3926). The FLUTE LITE is utilized to deliver ESG to user equipment, and to deliver other file based content. ESG LITE is implemented in Java and runs on GNU/Linux OS or Windows XP (or later). 3. IPE LITE IPE LITE is an IP Encapsulator, time slicer (according to ETSI EN 301 192) and MPEG2 Transport Stream multiplexer (according to ISO/IEC 138181). It also generates the DVB-H specific PSI/SI information according

Figure 1. DVB-H LITE architecture.

172

to ETSI TS 102 470-1. The input of IPE LITE is a multicast or unicast IP stream, and the output is DVB-H compatible MPEG2 TS. IPE LITE is implemented in C and runs on GNU/ Linux OS. IPE LITE also provides control interface for Dektec DTA-family PCI modulators. 4. Additional Open Source components Some existing Open Source software components are utilized in DVB-H LITE. The system runs on a single box GNU/Linux installation. MP4LIVE is utilized to create h.264 RTP video streams in realtime, e.g. by capturing webcam content and delivering it over DVB-H. The audio is generated using FAAC (Free Advanced Audio Codec). Darwin Streaming Server is utilized to create video playlists to play out video files over RTP to IPE LITE.

In addition to DVB-H LITE, protocol analyzers for DVB-H link and application layers were designed and implemented. TSAR is a TS Analyzer, and ESGERA is an ESG analyzer. 1. TSAR is an MPEG2 TS analyzer for DVB-H. TSAR •• Analyzes Transport Stream againt standard specifications and reports suspicious or erroneous data •• Checks Transport Stream packet compliance •• Analyzes MPE/MPE-FEC section headers and content •• Analyzes time slicing and burst construction •• Constructs PSI/SI tables and analyzes table consistency and validity, locates IP streams

2. ESGERA is an OMA BCAST 1.0 compatible Service Guide Analyzer. ESGERA analyzes •• Service Guide against standard specifications and reports suspicious or erroneus data •• File input or live stream •• FLUTE sessions •• Service Guide bootstrap •• Announcement session with SGDD and SGDU analysis •• Service Guide fragments with XML schema analysis and fragment reference analysis

Figure 2. OSSG General Architecture.

Results of task 2

The main result of task 2 is software architecture for supporting multinetwork content delivery over broadcast and unicast networks. This concept is called OSSG (Operator Specific Service Guide). Figure 2 presents the general architecture of OSSG. In the architecture, utilization of DVB-H LITE hybrid network platform is assumed. DVB-H LITE with OSSG is designed to enable integration with multinetwork environment, i.e. to integrate with cellular and wireless local area networks. In Figure 3, the OSSG Client architecture is illustrated. The main parts of OSSG are Content Manager and Content Database on the Server side, and Network Manager and GUI Applications on the Client side. With the OSSG Content Manager, services are constructed by combining different pieces of content, and an OSSG Menu structure may be created. Distinct delivery network information is attached to the services, and the OSSG Menu is announced on the networks. In the OSSG Client, the OSSG Network Manager is utilized to discover available networks and services in the networks. The OSSG GUI Applications provide us-

Figure 3. OSSG Client Architecture.

173

er interface, and manage control flows through OSSG Network Manager. The control flows consist of controlling the behavior of the OSSG Network Manager, and ordering content through different network interfaces. A working prototype of OSSG was implemented, the OSSG server software was written in Pyhton, and example OSSG Client applications were implemented in Java, J2ME and J2SE according to what platform, mobile or desktop was uitlized. Network Manager implementations were written for both J2SE and Symbian S60 platform. Results of task 3

In task 3, the implementations of task 1 and 2 were utilized in designing new service concepts, and the concepts were field trialled in various events. The first OSSG prototype service demonstrations were held before project start in Autumn 2006, in the opening of Ideapark in Lempäälä and IST i2010 congress. During 2007 and 2008, OSSG pilots were divided to two categories, OSSG Menu pilots and OSSG RoadTV pilots. OSSG Menu defines a GUI application for presenting content metadata from various sources and networks under one user interface, usually in a menu structure. In OSSG RoadTV, the service content is road traffic related, and most of the content is delivered over DVB-H vehicles (utilizing Digita’s DVB-H network), and further transmitted to mobile devices inside the vehicle over WLAN. Both categories utilize the same technical infrastructure.

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OSSG Menu pilots and demonstrations were held in Ilosaarirock 2007, where also converged mobile TV pilot was held. In the Converged mobile TV pilot, the festival content was delivered locally over DVB-H, DVB-T and WLAN, and nationwide over Sonera’s Mobile TV (cellular) and Digita’s DVBH network. OSSG Menu was also demonstrated in several exhibitions, including 3GSM2007, IBC2007, 3GSM2008 and IBC2008. OSSG RoadTV field trials were held in Oulu in collaboration with Elektobit and Digita, in Spring 2007, Autumn 2007 and Autumn 2008. In 2007 the trial contained delivery of driver assistance content like speed limits, maps, weather and point of interest data. In 2008 the trials concentrated on delivery of Mobile TV over multiple networks to vehicles.

Publications Adaptive Power Saving on the Receiver Side in Digital Video Broadcasting Systems Based on Progressive Video Codecs. Eugeniy Belyaev, Timo Koski, Jarkko Paavola, Andrey Tiurlikov, Anna Ukhanova. The 11th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications. September 8–11 2008, Lapland, Finland. Technology Platform for AutoICT Services and Applications. Timo Koski, Satu Kantola, Jarkko Paavola, Mikko Jalonen. The 11th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications. September 8–11, 2008, Lapland, Finland.

Operator Specific Service Guide for Content Distribution in Hybrid Networks. Timo Koski, Jarkko Paavola, Alexey Dudkov, Mikko Jalonen. IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting 2009. May 13–15, 2009, Bilbao, Spain. Five-level DVB-H Protocol Analysis for Interoperability Testing Purposes. Timo Koski, Arto Hamara, Jarkko Paavola, Harri Pekonen, Jyrki Alamaunu, Mikko Jalonen, Manuel Velez. IEEE International Symposium on Broadband Multimedia Systems and Broadcasting 2009. May 13–15, 2009, Bilbao, Spain. Theses

IP Packet Level Diversity Reception of Filecast Over DVB-H. Mikko Tuumanen, M.Sc. thesis 2008. Delivery of Multimedia Services in Converged Broadcast and Unicast Wireless Networks. Timo Koski, M.Sc. thesis 2008. Project Volume

EUR 500 000 Project Participants

The project was carried out by Dtv group of University of Turku, Department of Information Technology.    The project was funded by Tekes, Elektrobit Ltd., Nokia Ltd., Digita Ltd, and Icareus Ltd.

Ultra Broadband Networks and Services (ULA) Objectives The objective of the ULA project was development of product solutions for ultra broadband networks and distribution of HDTV services in cable tv and IPTV networks. The same technologies were planned to be used also in digital video surveillance products. The end to end system integration knowledge was the ultimate target for the project.

Methods or Processes Used The project was based on experience from the former Tekes project LEM. ULA project consisted of many different subprojects: IP video processing center, very high speed subscriber connectivity, Gigahertz wideband amplifiers and optics, xDSL and wireless solutions and service management All subprojects were carried out simultaneously and the R&D ended up to integration testing of the final network solutions. The concept creation and definition work was carried out as in house research project and the actual implementation project was done together with R&D partners. R&D partners were mainly Finnish technology vendors.

Results Subproject IP video processing center was the product platform project, which includes digital video input modules, decryption/encryption and digital video output modules. The commercial name of final product is LUMINATO, which can process hundreds of DVB streams in one box and feed cable TV or IPTV network.

Technical alternatives for very high speed data connection was studied (FTTH (Fibre To The Home),gigabit ETTH and RFoG). HDTV services require more bandwidth and the next logical step for cable tv networks was 1000Mhz. New amplifier and fiber transmission technology was developed and new Gigahertz products were launched. New AC3000 and AC8000 product platforms are also “intelligent” network elements with automatic setup functions and controls. Comprehensive studies were done about XDSL and Wireless systems for video transmission. Based on the results wireless CCTV camera system was built. The management systems covered network element and service management aspects. Interoperability and SDK’s were important issue. The work was done for above mentioned product platforms. In ULA project usability was strategic target. System setup and configuration was much faster and easier in these new products. Especially the new AC3000/8000 products are unique in the market. Project Participants

Teleste R&D team and R&D partners Project Manager

Ilkka Ritakallio Additional Information

Ilkka Ritakallio Teleste Oyj Tel. +358 (0)400 228 658 [email protected]

Dependability evaluation methods for IP networks, phase 2 (IPLU-II) Project Duration

1 January 2007 to 30 June 2009 The motivation of the IPLU project in 2006 and its follow-up IPLU-II, which was accepted to GIGA, was the concern about the dependability of the envisioned IP-based communication infrastructure. IPLU's task was to create a broad conceptual framework for considering the complex problem "Can one rely on IP technology?" and to identify and develop methods for assessing the dependability of IP networks. IPLU-II continued with selected focused topics.

Description of the Objectives A. In real world: (i) specify network reliability requirements and identification of weak points, (ii) improve dependability monitoring and reporting, (iii) optimal allocation of dependability improvements, (iv) reduce faults caused by human errors. B. In world of research: (i) develop the dependability case methodology to a useful tool, (ii) develop algorithms for availability monitoring, data collection and statistical inference, (iii) develop models for studying dependability improvements and their costs together, (iv) make Communication Network Operation (CNO) work an object of research, (v) develop the multidisciplinary way of research further. C. In world of organizations: (i) continue and deepen the interaction started in IPLU between research, industry and public authorities in the field of

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network dependability, (ii) strengthen the position of Finland within this field.

Methods or Processes Used ••

•• •• •• •• ••

Dependability case methodology, originated in IPLU, for relating together information of all aspects of the dependability of a network. Mathematical statistics and data mining Graph theory Reliability theory Palm theory of stationary stochastic processes Human activity theory.

Results To objective B(i): The methodology was tested by building an experimental but rather comprehensive dependability case of the Funet network, in collaboration with CSC. The approach was found promising. It was presented in two conferences, the second with a full paper. To objective B(ii): Detailed analysis of the notion of IP availability. A method for IP-TV fault diagnosis. A case study on anomaly detection for server data. To objective B(iii): A comparative study of protection of MPLS multicast trees. A review of various means to improve network dependability and their CAPEX and OPEX costs. A technique for computing statistic characteristics of multiple failures when component (node or link) failures are modelled as independent on/off processes. A methodology for comparing the effectiveness of reactive and proactive reliability improvement strategies by mapping them to parameter changes in the on/ off processes modelling network components. 176

To objective B(iv): Core-task analysis of the demands and characteristics of CNO work. To the organizational objectives: C(i): the case studies with partners and the rather frequent management committee meetings worked quite well in this respect also. C(ii): thanks to expertise created in IPLU and IPLU-II, VTT became the coordinator of workpackage “Design of optimal highly dependable networks” in the Euro-NF NoE. To the real-world objectives A(i)A(iv): the project may have had slight influence in these directions at some operator partners, at least the human factor study at Elisa was experienced as mutually rewarding.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 January 2007 to 30 June 2009. (Literally taken, one report and the executive summary were finished after summer holidays in August 2009. We also mention one report that is still under work but will be finished in October 2009.) Pertti Raatikainen: “Cost to build dependable all-IP networks”. A report of the IPLU-II project, December 2007. P. Kuusela: “Case study: Reliability of MPLS multicast”. IPLU-II project report, May 7, 2008. I.Norros, P.Kuusela and P. Savola: “Dependability case of Funet's core network”. A deliverable of IPLU-II. Linked picture and hypertext, 2008. I.Norros, P.Kuusela and P. Savola: “A dependability case approach to the assessment of IP networks”. The First International Workshop on Dependability and Security in Complex and Critical Information Systems

(DEPEND2008), August 2008. Available at IEEE Xplore Digital Library. J. Kilpi. ”IP-Availability and SLA”. International Workshop on Traffic Management and Traffic Engineering for the Future Internet (FITraMEn 08). Porto, Portugal, December 2008. S. Nousiainen, J. Kilpi, P. Silvonen and M. Hiirsalmi: Anomaly detection from server log data. A case study. A study originated and partly financed within IPLU-II. VTT Research Notes 2480, 2009. J. Kilpi: “Enabling distributed fault diagnosis in multicast-based IPTV delivery”. A report of the IPLU-II project, August 2009. Submitted to PAM 2010. P. Kuusela, I. Norros and P. Raatikainen: “Report on modeling reliability of an IP-network and strategies for improving the reliability”. A report of the IPLU-II project, June 2009. “On the dependability of IP networks. Results of the IPLU-II project”. An executive summary of IPLU-II, August 2009. I. Norros and L. Norros: “Human factors in the dependability of IP networks”. ENISA Quarterly Review 5(3), September 2009. L. Norros, I. Norros, M. Liinasuo and K. Seppänen: “Human activity in network operation. A study based on interviews at a telecom operator”. A report of the IPLU-II project, 2009. In preparation. Remarks: (i) the latest report by J. Kilpi has been submitted to a conference; (ii) a conference paper based on the report by Kuusela, Norros and Raatikainen will be submitted in fall 2009; (iii) both a journal paper and a conference paper based on the operation work report (the “+1”) will be distilled from the report once it has been finished in October 2009; (iv) the “executive summary” is not counted in the table.

The total number of literal outputs that are originated in the project are given in the following table. Publications

2007

2008

2009

Total

2

1

3

International Journal papers (non-scientific)

ditional software development methods was used together with prototyping. Agile development was piloted in this project.

Results

1

Conference papers

The next generation software platform for service oriented Tellabs 8000 Manager was developed during the project. Network management applications to mobile and multi-service areas was created including the end-to-end management of ATM, TDM and Ethernet pseudowires and powerful end-to-end monitoring and reporting capabilities. Service level management and monitoring application where an operator can define the components of the service was also developed. As an example of service level management see figure below where all the connections between a Node B and RNC in 3G network are linked to one service. After this linking a fault in any of the components will be automatically propagated to the linked service.

2

Project reports published on web site

1

2

3(+1)

6(+1)

Total

Project Volume

EUR 500 000 Project Participants

The project was carried out by Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT).    The project was funded by Tekes, BaseN, Digita, Elisa, Finnet, Fortum, F-Secure, Nokia/NSN, TDC, TeliaSonera and VTT. Project Manager

Research Professor Ilkka Norros VTT Tel. +358 40 563 6628 [email protected]

9(+1)

service oriented NMS (Network Management System) which is capable to integrate wide range of network technologies (TDM, ATM, Ethernet, IP, MPLS) under one unified management system.

Methods The standard Tellabs Product Realization Process was used. System target specification was created by system engineers and software architects. During the implementation phase tra-

Figure 1. MSMP – Service Migration.

MSMP – Service Migration

Multi-Service Management Platform

Light Service Linking Service_RNC -BTS Service Endpoints

Descrption of the Objectives

Service Components

Node B

MPLS PWE3_1

RNC

SDH_Circuit_2 E1_circuit_3

nxE1

TN

BS

STM -1 POS

The goal of the project was to provide technology to set up and monitor services over heterogeneous networks enabling operators to migrate the existing legacy networks with the new layer-2 and layer-3 networks effectively, creating a convergenced network infrastructure. Key deliverable of the project is a next generation software platform for

nxE1

TN

BS

TN

BS RNC

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Project Manager

Jouko Kortelainen, Tellabs Oy

vide an open application development platform enabling customer specific tailoring of Tellabs 8000 NMS.

Additional Information

Seppo Borenius, Tellabs Oy www.tellabs.com

Tellabs Next Generation Platform Objectives The technology foundation of Tellabs 8600 Managed Edge System will be expanded and optimized in this project. The main efforts will concentrate on multiservice features, next generation forwarding plane, scalability, capacity increase, cost optimization, network convergence etc. Latest technology will be developed and utilized in close co-operation with major semiconductor vendors. The research and development will be carried out by Tellabs Oy personnel and selected subcontractors in Espoo and Oulu. Project Participants

Tellabs Oy Project Manager

Esko Räty

Superior Transmission Management (SUMA) Objectives The goal of the SUMA project was to create a software platform technology for leading Network Management System (NMS) for future transport and access networks. The main objectives of the SUMA were to expand the role of Tellabs 8000 NMS in the future mobile and converged networks and to pro178

Methods or Processes Used Three dimensional approach was taken in SUMA to expand the role of network and service management in future networks. The dimensions and related drivers have been: 1. Expand the NMS platform technology for the future networks. Driver: Fixed Mobile Convergence in core and access networks is major challenge to network management. Capacity increase means new technologies, such as DWDM and Metro-Ethernet, to be managed by future NMS platform. 2. Develop the Application Framework of the future NMS Driver: Future networks will contain several network technologies and different management philosophies will be used in parallel in one network. Operational efficiency is and will be one of the key objectives for operators. Network management systems must provide new tools to manage the complexity of these networks. 3. Provide open application development platform Driver: Operators NMS requirements are somewhat unique and they need tailored business processes to gain competitive advantage. Open application development platform enables agile software development for operator specific needs and offers additional business opportunities for Tellabs and our partners. Tellabs standard process has been used in SUMA including the iterations of front-end study, specification, imple-

mentation and testing phases. Customer feedback has been utilized between the iterations to guide development. Main focus has been in technology platform development and prototyping the new NMS tools. Following technologies together with agile development methods have been used in the SUMA: Java, C++, XML and Web Services.

Results The first version of the Tellabs 8000 Intelligent Network Manager was released during the project. This is according to Tellabs´ new NMS strategy to integrate all Tellabs´ product families under the 8000 platform developed in the SUMA project. This includes mobile, business services and optical network products globally. In SUMA project technology for following functionality has been developed to 8000 platform: •• End-to-end management for ethernet networks including VPLS •• End-to-end lambda provisioning for optical DWDM networks •• Technology for Ethernet and DWDM protection and OAM schemes •• Network level optimization tools based on network statistics including trend analysis capabilities •• Standard (TMF) MTOSI interface to operators OSS systems •• Platform scalability to support Tier1 networks. Project Participants

Tellabs and subcontractors Project Manager

Jouko Kortelainen, Tellabs Oy Additional Information

Seppo Borenius, Tellabs Oy www.tellabs.com

Figure 1. Tellabs 8000 Intelligent Network Manager, VPN Provisioning View.

Figure 2. Tellabs 8000 Intelligent Network Manager, PMS Trend View.

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Router Solution for Intelligent Connectivity Protection Background and Objectives Goodmill Systems Ltd. has developed a router family especially designed for ensuring the usability of the access network resources. Our main R&D focus has been maintaining the business critical connectivity of our customers in all possible situations and make sure that the most important connections are always online. The core application for Goodmill w24, the 1st member of the remotely managed router family, is backup routing of business critical connections for small and medium sized companies or retail locations of large companies by using radio networks as an alternative media. The main objective of this new development project was to further develop the existing Goodmill w24 system enabling it to integrate with a wider set of technologies, protocols and customer installations as well as to strengthen the management system in order to support more applications, customer segments and management environments.

Processes Used The hardware as well as the Linux based embedded software performing the core functionality have been developed in-house. The management server software as well as some parts of the management related embedded software were subcontracted from a Finnish software company.

Results The project was successfully completed on the 30th of June 2009. As a tan-

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gible result of this project a completely renewed version of both embedded router software and the management server software were released. The connectivity protection itself operates now in more complex environments and the functionality can now be managed and controlled in more detail. The new system version supports remotely configured and monitored VPNs which can flexibly be equipped with dynamic or static, private or public IP addresses while their central site counterpart gateways have public IP addresses. Due to the rapid expansion and development of the mobile broadband a wider support for more radio modems using different radio technologies was implemented. While more SME customers started to use our solution, also globally operating large enterprises decided to use our connectivity protection system. Also the customer segments and applications which can be served with our solution were significantly widened. Project Participants

The main effort was made by the R&D department of Goodmill Systems Ltd. The supporting network included a Finnish software industry company, a Finnish contract manufacturing company and a few small Finnish technology companies. Project Manager

Matti Reini Additional Information

Petteri Suomalainen CEO Goodmill Systems Ltd. Tel. +358 40 734 0462 [email protected]

WLAN Quality Assurance Solution Description of the Objectives 7signal, a Red Herring Global 100 2008 company, develops new innovative functionalities to 7signal Sapphire WLAN Quality Assurance solution. New functionalities enable even better service quality in business critical WLAN networks and easier network management. In this project, 7signal develops its unique 7signal Sapphire WLAN Quality Advancement solution to meet especially requirements from healthcare sector. Project Participants

7signal Oy Project Manager

Veli-Pekka Ketonen

Creanord Echo Project – Platform for IP & Ethernet Network Service Delivery and Monitoring Description of the Objectives Ability to instantaneously execute business decisions based on accurate and real-time network quality information enables the provider to react on possible SLA (Service Level Agreement) breaches before the customer experience is affected. The objective of the project was to research, develop and commercialize a platform that would automate the Network Service Delivery while taking in to account

emerging requirements for network quality monitoring and reporting. Special attention was paid to enable services operating on OSI Layer 3 (IP) and Layer 2 (Ethernet) such as LAN to LAN networking and High Capacity Mobile Backhaul.

bling Service Availability (SA) percent based Service Level Agreements (SLAs). Additional Information

Antti Pappila CTO+358 10 309 3400 www.creanord.com

Methods The Platform was developed by gathering requirements from the various interest groups (service providers, operators, end users and device manufacturers) and by prioritizing functions based on market data and customer input. The implementation was carried by Creanord, developing the companywide competencies.

kiloMESH

Results

Results

The project outcome included optimized agent technology that can be embedded to the various network elements, implementing secure communication protocol, provisioning functions and collection of results from number of network quality measurements. Further the project realized platform wide function to calculate Service Availability information based on the Key Performance Indicator (KPI) threshold violations, event processing and notification framework, analytics and statistics dashboards for reporting and functions to schedule task for centralized firmware upgrades and RFC 2544 testing among others.

The outcome was a new software architecture for network management system in ad-hoc mesh networks, meeting the strong security and reliability requirements in tactical military networks and in civil security networks. Prototype of the software was also created and demonstrated to potential customer. Prototype got very good response from customer and product development project was started.

Commercial impact The project significantly strengthened Creanord position in European and North American Mobile Backhaul market by introducing Analytics, Events, Dashboards & Stats (AEDS) suite, ena-

Objectives The objective of this project was to define requirements and create a software architecture for network management system for tactical and critical adhoc mesh networks. The goal was also to analyze the market and competitors.

More Information

Anssi Rantamäki Kilosoft Oy

Meshenger & Firmware Development Project Description of the Objectives The main objective of the Meshenger project was to develop an application

that utilizes mesh networking technology (MeshDriver) developed earlier in the company. Project was divided into gathering requirements for the product and actual technology implementation. Original vision for the application was an application for end users who have MeshDriver on their mobile terminals. However after market study, the it was clear that a better choice is a was a Linux-based operating system for embedded wireless communication devices with MeshDriver mesh networking protocol. The main focus areas in Meshenger project were picking and packaging best Linux components to the operating system, testing integration with existing network management systems and define a prototype product where the full software could be used in. Firmware Development Project established required systems and materials to commercialize and create customers friendly packages and adaptation tools for the developed firmware technology.

Methods Both projects were almost fully developed by internal company resources in workpackages. The emphasis was on firmware development and verification of network management tools support in the Meshenger project (35 manmonths). In Firmware Development Project, tasks related to customerdriven build environment, supportfor a number of platforms, customer documentation, piloting, feature customizations and GUI templates were accomplished (63 manmonths).

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Results On the first project solid technical framework was built and in second the platform was refined into product that can be utilized commercially. During both of the projects knowledge of the technical and functional requirements on the market was acculumated which is crucial for making the right choices in future development. GPL versions of the firmware, along with configuration management software and a sample web-based user interface were released for free download and are available in http://embedone. com/download/.

of BaseN service portfolio adapted to the US market, as the European service portfolio seemed not to be suitable for US customers and gaining market share in the US region. One area of appeal was automatic disaster recovery of the European installation to the US; this has turned out to be a lucrative idea; furthermore, the US market (for both data security and performance) seemed to want local physical hardware presence.

EndUser End user

Project Participants

US Servers

Data synchronization

European Servers

The projects were managed by Marko Nieminen. Contact Person

Marko Nieminen Meshcom Technologies Oy Hiilikatu 3 00180 Helsinki, Finland Tel. +358 9 3231013 [email protected]

BaseN U.S. Expansion Phase II Description of the Objectives Goal of the project was to expand BaseN Platform functionality to support very large geographical distribution of servers. We aim to have a grid computing engine that can harness computing power from anywhere in the world. In addition of technology development, another part of this project was to develop service and marketing concepts 182

Software Results The objectives of the project are very fundamental to BaseN Platform functionality. We were able to achieve a surprisingly stable and reliable data and service distribution mechanism. The basic data and service transfer functionality is still being used as a main component of BaseN Platform as this document is being written in 2009. The actual work will never end, but the initial steps were taken to the right direction.

Service and Marketing Concepts

Meshcom Technologies Oy Project Management

fore most of the time spent on the project was actual software development (coding) time.

The picture above illustrates how the end user should be able to access both sets of servers transparently. The ‘Data synchronization’ is the key element on which BaseN worked on in this project.

Software Project Six software engineers were employed in the project. They were not fully employed by the project, doing other work at the same time also. BaseN usually runs multiple projects on people, allowing them to change from one task to another as needed. Existing BaseN software development methods were used, as this project was part of BaseN Platform development. BaseN normal project management, version control, coding conventions and testing frameworks were already in place for the project. There-

A number of initiatives have been started to adapt the European service portfolio for US market needs; these include a complete new brochure design and product line clarification and description of US services such as TBV and FortN OSS. Furthermore, service platform management and a set of presentations more adapted to the US market in terms of terminology and business approach were also produced within this project. This concept development also includes a VAR channel strategy, aimed at persuading Value Added Resellers to include our service portfolio as part of their offer to their customers. Project Participants

Juha Santala, Timo Tepponen, Niilo Neuvo, Erik Bunn, Kalle Kivimaa, Kaj Niemi, Jesse Hallio, Mika Savela, Sujit Wings, Annakaisa Pohjola and Pasi Hurri. Project Volume

EUR 193 000

Project Manager

President & CEO Pasi Hurri Additional Information

President & CEO Pasi Hurri BaseN Oy Tel. +358 (0)40 5301 576 [email protected]

Product testing over converging networks (CNL-Products) Project Duration

1 January 2007 to 31 March 2009 CNL-Products has been part of Converging Networks (GIGA) Tekes Technology Programme.

Description of the Objectives Project objective was to design a new product certification service that targeted approval of different kinds of wireless and mobile products in the future converged network (CN) environment. Project was driven by the fact that there is a vast amount of knowledge within Finnish companies and organisations about testing environments, in-house special testing tools, usage of advanced commercial testing tools and different testing methods. The idea of CNL-Products project was to create a new testing business by forming a certification group and utilise the existing testing knowledge and expertise. On the other hand, the ongoing network convergence created and will create new challenges that should be taken in account during product testing over multiple technology areas.

The developed certification program focused on the following interest areas of project partners: •• Product QoS and performance over various wireless networks especially during mobility scenarios. •• Product end-2-end behaviour, correct usage of selected protocols, services and network error handling. •• Product vulnerability and user data privacy of products. •• Network, service, and terminal interoperability in selected cases.

Methods or Processes Used In the beginning, project carried out a state-of-the-art study and market analysis about existing product certification programs in order to find out best practises, major players on the field, status of certification market and business and any similarities with the existing certification groups and aims. Also, the goal of the basic research was to get a picture about the competition, main marketing channels and to try to identify new certification opportunities es-

pecially from WiMAX, Symbian Signed, GSMA, IMS, and NGN certification and standardisation programs. In parallel with research tasks, the development of certification service was aiming to •• develop of a draft standard for converging networks products that provide the test cases, attributes, target values and constraints related to the four interest areas. •• develop a business model and approval process for customers and certification group partners to assess the tested product conformity with the draft standard. •• adapt existing testing tools for product approval process. •• carry out certification pilots with real products. During the project 9 technical meetings were held discussing about the project results, current problems in testing, certification group business model and approval process. Technical meetings were fruitful due to active and open participants from the partners.

Results The certification market analysis created reports about Common Criteria certification program and in general report about ICT Certification markets in Europe and USA. Market analysis selected 14 major companies in Europe with combined turnover of 50B€. The reports conclude that certification business size could be 1200 M€ in Europe and US together. In our knowledge, this kind of research was not carried out anywhere else. State-of-the-art work created a report about Certification Business and

183

Technology and a report about Mobile WiMAX certification. Reports created information about technology areas, business approaches, and approval practises and testing tools used by different certification groups and programs. Today the most of certification programs focus on a single technology such as Wi-Fi, WiMAX or SIP resulting that the view over the whole future converged network environment is missing and there could be position in the field for broader end-2-end certification program. In the second year, the project focused on the Mobile WiMAX equipments and IP services. The idea was to build on-top-of the air interface IOP testing carried out by WiMAX Forum and create extended tests for typical user mobility and end-2-end scenarios in heterogeneous networking and service environment. The result was identification of needs of Mobile WiMAX operators, definition of Convergence OK program for WiMAX equipments and services including draft business model, test cases and marketing material. The result of the project was a basis of certification program that consists of different partners utilising expertise on different fields of testing. The project work continues as a contract project called XLAB with Oulu Innovation/Octopus Network focusing on mobile application and services and IMS platform.

Publications The project resulted the following publications: T. Happonen: ”TTCN-3 Applicability to Remote Embedded Testing of Electronics”, TTCN-3 User Conference 2008 (T3UC’08), Madrid, Espanja, 3-6.6.2008 184

T. Happonen: ”A Generally Applicable Test Communication Method for Remote Embedded Testing of Electronics”, Licentiate Thesis, University of Oulu, 2008. P. Väyrynen: ”Mobile WiMAX measurements for moving mobile user”, Bachelor’s Thesis, Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Oulu, 2008. M. Kahelin, “Mobile WIMAX Quality of Service Measurements”, Bachelor’s Thesis, Oulu University of Applied Sciences, Oulu, 2008. In addition seven technical reports were created. Project Volume

EUR 369 000 Project Participants

The project was carried out by VTT and the University of Oulu.    The project was funded by Tekes, Clarified Networks, Codenomicon, EB, Inspecta, NetHawk, Oulu Innovation/Octopus and Oulu University of Applied Sciences. Project Manager

Marko Palola VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Oulu Tel. +358 20 722 2431 [email protected]

Virtual Drive Test Solution (VDTS) Drive testing includes measuring and testing existing radio networks and communications equipment with field testing. Typically, terminals under test or measurement equipment are installed in

a vehicle, which is then driven along predefined routes withing the coverage area of a radio network. The measurement equipment are logging information about the network performance and characteristics. In case of testing terminals or network components, their performance is recorded during test drives. Equipment manufacturers need to perform field testing of their products (components, modules and complete products) but field tests based on traditional drive testing are not the optimum method due to several limitations and imperfections such as: •• Drive testing is very expensive and time-consuming and testing/analyzing/engineering change cycles will therefore be long •• Drive tests are very difficult to repeat accurately due to factors beyong tester’s control and due to the continuously changing conditions in live networks. •• Drive testing may need special arrangements or set-up from the network thus creating potential problems for deployed networks. Also some testing scenarios will require changing the network setup and parameters which can not be done in commercial networks •• In some cases drive testing of equipment is needed but there is no network available or the network of interest is inaccessible due to time or distance •• There is a need to study the performance of future technologies well before such commercial networks are even launched The Virtual Drive Test Solution brings the modelled radio network including

Figure 1. The Virtual Drive Test Lab Environment.

radio channel, interference and other environmental parameters to laboratory, where simulated drive testing can be performed in a controlled environment. The tests can be repeated accurately over and over again and the simulated radio environment can be distributed globally for R&D testing around the world. The Virtual Drive Test Lab Environment is depicted in Fig. 1. The Drive Test Solution can be used user equipment manufacturers, network infrastructure manufacturers and operators. UE vendors can use solution to create problematic network scenarios and improve product performance with the solution. Network infrastructure manufacturers can use the solution to verify the correct operation of base station equipment and radio network controller. Operators

use solution to optimize the different network functions such as handover, power control, load control etc. as well as to test the end user applications’ performance in live network like conditions. In principle, the idea of VDTS is quite simple but in practice there are many technical challenges. In a pointto-point link level the task would be fairly straigthtforward but when the system level is considered many questions arise: How to measure the environment accurately? How to create realistic model of the environment and the network? How to verify that the model is correct or more fundamentally, how to verify that the modeling process or the concept works? Finally, how to emulate the multi-dimensional environment and the entire network system..

VDTS research project The research project is divided into 5 + 1 workpackages: •• Measurement of the real-life network / channel characteristics •• Methods to create drive-test equivalent data without performing complete measurements •• Analysis of the drive test data and creation of the model of the radio environment •• Verification of the concept and the modeling process •• Emulation of the modeled environment / scenario in laboratory •• Project Management. Project Participants

Elektrobit System Test Oy Project Manager

Ari Hulkkonen 185

Security Testing and Monitoring (TNT) Project Duration

1 Jan 2006 to 31 March 2008 The TNT project (including TNT exchange) was involved in Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme.

Description of the Objectives The ultimate goal of the TNT project was to build a uniform security testing and monitoring framework by applying testing and monitoring products, which are provided by Finnish manufacturers. The aim of the framework is to collect information about security level, observe security problems by testing and decrease effect of security vulnerabilities to critical parts of a system. Project focus was on security analysis, which bases on security objectives, security threat analysis, methods of automated testing and monitoring of network traffic. Vulnerability scanning can find only known security holes. Not any method guarantee, that system is free of vulnerabilities. Testing and monitoring methods to be developed in the TNT project is repeatable and transferable between different target systems.

Methods or Processes Used Practical work in the project bases on iterative case studies. Methods and process of the project was developed according to the experiences from the case studies and validated by performing tests and monitoring in real context. Main case study was testing and monitoring of 3G user equipments in VTT’s CNL (Convergence Networks Laboratory). 186

OpenGGSN implementation was used as the target system, when collecting security testing experiences from open source world. Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA) was planned to be as one target system, but the case did not realise because of technical limitations. Tool development was executed within Codenomicon product family and NetHawk M5 analyser and NetHawk EAST testing tool. From these tool analysis project got input to the process development, how security testing and monitoring tools have to support process from viewpoint of security. Also TNT exchange work concentrates on tool analysis. Especially, how real vulnerability can be found from the source code and eliminated by the testing.

Results The main result in the project was a generic framework/process for security testing and monitoring. The process has been developed with the aim of guiding on how security testing should be integrated to company’s/project’s other R&D activities. According to the process the basis of security testing should be: to understand the system in question; to be able to analyse the design platform; to understand the product management related implications; and to plan and selectively security test with correct (& possibly adapted) tools and methods. A risk based, iterative security testing process includes tasks at least in three different levels of operation within R&D: •• System analysis level •• Product management level •• Testing level

The formal process description defines separate process elements, which together form a complete generic security testing life cycle. The experimental results from the case studies and tool analysis gave a special input to the process and method development. Process was verified by performing mobile application case study a second time guided by the security testing process.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the period 1 Jan 2006 to 31 March 2008. R. Savola, P. Ahonen, P. Jurmu, H. Henttinen, J. Palokangas, J. Sankala, S. Petäjäsoja, A. Takanen and J. Särs (2007): Varmuutta verkkoon (In Finnish, ”Security Assurance for Networks). In Prosessori Elektroniikan Suunnittelu, Vol. 2007, November. T. Räty, J. Sankala, P. Jurmu: “A Security Surveillance System with a Realized Structural Low-Level Network Monitor” Journal of Information Security (JIAS) November 2007. S. Noponen: “Information security of remote file transfers with mobile devices” Master Thesis 2007. R. Savola, K. Karppinen: “Practical Security Testing of Telecommunications Software – A Case Study” 3rd Advanced International Conference on Telecommunications (AICT 2007). Morne, Mauritius, 13–19 May 2007. T. Kanstren, E. Tikkala, M.Rapeli: “Security Testing of User equipment in 3G” IASTED International Conference on Communication Systems and Networks (AsiaCSN 2007), April 02 to April 04, 2007, Phuket, Thailand.

K. Karppinen, R.Savola , M. Rapeli, E. Tikkala: “Security Objectives within a Security Testing Case Study” Second International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security (ARES 2007), Vienna, Austria, April 10– 13, 2007. K. Karppinen, M. Lindvall: “Software ArchitectureDriven Detection of Security Vulnerabilities” IWSSA2007 Conference, June 25–28, 2007, Monte Carlo Resort, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. E. Tikkala, M. Rapeli, K. Karppinen, H. Honkanen: “ Security Testing OpenGGSN: a Case Study “ 6th Annual Security Conference. Las Vegas, NV, USA, 11–12 April 2007.  In addition, the following output is based on the work carried out in TNT project: H.Honkanen: “Security Extension for M5 Analyser .”Diploma thesis, 2008. “Tool development towards security testing and monitoring” Conference paper “Security testing process” Conference Paper.

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Several demonstrations to industrial companies (Ixonos, Ericsson etc.)

Project Volume

EUR 1 100 000 Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT, Oulu, Finland.    The project was funded by Tekes, VTT, NetHawk, Codenomicon, Nokia Siemens Networks and Nixu. Project Manager

Petri Jurmu Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT Tel. +358 (0)40 535 2341 [email protected]

E! 2023 ITEA SERKET – SEcuRisation Keeps Threats: NetHawk tools in security system testing and sensor simulation

The SERKET project researched on e.g. intelligent video analysis tools (methods that are capable to pinpoint suspicious activity in crowds , left luggage etc), audio analysis tools, network analysis tools and systems on how to analyze input from all these in one centralized place to aid the decision making process. NetHawk focused on how this kind of intelligent security systems could be tested and how specific network processor architectures would aid in analysis of huge data amouts generated by these systems. SERKET was a ITEA schemed joint research project involving VTT, Finnish Ministry of Finland, Deltabit Oy, Uphill Oy, and NetHawk Oyj as the Finnish part of the consortium. Other project participants were Thales Research & Technology, Thales Security systems, CEA, EADS Defence and security systems, Bull, INRIA, French Ministry of the interior, Atos Origin, INDRA Sistemas, Universidad de Murcia, 4C/kZen, CapVidia, Multitel ASBL, Faculté Polytechnique de Mons, ACIC sa, BARCO, and Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

Seminars

Objectives

Results

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SERKET Project was exploring how intelligent decision making systems could be utilized in modern security systems to aid the security personnel in decision making and surveillance processes. The main challenges were how different sensor data (from e.g. movement sensors, door state sensors, network analyzers, microphones, cameras etc) could be combined and analyzed, and that in this kind of systems – due to the wide variety of different sensors the data amount and diversity becomes overwhelming.

As a result of successful co-operation several working prototypes were made in the project scope. The prototype in which the Finnish contributors had most part in, included NetHawk simulator and analysis tools for sensor data simulation and data traffic analysis. These were used as inputs for logical decision making purposes. Other prototypes and demonstrators were also implemented in the consortium. NetHawk tools were used in this project outside of their conventional or traditional scope. For example, NetH-

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SERKET/IRRIIS/TNT Seminar on 7 Feb 2007 in Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT delivering results of SERKET, IRRIIS and TNT projects. Security Assurance Seminar on 18 March 2008 in Technical Research Centre of Finland VTT delivering results of EuroConfidential and TNT projects.

Demonstrations

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Demonstration to Military 20 Feb 2007

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awk simulator tools were used to simulate different security sensors for system testing purposes – instead of telecom network entity simulation. Analyzer tools were applied to be parts of security system itself, not as means of e.g. system testing purposes. In addition, it was found out that network processor architectures are feasible in data stream analysis also in this kind of environments. Project Manager

Jukka Palokangas Additional Information

NetHawk Oyj Tel. +358 (0)40 3010 300

Securing intranets of the future Project Duration

1 March 2007 to 15 December 2008

Objectives The objective of the project is to develop the implementation and provident operation of network-level security solutions in high-volume and converging internal networks: 1. The economy and security of implementation of a network security appliance 2. An accurate analysis of security threats and comprehensible presentation of the results 3. Satisfactory performance in 10 Gbps networks

Methods or Processes Used The network security appliance implementation was improved by transpar-

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ent access control, which was developed for layer-2 firewalling. Implementation in IPv6 networks was made possible with IPv6 module development and with the development of the modules of the related tunneling protocols, such as IP-in-IP and GRE. Dynamic protocol identification was studied. A parser tool was developed to generate protocol analysis modules. During the project, the parser tool was used to generate modules for MS-RPC, HTTP, SSH, DNS, SMTP, FTP, TFTP, POP3, IMAP, SRP and RFB. A man-in-the-middle type of a TLS/SSL decryption module was also developed. FPGA-based load balancing switch technology was developed together with the Signal Processing Laboratory of Helsinki University of Technology. The limits of the PC architecture and especially the multi-core processors were tested to utilize them as efficiently as possible in a packet based network security appliance. Serial clustering was developed to increase total inline throughput beyond the limits of a single device.

Results The result of this project is a much more sophisticated StoneGate Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) product line. The deep inspection features of the StoneGate Firewall/VPN product line were also improved. Nearly all of the technical objectives were achieved, but the dynamic protocol identification was only planned, not implemented. For this reason, parts of the implementation improvement objectives were not reached. The analysis of security threats by the StoneGate IPS protocol modules

was improved significantly with the additional ability to decrypt TLS/SSL encrypted traffic, which gives some competitive advantage. The FPGA-based load balancing switch proceeded only to the prototype stage because production grade implementation was found too expensive. However, the development of PC architecture, especially multi-core processors, compensated for this. Satisfactory performance was reached, and soon after the project, the StoneGate IPS6105 appliance was released with 10 Gbps performance. After the project, the leading industry analyst, Gartner, positioned Stonesoft in its Network IPS Appliances Magic Quadrant. Project Participants

At Stonesoft in Helsinki, 17 persons from the Stonesoft R&D department and one subcontractor from Nixu Oy participated in the project. In Espoo, 3 persons from the Signal Processing Laboratory of Helsinki University of Technology participated in the project. One of the people in the Signal Processing Laboratory finished his licentiate thesis on the FPGA-based load balancing switch. Project Manager

Ville Hämäläinen Director of R&D Stonesoft Corporation Additional Information

Ville Hämäläinen Stonesoft Corporation Tel. +358 (0)9 476 711 [email protected]

Benebit Networks Internal Security Solution (inGuard) Objectives The objective of Benebit Networks Internal Security Solution (inGuard) project was to design and develop a content sensitive leakage protection solution. The aim was to develop a purpose built security solution to protect internal corporate networks and information. The solution would detect and monitor critical corporate information, protect it and make sure it wouldn't go into wrong hands. It would monitor computer and network resources, detect potential security problems like use of dangerous unauthorized applications and toolbars, repairs security issues, prevents their recurrence by enforcing an effective internal security policy. The solution would alert network administrators whenever a threat is detected. The solution would provide a complete shielding to businesses from internal threats while keeping total cost of ownership (TCO) and maintenance at a very low level. inGuard protects critical information from being leaked from a variety of means, like •• Local media like USB, CD/DVD •• Web and webmail •• Email •• Skype and other IM clients •• Application not supported by the organization, rogue toolbars and other malicious applications •• Printers •• Screen capturing

Methods or Processes Used

Project Participants

inGuard was designed to have three main components: •• Console provides an easy way to define security policies, manage clients remotely and monitor critical data. •• Client provides core functionality of controlling and protecting information at end points and servers. •• Server is responsible for centralized policy distribution, client installations, and managing audit trails and alerts.

Benebit Networks Oy

Results There's been very encouraging discussions, but unfortunately, as the discussions move forward, there has been significant challenges with closing the deals. The market for inGuard-like solutions doesn't seem to be big. Among the three dozen companies we've approached, only one was conducting a pilot for similar solutions and even they were not very upbeat about that. On top of these market challenges, some recent changes in the technology landscape have made development and support of inGuard a very costly proposition. Supporting all the platforms has become a challenge (Windowsxp, Vista, Windows 7 etc.). Porting the solution to 64 bit version of Windows doesn't seem to be even possible because of limitations imposed by Windows APIs. Thus even from technical perspective, the chances of developing and supporting iGuard look very grim. We've invested significant amount of time and money so far, but the challenge seems to be getting bigger by the day.

Project Manager

Faisal Mahmood Additional Information

Faisal Mahmood Benebit Networks Corporation [email protected]

NIXU SLADE: Developing Secure DNS Software Appliance and Distribution System for Automated Security Updates Objectives The objective of Nixu SLADE project was to develop a dedicated DNS software appliance, and a software delivery portal that could be used to automate the distribution and security update / maintenance processes for the said software appliance.

Methods or Processes Used Nixu SLADE project was carried out using agile software development processes. To further speed up the project, a number of carefully selected open software modules were utilized in the project deliverables; however, the project also resulted in a significant amount of proprietary code that is closed source, and an international patent portfolio (pending) that is used to protect the DNS security methodology incorporated into the Nixu Product derived from the project.

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Results As the result of the Nixu SLADE project, the first versions of a new Nixu Product (Nixu SNS) and a Software Delivery Portal were released in late 2006 and in early 2007. After the project was completed in 2007, Nixu Software has continued the development and production use of both deliverables, as well as utilized the software appliance platform derived from the Nixu SLADE project in four additional newly developed software appliance products. Nixu SNS is currently run by customers in EMEA, Americas and APAC in enterprise, service provisioning and government verticals. The patent portfolio that was derived from the Nixu SLADE project is still at a pending state. Project Participants

Tero Haaraniemi, Juha Holkkola, Ville Kummu, Tomas Linden, Tuomas Merilä Project Manager

Juha Holkkola Additional Information

Juha Holkkola Nixu Software Oy Ltd Tel. +358 (0)9 478 1011 [email protected]

7signal – Enabling use of WLAN in critical networks In GIGA programme, 7signal developed required technology and 7signal Sapphire product for WLAN network quality assurance. This kind of capability has not before been available from any supplier. Functionality is essential for networks that are used for critical communications, like hospital WLAN networks. 190

7signal positioned itself into an unexplored territory, expecting WLAN networks follow similar trends and practices as mobile networks, but with an offset in timing. Later on, this vision was found correct. Healthcare was selected as the key target market for company. Network dependability is literally a matter of life and death in hospitals. 7signal Sapphire product complements enterprise grade WLAN solutions. Product consists of Sapphire Eye -unit hardware and Carat and Sonar software elements. Eye unit is based on advanced RF and antenna electronics and embedded Linux computer. Carat software controls Eye units and offers a multi-company reporting, analysis and optimization platform. Sonar software is a test end-point which is deployed to central locations in network. Wide use of advanced technologies made the project an ambitious goal for a small company. Successful development was completed with a group of partners that offered necessary technologies enabling targeted functionality. Currently available network management solutions do not offer any information about end user connectivity to central resources in network and lack also information on quality and performance aspects. It is a common experience that even though a wireless access point is not able to provide end users any access to network, this cannot be detected by the network elements themselves and be resolved without end user fault reports. In addition to performance reporting and alarms, 7signal Sapphire has also proven to be efficient in central troubleshooting. This reduces need for onsite visits in a spread out network.

A recently published IEC/ISO 80001 regulation states that when medical devices are connected to an IT network, the IT network becomes a medical device. Complying with this regulation requires significant improvements in documenting WLAN network and managing reliable operation in a proactive manner. 7signal Sapphire makes it possible for hospitals to comply with these new requirements. 7signal Sapphire has been installed to number of different environments in Finland, UK and USA. Product has proven to add significant value in networks where unreliable network service is not acceptable. More information

Veli-Pekka Ketonen, CTO Tel. +358 50 3579700 [email protected]

Iptune Virus Finder Objectives IPTUNE provides solutions and services to help Mobile network Operators to overcome the complexity of modern mobile service environments and maximize the revenue of their network and technology investments. In this project a product called Virus Finder will be developed for the mobile network operators. Iptune Virus Finder is a virus detection and removal platform, which is detecting mobile viruses in the mobile network, seamlessly removing the threat and making the antivirus service profitable for the operator. Project Participants

Iptune Oy

Project Manager

Vesa Haimi Iptune Ltd. Teknobulevardi 3-5 FI-01530 VANTAA, FINLAND Mobile +358 40 7006946 [email protected]

Protecting critical infrastructure data networks Project Duration

March 1st 2009 to February 28th 2011

Objectives Stonesoft develops the most important properties of network security for critical infrastructure: 1. High performance of network security appliances 2. Cleaning the network of harmful traffic 3. Management system scalability and usability

Methods or Processes Used The performance of IPsec VPN was first improved with algorithms written in assembly language, and by improving overall multi-processor scalability. The AES-NI coprocessor in the Intel Westmere was then utilized to improve the performance even more. For deep inspection performance, nVidia Tesla GPUs were studied as a coprocessor to accelerate signature pattern matching. 64-bit processor architecture was utilized to make more memory available for deep-inspected connections. Link aggregation was developed using the 802.3ad-standard (al-

so known as the IEEE 802.1AX-2008) for performance, but also for high-availability. The possibility to use a 3G modem as a backup interface was also developed. For multi-core processors, a NIC multi-queue functionality was developed. In NIC multi-queue, the packets from the network are directly allocated to a certain core for userspace processing. To clean harmful traffic from the network, an Antispam filter was developed. Denial of Service (DoS) attack mitigation was also developed, but mitigating Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks was only studied, not implemented. For the management system, a method to bind userids and user groups to IP addresses was developed utilizing the information found from a LAN domain controller and user groups in Microsoft Active Directory. Log and Management Server clustering was studied, and the most important components were implemented: a Reliable Queue implementation, and database incremental synchronization. A scalable hardware platform was developed together with Finnish subcontractors Stera Technologies and Sanmina-SCI Enclosure Systems. Hardware electric certifications were done by SGS Fimko. Mikrolog was selected as the manufacturing and logistics partner.

Results Some of the developed functionalities were already released during the project in the StoneGate product family versions 5.1 and 5.2, and the rest

will be released in version 5.3 after the project. The most impressive results were performance improvements. Plaintext firewall throughput was doubled from 25Gbps to 50Gbps. In the VPN, the throughput increase was even more dramatic from 0,85Gbs to 12Gbps. In inspection, the throughput was only increased from 10 Gbps to 13 Gbps, but the total number of connections was increased from 1 million to 15 million. The number of new connections per second was increased from 130 000 to 750 000. These were all measured with the existing StoneGate high-end network security appliance before the project and at the end of the project. The prototype with the nVidia Tesla GPU as the coprocessor was also quite successful. The deep inspection throughput was doubled, but because of the increased latency, the Tesla coprocessor was not finalized to production. Project Participants

At Stonesoft in Helsinki, 67 persons from the Stonesoft R&D, Product Management and Customer Support participated in the project. Project Manager

Ville Hämäläinen Director of R&D Stonesoft Corporation Additional Information

Ville Hämäläinen Stonesoft Corporation Tel. +358 (0)9 476 711 [email protected]

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Growth with Tekes Objectives The safe use of the open, public networks in alarm, control and monitoring data transmission. Project Participants

Telcont Oy Project Manager

Martti Hakulinen

Quality of Experience Research Network (QERN), REMTEST General information REMTEST-project (Remote Access Testing Platform) started in 1.6.2006 in coordination with Quality of Experience Research Network consortium project (QERN). QERN consortium project is a joint project with University of Oulu and VTT. REMTEST-project has been carried out in the Department of Electrical and Information Engineering in Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques, Electronics and in Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories. REMTEST-project has been involved in Tekes GIGA programme (Converging Networks) since the start of the project. REMTEST-project officially ends at 31st of May 2008 (two month extended time applied i.e. 31.7.2008).

The goal of the REMTEST project was to design and build a test platform/device for the validation of ideas proposed in the development of the Universal Test Communications Standard (UTCS) and in the field of embedded testing. Since the project was also aimed to produce a traditional reference design of the final platform, the developed test platform enables the estimation of the total product costs and/ or savings – i.e. costs due to development, production, test, repair etc. – due to extensive embedding of tests into a product. Moreover the project concentrated to clarify and develop proactive diagnostic methods to the embedded test scheme, which facilitates and enables more accurate diagnostics at the field. Therefore advance failure indications of the device “wellness” were expected to be obtained by incorporating monitoring capabilities. The project will produce the 1st documented implementation of a real-life device with extensive embedded test solution in the UTCS framework, which may also act as the device under test (DUT) in future UTCS field tests.

REMTEST-project was divided in to subtasks that were aimed to fulfill the project objectives in parallel. Five major research and development areas were described and their contributions are aggregated in the final platform as it is ready. 1. Embedded Linux web-server and Low frequency measurement ASIC

The traditional test platform is ready and running. The test plan for the traditional platform has been done, in order to compare to effects of embedded test capabilities from for example test coverage and economical aspects. The 2nd generation test platform with embedded test capabilities is under construction, with final design efforts in progress. A low frequency measurement ASIC which provides embedded test access and measurement sub-circuits for IEEE1149.4 compatible passive component measurements and for prognostic BGA solder interconnection monitoring measurements is has been designed and fabricated. Next the ASIC functionality will be verified and used to perform the above mentioned measurements with simple test boards.

Figure 1. (a) Designed low frequency measurement ASIC and (b) Building blocks of the ASIC.

Description and project objectives “The goal of the REMTEST- project is to develop a realistic device with embedded testing and remote test access capabilities through a network platform”.

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a)

b)

2. Embedded test structures and prognostic algorithms for early detection of interconnection failure

Extensive study on algorithms and methods to obtain early warning of solder interconnection failures has been performed. The development of measurement structures, embedded in novel LTCC substrate materials and development of proactive data-analysis algorithms has been carried out. These methods and structures are implemented to the final platform. In addition data-analysis algorithms are developed in order to obtain the advance warning and even time of failure estimates of the interconnection failure, from the prognostic precursor measurements. Nonlinear parameter estimation has

been utilized for the purposes. Also research on lead-free solder interconnection failures during temperature cycling tests has been carried out, which gives added value to the proactive diagnostic measurement scheme. In addition, the clarification of failure mechanisms and reliability of lead-free solder materials gives valuable information if today’s lead-free electronics is considered.

Bluetooth module before the end of the project, the embedded test access and high-frequency measurement electronics will be constructed using commercial components. The design of this 2nd generation bluetooth PCB is under way, and it will provide the same test functionality as if it were built with the developed RF ASIC. Figure 4. Building block of the RF-ASIC.

3. Bluetooth and high frequency RF measurement ASIC

An RF ASIC which provides test access for the bluetooth module of the reference platform has been designed and will be sent to the IC process in April. However, since the developed ASIC will not be available for the 2nd generation

Figure 2. Embedded test construction implemented with LTCC-process.

4. Measurement of passives with 1149.4 test bus standard

Figure 3. Overall description of the prognostic data analysis algorithm main goals.

1st indication (OK)

1

Time of failure (Quite good)

2

3

4

The algorithms and measurement methods to obtain component values with 1149.4 compatible measurements has been developed. The calculation algorithms are converted to C, in order to be implemented to the final platform as embedded SW. Also the basic calculation algorithm has been revised in order to obtain the calculation results more efficiently i.e. transformation from impedance plane to admittance plane.

time PD Linear regression

Nonlinear regression -> Parameter estimates for TOF

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Summary

Figure 5. Schematics of passive component measurement setup.

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5. Test controller and embedded signal generation

The test controller development is in its final stages. Functionality is tested against specifications. Test controller is the hart of the platform, since it is responsible of the test scheduling and converting the test commands to actual embedded tests. Efforts to increase the measurement accuracy with the controller are also performed. In addition the previous version of the signal generation unit is revised in order to meet the requirements of the measurement bandwidth.

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The final platforms embedded test capabilities are compared with traditional test plan performed to the reference design, which was fabricated at start of the project. At the time of this report presentation of extensive results expected from the project is not valid since REMTEST-project is still running. More in-depth report will be given as the project ends and all results are gathered and interpreted. All in all, the publications presented at the end of this document describe the technical development work carried out during the project. More publications are expected as the outcome of the REMTES-project later.

This document briefly summarizes the current status of the Remote Access Testing Platform (REMTEST) project, as it moves to the final stages of technological development i.e. the final platform. This project, as mentioned, aims to produce the first UTCS compliant device, which uses extensive embedded testing capabilities built-in to the product. As the final platform is finished the functionality and usability of the embedded test functions are demonstrated. Also, thorough comparison of the embedded test methods with traditional ones is performed. This comparison is performed, both in technical and in economical sense. More extensive report is compiled as the project reaches its end.

Publications [1] J. Hannu, T. Happonen and M. Moilanen, “Embedded test controller for board and system level remote testing”, International Mixed-Signals Testing Workshop, June 18-20, 2007, Póvoa de Varzim, Portugal, pp. 88-92, 2007

Figure 6. (a) Embedded test controller and (b) signal measurement unit. Embedded Test Controller Test result calculations

USB

Signal measurement unit RMS-toDC

Programmable test signal generator

1149.1/.4 Test control

MCU

A/D UTCS commands

(a)a) 194

Test signal measurement

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(b) b)

Analog switch

Analog switch

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[2] J. Hannu and M. Moilanen, “Methods of Testing Discrete Semiconductors in the 1149.4 Environment”, Journal of Electronic Testing, Vol. 23, pp. 581-592, 2007 [3] J. Hannu, D. Koltsov, Z. Xu, A. Richardson and M. Moilanen, “An Embedded Test & Health Monitoring Strategy for Detecting and Locating Faults in Aerospace Bus Systems”, accepted to European Test Symposium 2008 [4] J. Hannu, M. Ängeslevä and M. Moilanen, ” On-Line Testing of Ohmic RF MEMS Switches”, submitted to Workshop on Reliability and DfX Engineering for System-in-Package Technologies 2008 [5] Juha Voutilainen, Jussi Putaala, Markku Moilanen, Heli Jantunen,” A Prognostic Method for the Embedded Failure Monitoring of Solder Interconnections with 1149.4 Test Bus Architecture”, Microelectronics Journal 2007 [6] Juha Voutilainen, Jussi Putaala, Markku Moilanen and Heli Jantunen, “Proactive diagnostics of solder interconnection failures with embedded precursor monitoring”, accepted to IEEE European Test Symposium 2008

[7] Jussi Putaala, Olli Nousiainen, Heli Jantunen and Markku Moilanen: “Failure Detection of BGATransition Structures at High Frequencies” Electronics Systemintegration Technology Conference Dresden, 5.-7. September 2006 [8] J.Putaala, T.Kangasvieri, O.Nousiainen, H.Jantunen and M. Moilanen: "Detection of thermal cyclinginduced failures in RF/microwave BGA assemblies" Accepted to IEEE Transactions on Electronics Packaging Manufacturing 2008 [9] T. Saikkonen and M. Moilanen, "Component Value Calculations and Characterizations for Measurements in the IEEE 1149.4 Environment", Journal of Electronic Testing: Theory and Applications, Vol. 23, pp. 569-579, 2007. [10] Saikkonen T., Methods for Facilitating Measurements in the IEEE Standard 1149.4 Environment. University of Oulu, Department of Electrical and Information Engineering. Licentiate Thesis, 67 p, 2007. [11] Häkkinen J: “Introduction to the Remote Access Testing Platform Project”, Test Forum 2007 (project presentation).

Project Volume

EUR 560 000 Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Optoelectronics and Measurement Techniques laboratory, Electronics laboratory and Microelectronics and Materials Physics laboratories, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.    The project was funded by TEKES, Polar Electro, EB and Nokia. Project Responsible Manager

Dr. Markku Moilanen University of Oulu Tel. +358 (0)400 381452 [email protected] Project contact person

Di. Juha-Veikko Voutilainen University of Oulu Tel. +358 (0)8 5537682 [email protected]

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3.4 Thematic Group 4: Telecom Business Focus of the Group The thematic group focused on business models and changes in the ICT Industry value chains. The main objectives of the group were: •• Evolution of value networks in telecommunication business •• Forecasting the changes in value networks and business models due to VoIP, Internet-TV, regulation and use of license-free frequencies The focus area was very broad and the group chose an iterative way to progress in order to address the objectives by the thematic group activities.The field-specific presentations provided the stepping stones for intensive scenario working in the Group. This work was further enhanced by a research project in five areas of ICT business ecosystems.

Group’s Cluster/Networks in Finland The work of the thematic group and the business models as a topic interested many persons to attend the discussions during the programme years. The following persons actively involved to the work: Ulla Killström (Elisa Oyj) Chair, Rolf E.A.Boström (www.intellectics.com), Kari Dahl (Doors), Esa Kemppinen (NSN), Hannu Flinck (Nokia), Heikki Hämmäinen (TKK), Timo Smura (TKK), Heikki Jekunen (Tellabs Oy), Ilari Welling (Nokia) Janne Parantainen (NSN), Ro­ bert Rasmus (Racon Business Development Oy), Sujit Wings (BaseN Oy), Jaak-

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ko Talvitie (Electrobit), Erkki Hietanen (Tekes), Heikki Hänninen (Netcare). Several persons attended the group meetings with presentations, visited as active members the meetings during the scenario building period and participated to the research project executed by Oulu University. The persons represented over 40 different organizations.

themes and 11 meetings provided the scenario descriptions. In addition, two meetings discussed the expectations and objectives for the research activity. Finally, the group organized a panel discussion with experienced ICT managers and entrepreneurs to discuss the assumptions and proposition of the research project.

Business Dynamics and Scenarios of Change

Field – specific themes

Main purpose of the group work was to increase the understanding of the changes in business models and value networks. The group followed a scenario working method in order to create a coherent picture of convergence and the industry change drivers. The work identified hundreds of business drivers, limitations and challenges, and summarized the work in two scenarios – verticals (positions in industry specific value chains and present business models) and horizontals (positions in crosssectional value chains, customer groups and changing business models). The findings and conclusions of the major scenario effort was a starting point for a research project conducted with an objective to clarify the business contexts and its effects on business models and corresponding value creation mechanisms. The report business Dynamics and Scenarios of Change is published in fall 2010 (http:// www.tekes.fi/programmes/Giga/Documents).

Other Activities and Results The thematic group had 18 meetings organized in the Helsinki. Five meetings discussed the field-specific

The thematic group organized fieldspecific presentations and discussions with the following themes: •• Technology development (Heikki Hämmäinen, TKK) •• Business modelling (Jyrki Kontio) •• Relationship between regulation and Technology (Kari T Ojala, Viestintäministeriö) •• GIGA-roadmap (Tekes-consult study) •• Radical changes and new earnings logics in mobile (Ville Saarikoski).

Conclusion The thematic group challenged the complex and turbulent business environment, business models and value chains. The discussions on the key drivers in this development and the technological convergence attracted good participation. The group made a clear contribution in the form to scenarios to the objectives set. The scenario work as a method requires quite a lot of intensity in order to provide results. The thematic group members participated actively in the meetings and the participants different backgrounds and knowledge sponsored this approach in a very prosperous way.

Project Reports Dynamics of COmpetition and INnovation in the converging Internet and mobile networks (COIN) Project Duration

1 January 2006 to 31 December 2007 COIN project was a two-year project (2006–2007) and received funding from Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme. The project continued the work of an earlier project named LEAD (2004–2005). In 2008–2009, the work continues in the MoMI (Modeling of Mobile Internet usage and business) project in the GIGA technology programme.

Description of the Objectives The aim of the project was to improve the techno-economic understanding of the national mobile and wireless services market. The project focused on measuring the usage of mobile services, as well as on forward-looking modelling and analysis of selected technology and regulatory scenarios, including handset bundling, emerging radio technologies (WiMAX, DVB-H), virtual operators, and mobile VoIP.

Methods and Processes Used The project benefited from close collaboration with the key stakeholders of the Finnish mobile market, including Nokia, TeliaSonera, Elisa, DNA, Digita, and the Ministry of Transport and Communications. The wide industry representation enabled rich data to be collected and used as a basis for the project work.

Service usage data was collected annually from three complementary sources. Representative market-level data (covering ~80% of the population) was collected from mobile operator’s core networks and usage accounting systems. In addition, a handset monitoring platform was used to collect detailed usage data from a panel of 500–700 smart phone users. The data was used as a basis for studying the adoption, diffusion, and usage of mobile services. Quantitative techno-economic modelling and analysis methods were used to analyze the economic feasibility of selected technology and business scenarios, including WiMAX networks, DVB-H business models, and virtual operator strategies. The constructed techno-economic models combined service usage and revenue forecasts, network planning and dimensioning methods, as well as investment analysis methods and tools. Qualitative methods, including e.g. expert interviews and scenario planning, were used to complement the quantitative studies, and specifically to analyze the market effects of handset bundling regulation and mobile VoIP technologies.

Results The annually collected service usage data formed a solid basis for contributions with both academic and business relevance. The market-level data collected from operator’s networks and accounting systems was used to analyze the current status and trends of the Finnish mobile market, and usage of different mobile services here. Based on this data, the evolution of the Finnish mobile handset base, diffusion of different handset fea-

tures in the market, traffic distribution between handsets and laptops, as well as browsing patterns of mobile users were analyzed in more detail. Among other things, the results showed that although the handset base is renewing quite fast (due to e.g. handset bundling), the usage of more advanced services is still very concentrated, and a relatively small amount of users account for most of the growth in mobile data usage. Handset monitoring is a new and developing research method. In the COIN project, the focus was on developing related data collection and analysis processes, and evaluating the value and usability of the method in different areas of research. Regarding Finnish smart phone users, handset monitoring data revealed clear differences between the intensions of users and actual usage of different mobile services, signalling about bottlenecks (e.g. suboptimal pricing, technical implementation, lack of information) in the service experience. Among the smart phone users, voice calls and SMS usage were still the dominating services, whereas e.g. camera usage and web browsing were among the most popular non-traditional services. Other services such as instant messaging, e-mail, VoIP calls, and multimedia streaming were used only by a relatively small number of users. Techno-economic modelling was used as a method to analyze WiMAX network investments, mobile virtual network operator (MVNO) strategies, and mobile television (DVB-H) business models. WiMAX networks were shown to be a feasible alternative to fixed broadband technologies in sparsely populated areas. For mobile services, as well as fixed broadband services in ur-

197

ban areas, the position of the technology is more challenging, as there already exists a number of established alternatives. MVNO analysis results highlighted the importance of wholesale contracts with incumbent mobile network operators in determining the virtual operators’ business profitability. Unbalance in termination prices between fixed and mobile networks was shown to give incentives for virtual operators to invest in their own network infrastructure. Results of the DVB-H business model analysis showed that in its initial stages, mobile television business does not seem a gold mine in Finland, a large country with sparse population and many players with partly conflicting interests and will to have their share of the future revenues. A cooperative approach seems the most lucrative for mobile operators, but broadcasters might want to bypass them as a sales channel. Qualitative methods were used to analyze the impact of handset bundling on mobile data usage. A framework recognizing six different regulator steering options was constructed and used to gain insight to the complex problem. In conclusion, handset bundling, if carefully tuned by the regulator, can have a positive impact on the adoption of new services in the context of fast technology evolution.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the project period. Journal papers and book chapters

1. T. Smura, A. Kiiski and H. Hämmäinen, Virtual operators in the mobile industry: A techno-economic analysis, Netnomics, 2008. 198

2. H. Verkasalo, Measurement of Smartphone Service Evolution in Finland, Journal of Targeting, Measurement & Analysis in Marketing, 2008. 3. H. Verkasalo, Dynamics of Mobile Service Adoption, Journal of E-Business Research, 2008. 4. H. Verkasalo, Handset-Based Measurement of Mobile Service Demand and Value, INFO: The Journal of Policy, Regulation, and Strategy, 2008. 5. H. Verkasalo and H. Hämmäinen, A Handset-Based Platform for Measuring Mobile Service Usage, INFO: The Journal of Policy, Regulation, and Strategy, vol. 9, no. 1, 2007. 6. R. Kumar and H. Hämmäinen, Competition in International Mobile Roaming: Alternative Clusters, COMMUNICATIONS & STRATEGIES, vol. 3rd Quarter 2007, no. 67, pp. 151–172, 2007. 7. M. Tallberg, H. Hämmäinen, J. Töyli, S. Kamppari and A. Kivi, Impacts of handset bundling on mobile data usage: The case of Finland, Telecommunications Policy, vol. 31, pp. 648–659, 2007. 8. H. Hämmäinen, Finland Counting on DVB-H, Nordic and Baltic Journal of Information and Communication Technologies, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 12–15, 2007. 9. T. Smura, H. Hämmäinen, T. Rokkas and D. Katsianis, Techno-economic analysis of fixed WiMAX network deployments, in Wireless Metropolitan Area Networks: WiMAX and Beyond. New York: Auerbach Publications, 2007. Conference papers

1. H. Verkasalo, Handset-Based Estimation of Mobile VoIP Demand, in ICICWS, Hongkong, 2008.

2. H. Verkasalo, Empirical Insights on the Evolution of the Finnish Mobile Market, in 6th Conference on Telecommunication TechnoEconomics (CTTE 2007), 14–15 June, 2007, Helsinki, Finland, 2007. 3. M. Tallberg, H. Hämmäinen and J. Töyli, Teaching Service Competition through Mobile Operator Business Game, in Learning with Games 2007, 24–26 Sepember, 2007, Sophia Antipolis, France, 2007. 4. H. Verkasalo, Empirical Findings on the Mobile Internet and E-Commerce, in 20th Bled e Conference: eMergence: Merging and Emerging Technologies, Processes, and Institutions. Bled, Slovenia, June 4–6, 2007, 2007. 5. H. Verkasalo, Contextual Usage-Level Analysis of Mobile Services, in The 4th Annual International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: Computing, Networking and Services (MOBIQUITOUS 2007). August 6–10, 2007 – Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2007. 6. A. Kivi, Measuring Mobile User Behavior and Service Usage: Methods, Measurements Points, and Future Outlook, in 6th Global Mobility Roundtable, 1–2 June 2007, Los Angeles, California, U.S., 2007. 7. A. Kivi, Mobile Data Adoption in Finland 2005–2006, in 6th Conference on Telecommunication TechnoEconomics (CTTE 2007), 14–15 June, 2007, Helsinki, Finland, 2007. 8. A. Kivi, Diffusion and Usage of Mobile Browsing in Finland 2005–2006, in 4th CICT Conference, 29–30 November, 2007, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2007. 9. H. Verkasalo, Mobile Data Service Evolution – Empirical Implications from Europe and the USA, in 3rd International CICT Conference,

November 30 – December 1, 2006, Denmark, 2006. 10. H. Verkasalo and H. Hämmäinen, Handset-Based Monitoring of Mobile Subscribers, in Mobility Roundtable, 1–2 June, 2006, Helsinki, Finland, 2006. 11. H. Hämmäinen, H. Verkasalo and A. Kivi, Usage Patterns of Mobile Subscribers: Regulatory Observations in Finland, in 16th Biennial ITS Conference, 12–16 June, 2006, Beijing, China, 2006. 12. T. Smura, A. Kiiski and H. Hämmäinen, Techno-Economic Analysis of Mobile Virtual Network Operators: Strategies, Investments, and Revenues, in 5th Conference on Telecommunication Techno-Economics, 8–9 June 2006, Athens, Greece, 2006. 13. A. Kiiski, Impacts of MVNOs on Mobile Data Service Market, in 17th European Regional ITS Conference, August 22– 24, 2006, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2006. 14. T. Smura, Competition between Emerging Wireless Network Technologies: Case HSPA vs. WiMAX in Europe, in 17th European Regional ITS Conference, August 22–24, 2006, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 2006. 15. H. Verkasalo, Empirical Observations on the Emergence of Mobile Multimedia Services in the U.S. and Europe, in The 5th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia. December 4–6, 2006, Stanford University, California, 2006. Theses

1. K. Lindqvist, Mobile VoIP – Industry scenario analysis of the future mobile voice market, Master's thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2007.

2. T. Autio, Broadcast Mobile Television Service in Finland: A Techno-Economic Analysis, Master's thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2007. 3. A. Kiiski, Impacts of Virtual Operators on Mobile Market, Licentiate thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2007. 4. A. Kivi, Mobile Internet usage measurements – Case Finland, Master's thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2006. 5. H. Verkasalo, A Cross-Country Comparison of Mobile Service and Handset Usage, Licentiate thesis, Helsinki University of Technology, 2006.

Project Manager

Timo Smura TKK Helsinki University of Technology Tel. +358 (50) 536 9855 [email protected] Responsible Project Leader

Prof. Heikki Hämmäinen TKK Helsinki University of Technology Tel. +358 (50) 384 1696 [email protected]

Modeling of Mobile Internet Usage and Business (MoMI, MoMI II) Project Duration

The numbers of publications originated in the COIN project are given in the following table. Publications 2006 2007 2008 Total

Journal papers Chapters in books Conference papers Lic. Tech. theses M.Sc. theses

4

4

8 1

1 1

15

7

7

1

1

2

1

2

3 Total 29

Project Volume

EUR 470 000 Project Participants

The project was carried out by the Networking Laboratory, TKK Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland.    The project was funded by Tekes, Nokia, TeliaSonera, Elisa, DNA, Digita, and Ministry of Transport and Communications.

1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 MoMI (Tekes 40020/08) and MoMI II (Tekes 40008/10) projects formed a three-year project (2008-2010) and received funding from the Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme of Tekes.

Description of the Objectives The aim of the project was to analyze the business dynamics of the rapidly transforming mobile industry with various modeling tools. The project collected empirical service usage data on the Finnish mobile market using novel research methods, and developed models to explain the empirical results.

Methods and Processes Used The project benefited from close collaboration with the key stakeholders of the Finnish mobile market. The wide industry representation enabled rich data to be collected and used as a basis for the

199

research work. The project also involved collaboration with some foreign universities including MIT (Nathan Eagle, William Lehr), University of Athens (Dimitris Varoutas), and WASEDA (Hitoshi Mitomo), and with a foreign company KDDI (Takeshi Kitahara). In addition, the project had linkages with other projects in AALTO/TKK: OtaSizzle (MIDE), [email protected] Tel (COST), and DECICOM (Tekes). Service usage related data was collected annually from several complementary sources, also from nonpartner companies (GfK, TeliaSonera). Representative market-level data (covering over 50% of the population) was collected from mobile operator’s core networks, device registers, and usage accounting systems. Towards the end of the project more ambitious linkage of data sets was started, e.g. TCP/IP traf-

Sample of users

fic header data, RADIUS data, and subscriber databases. In addition, a handset monitoring platform, first Nokia’s SP360 and then MobiTrack, was used to collect detailed usage data from a panel of 100-400 smart phone users. MobiTrack notably enabled multiplatform data collection including Symbian, Windows Mobile, and Android. Handset-based data was used as a basis for studying the adoption and context-related aspects of usage of mobile services. Quantitative and qualitative models were constructed based on the data. In particular, emerging consumer Internet services were studied from a techno-economic perspective. The evolution of mobile revenue models was a central part of our research on new services dynamics. During the last year

Sample of devices

Results Scientific results were all published in international forums including major journals of the field (see the list of publications). The results involving wider industrial relevance were communicated through national media including Helsingin Sanomat and Tekes seminars. Hannu Verkasalo defended successfully his doctoral thesis in 2009 and two other doctoral theses (A. Kivi and T. Smura) will be defended in the beginning of 2011. Best results of MoMI can be summarized as follows. Handset monitoring data confirmed differences between the intentions and actual usage of users of different mobile services due to mismatch between demand and supply (e.g. suboptimal pricing, technical implementation, lack of information). Messaging

Usage accounting systems Routers

2G/3G mobile networks Intranets WLAN hot spots Other wireless access networks (WiMAX ...)

200

Internet

Servers

Penetration of handset features in Finland 2005–2009

% 100

80

60

40

20 2005 2006

0 BT

2007 Color display 2008

HTML browser

Java

Email

Camera

GPS

2009

(email, instant messaging), camera usage and web browsing were among the most popular non-traditional services. Initial comparison of domestic and foreign country mobile usage was identified: when travelling, voice connections are replaced with messaging and map service usage increases significantly. One of our papers in this area (see Verkasalo 2009) got the best paper award in ICIW 2009. Data collected from operator’s networks and accounting systems was used to analyze the current status and trends of the Finnish mobile market, and usage of different mobile services. Comparisons show that Finland is becoming one of the most advanced mobile Internet market globally mainly due to the affordable flat rate subscriptions. Based on this data, the evolution of the Finnish

mobile handset base, diffusion of different handset features in the market, traffic distribution between handsets and laptops, as well as browsing patterns of mobile users were analyzed in more detail. The statistics reveal many relevant details about the early phase of the rapid increase in mobile Internet usage (Kivi, 2009, Smura et al, 2009). Our predictive model of the evolution of the handset and feature base on the market has turned out valuable especially to application development houses in Finland. Regarding regulation, a recommendation for the European strategy for mobile data roaming was presented (Hämmäinen et al, 2009). This result ignited discussions between our team and the EU commissionaire’s office and ended up in adding some guidelines to the EU roaming price caps.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the project period. Journal papers

M.V.J. Heikkinen and J. Töyli, Modeling intention to use novel mobile peer-topeer services, International Journal of E-Business Research (IJEBR), in press. H. Verkasalo, Analysis of users and nonusers of smartphone applications, Telematics and Informatics, vol. 27, pp. 242–255, 2010. T. Smura, A. Kivi and J. Töyli, Mobile Data Services in Finland: Usage of Networks, Devices, Applications, and Content, International Journal of Electronic Business, 2010, In Press.

201

A. Kivi, Diffusion of Mobile Data in Finland, NETNOMICS: Economic Research and Electronic Networking, Published online: 26 May 2009. H. Verkasalo, Contextual Patterns in Mobile Service Usage, Journal of Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 331–342, 2009. H. Verkasalo, A Measurement Framework of Mobile Service Adoption, International Journal of Handheld Computing Research (IJHCR), 2009. A. Kivi, Measuring mobile service usage: methods and measurements points, International Journal of Mobile Communications, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 415– 435, 2009. T. Smura, A. Kivi and J. Töyli, A Framework for Analysing the Usage of Mobile Services, INFO - The journal of policy, regulation and strategy for telecommunications, information and media, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 53–67, 2009. H. Verkasalo, Analysis of the Forces Reshaping the Mobile Internet Business, International Journal of Interdisciplinary Telecommunications and Networking, vol. 1, no. 1, 2008. H. Verkasalo, Handset-Based Measurement of Mobile Service Demand and Value, INFO: The Journal of Policy, Regulation and Strategy, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 51–69, 2008. Conference papers

T. Kitahara, A. Riikonen and H. Hämmäinen, Characterizing Traffic Generated with Laptop Computers and Mobile Handsets in GPRS/UMTS Core Networks. In 35th IEEE Conference on Local Computer Networks (LCN), Denver, Colorado, U.S., October 11– 14, 2010. J. Karikoski and M. Nelimarkka, Measuring social relations: Case OtaSizzle, 202

Proceedings of the 2nd IEEE International Conference on Social Computing (SocialCom2010). A. Riikonen, T. Kitahara, T. and H. Hämmäinen, Comparison of Mobile Internet Usage and Industry Structure: Japan vs. Finland. ITS 18th Biennial Conference, Tokyo, Japan, June 27– 30, 2010. M.V.J. Heikkinen and J.K. Nurminen, Consumer attitudes towards energy consumption of mobile phones and services. Proc. 72nd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC 2010). H. Hämmäinen, Flat-rate Data Roaming for Mobile Internet Access, in Proceedings of EuroCPR Conference in Seville, Spain, March 29–31, 2009. T. Smura and A. Sorri, Future Scenarios for Local Area Access: Industry Structure and Access Fragmentation, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Mobile Business (ICMB 2009), Dalian, China, June 27–28, 2009. A. Kivi, T. Smura and J. Töyli, Diffusion of Mobile Handset Features in Finland, in Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Mobile Business (ICMB 2009), Dalian, China, June 27–28, 2009. M. V. J. Heikkinen, A. Kivi and H. Verkasalo, Measuring Mobile Peer-to-Peer Usage: Case Finland 2007, in Proceedings of Passive and Active Network Measurement Conference (PAM 2009), pp. 165–174, 2009. H. Verkasalo, H. Hämmäinen, M. Heikkinen and Z. Hanbo, An Assessment of Revenue Model Success through Service Usage, in Proceedings of the Conference on Telecommunication Techno-Economics (CTTE) 2009, 15–16 June, Stockholm, Sweden, 2009. M. V. J. Heikkinen and J. K. Nurminen, Consumer Attitudes towards Different Aspects of Mobile Peer-to-

Peer Services, in Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Advances in P2P Systems (AP2PS 2009), pp. 132– 137, 2009. H. Verkasalo, Open Mobile Platforms: Modeling the Long-Tail of Application Usage, in Proceedings of ICIW 2009. The Fourth International Conference on Internet and Web Applications and Service. May 24–28, 2009, Venice/ Mestre, Italy, 2008, Best paper award. H. Verkasalo and B. J. Salmeron, Analysis of the Contextual Behaviour of Mobile Subscribers, in Proceedings of EuropeComm 2009. The First International ICST Conference on Communications Infrastructure, Systems and Applications in Europe, London 10–13 August, 2009, 2008. H. Verkasalo, Measuring the Adoption of Mobile Services, in Proceedings of Networking and Electronic Commerce Research Conference 2008 (NAEC) in Riva del Garda, Italy, September 25–28, 2008, 2008. H. Verkasalo, From Intentions to Active Usage: A study on Mobile Services in Finland, in Proceedings of ITS Europe 2008, in Rome, Italy, September 17–20, 2008, 2008. T. Smura, Access alternatives to mobile services and content: analysis of handset-based smartphone usage data, in ITS 17th Biennial Conference, Montreal, Canada, June 24–27, 2008, 2008. H. Verkasalo, K. Lindqvist and H. Hämmäinen, Scenario Analysis of Mobile Voice Services Market, in Proceedings of 2008 IEEE Services Computing Conference (IEEE APSCC 2008), Dec 9–12, Taiwan, 2008. H. Verkasalo, Strategic Analysis of Mobile Internet Business Models, in EuroCPR, Seville, Spain, 2008.

H. Verkasalo and W. Martin, An Assessment of the Handset-Based End-User Research Process, in Proceedings of The International Telecommunications Society (ITS) Conference, Montego Bay, Jamaica, June 23–26, 2009, 2008. Theses

A. Riikonen, Mobile Internet Usage Network Traffic Measurements, Master's Thesis, Department of Communications and Networking, TKK Helsinki University of Technology, 2009. H. Verkasalo, Handset-Based Analysis of Mobile Service Usage, PhD Thesis, Department of Communications and Networking, TKK Helsinki University of Technology, 2009. P. Maheshwaree, Determinants of Smartphone Usage, Master's Thesis, Department of Communications and Networking, TKK Helsinki University of Technology, 2009. M. Uronen, Market Segmentation Approaches in the Mobile Service Business, Master's Thesis, Department of Communications and Networking, TKK Helsinki University of Technology, 2008. T. Brunou, System Dynamics Model of Mobile Handset Business, Master's Thesis, Department of Communications and Networking, TKK Helsinki University of Technology, 2008. B. Salmeron, Modeling of Mobile End-User Context, Master's Thesis, Department of Communications and Networking, TKK Helsinki University of Technology, 2008. Z. Hanbo, Emerging Business Models of the Mobile Internet Market, Master's Thesis, Department of

Communications and Networking, TKK Helsinki University of Technology, 2008.

Project Volume

EUR 930 000.00 (share of Tekes over three years)

Book Chapters

Project Participants

K. Kilkki, Aika, onnellisuus ja tietotekniset palvelut, in Informaatiotekniikan filosofia, Lapin yliopistokustannus, in press, 2010. K. Kilkki, The social system of systems intelligence - a study based on search engine method, in Systems Intelligence, Raimo P. Hämäläinen and Esa Saarinen, eds., 2010, http://www. systemsintelligence.tkk.fi/SI2010.html H. Verkasalo, Analyzing the Stickiness of Mobile Service Usage, in Promoting New Telecom Infrastructures: Markets, Policies and Pricing, Edward Elgar, 2009. H. Verkasalo, Dynamics of Mobile Service Adoption, in Advances in E-Business Research (AEBR), 2008.

The project was carried out by the Department of Communications and Networking, TKK Helsinki University of Technology (now Aalto University), Espoo, Finland.    The project was funded by Tekes, Nokia, Elisa, DNA, Ainacom, Accenture, YLE, Sanoma, and Ministry of Transport and Communications.

Other Documents

A. Kivi, Mobile Handset Population in Finland 2005–2008, MoMI project report, 2009. A. Riikonen and A. Kivi, IP Traffic Measurements, MoMI project report, 2009.

Project Manager (2010)

Docent Kalevi Kilkki Aalto University Department of Communications and Networking Tel. +358445837637 [email protected] Project Manager (2008–2009)

Antero Kivi (already moved to industry) [email protected] Responsible Project Leader

Prof. Heikki Hämmäinen Aalto University Tel. +358 (50) 384 1696 [email protected]

The numbers of publications originated in the MoMI and MoMI II projects are given in the following table. Publications

2008

2009

2010

Total

Journal papers

2

5

3

10

Chapters in books

1

1

2

4

Conference papers

7

7

4

18 2

Other dokuments

2

Dr.Tech. theses

1

1

2

6

M.Sc. theses

4

Total

41

203

Business Dynamics and Scenarios of Change (G-MDS) Project Duration

1 May 2008 to 31 July 2009 After the G-MDS project, the results of the project have been used in the preparations of the Tekes continuation project of Converging Networks (GIGA), the planned starting of the continuation project is as of January 2011. Also, the project results have been used in TIVIT’s (www.tivit.fi) preparations for developing a Data reserves research initiative. The results of the project are currently being used in TIVIT’s Software Cloud programme in its WP3 section.

Description of the objectives The general purpose of the project was to describe and understand the drivers behind the development of business models and value creation in companies within the ICT sector. More specifically, the aims of the project were to study (1) the technological impacts to vertical integration needs, strategies in vertical integration, and business models in vertical integration, (2) the emergence, divergence and heterogeneity of different company strategies and business models depending on their level of horizontal integration and its impact to those, and (3) the value networks in the companies that are dealing with the converging networks.

Methods or processes used The research methods used in the research project include both qualitative and quantitative data either to be collected during the project or to be derived from earlier studies conducted within Tekes/Giga research streams. 204

The data collected during 2008–2009 comes mainly from in-depth interviews (using a semi-structured interview questionnaire) with industry key informants representing different types of businesses, business models, value networks, positions in value networks, and business strategies. The sampling of companies was based on the ecosystem thinking; the companies identified for analysis represented technology, product, system, or service providers operating on both infrastructure and application sides of the ICT ecosystem. In totality 21 interviews were made in different companies. In addition, two panel group discussion sessions were organized (one in Helsinki, one in Oulu) to acquire more in-depth information on the emerging topics and point of views identified during the research process.

Results Earlier work by Tekes has lead to the identification of hundreds of business drivers, limitations and challenges, that could be summarized in the form of two ICT scenarios – verticals (positions in sector-specific or segment-specific value chains) and horizontals (positions in cross-sectional value chains and customer groups). Based on this earlier work, two major areas of change were identified to affect business models and value creation. The first of these was consumers’ a) diverging media landscape, especially in the form of social media and social data, and b) the changing role of information, contributing to consumers’ attention divergence. Secondly, even with converging technologies (networks, devices) and industries, cloud computing seem to be changing the rules, business models

and value creation mechanisms of the ICT businesses. The research results indicate that for consultants it is the horizontals that provide new opportunities, e.g., in packaged services and cross-industry integration. For application software developers the horizontals might provide opportunities in the form of new services utilizing advertising, context awareness, or data intensiveness. Infrastructure software developers seemed to be hoping that the business shall remain within the existing verticals by seeing mobile and fixed businesses as one. For system and infrastructure integrators the opportunities might be found in horizontals; service delivery platforms and content aggregation/access services. For infrastructure and application service providers, content or access to it appeared as an opportunity, but also diversification seemed to provide alternative opportunities, especially in the business-to-business sector. For hardware providers the new opportunities might be found in the short-cuts connecting directly verticals with not-soapparent horizontals. As a summary, the research indicates that divergence and fragmentation of the consumers’ media landscape is overriding the consequences of convergence all over the ICT sector. Access, identification, and utilization of user data are increasingly becoming the source of value creation and competitive advantage. Social media and its phenomena change industry structures and business models in unpredictable ways, contributing to the deteriorating of purely horizontal or vertical business models and thus making ICT companies to look for value chain short-cuts, sidetracks, and opportunities across traditional segmentation strategies.

Publications

Description of the Objectives

Petri Ahokangas, Miikka Blomster, Lauri Haapanen, Matti Leppäniemi, Vesa Puhakka, Veikko Seppänen, Juhani Warsta (2010). Business Dynamics and Scenarios of Change affecting business models and value creation within the ICT sector. Tekes Review 274/2010. Helsinki.

The project has been focused on improving the overall process and scope of mobile audience measurement related research service offerings in Finland, and to productize the approach to make the business more scalable, transforming from a project-oriented business to a provider of recurring research activities and research programs. The goal of year 2010 has been to streamline the panel study process, productizing the service offering, and defining the product that is being sold into a form that fits well with the go-tomarket plan. As an outcome, there was supposed to be a well-defined sellable product prepared and piloted, that is the basic requirement for scaling sales activities. The project goal has been to prepare the approach of deploying mobile audience measurements in larger study settings, involving not only behavioral, but also technical and questionnaire data. The main purpose of the task is to productize the whole approach of doing mobile audience measurements, and document this as part of the company’s offering that sales people can use easily during 2011. The objective of this task is to complement existing market research processes of key customers with new metrics collected directly from smartphones, in a continuous panel study setting. This part will be done together with Nokia Siemens Networks, the pilot customers being Telecom Italy (Femto-cells) and Vodafone Spain (Mobile Internet), and Google Japan. The study will deliver at least one pilot project with the to-be developed product approach, the goal of which is generically to make it easier to scale business with as much au-

Project volume

149973 €, 16,5 man months Project participants

University of Oulu, Oulu Business School, Department of International business and Faculty of Natural Sciences, Department of Information processing science. Petri Ahokangas, Miikka Blomster, Lauri Haapanen, Matti Leppäniemi, Vesa Puhakka, Veikko Seppänen, Juhani Warsta Project manager

Prof. Petri Ahokangas University of Oulu, Oulu Business School Tel. +358 40 3504836 [email protected]

Mobile Audience Measurements (MAM) Project Duration

1 March 2010 to 1 May 2011 Mobile Audience Measurements project was stated in 2009 with own funding, and it was continued in an accelerated fashion in the Tekes’ Converging Networks (GIGA) technology programme from year 2010 onwards. The project has been contributing significantly to not only to the commercial development potential of MobiTrack Innovations Oy, but also to various academic and R&D related activities in relation to conceptualizing new kinds of research services.

tomation and pre-defined processes being ready as possible. Benchmarking is also trialed through the combination of Global Smartphone Study results with the process of delivering research projects to customers. The project will develop a well-documented service product, including a package of analysis and maintenance services, and the technical platform. During this task, also benchmarking data is provided to pilot customers, to showcase the value of dynamic comparative analysis that third parties can provide at best.

Methods or Processes Used In this project, the current model of doing panel studies with operators and device vendors has been developed further and intellectual property is built on top of the panel study setup process, data analysis practices and innovations regarding the technical backend (data collection and server-side analytics). MobiTrack Innovations has prepared the commercial model through go-to-market and product plan development, and protected key analysis innovations with also patents. MobiTrack Innovations has a firstmover advantage in this field, and by collaborating with international research institutions, domestic suppliers of technologies (Futurice, NSN, CCC, Zokem, Ericsson) and piloting services with already existing customers (Telefonica, Google, Vodafone, Telecom Italy, WIND, Samsung), the likelihood to build competitive new offerings and create a new kind of global services business in Finland is high. The project has been using pilot projects, business development work, and some academic research in developing the services further. 205

Results The intention of the project was to build on MT Innovation’s accumulated knowledge of the mobile audience measurement industry. This Tekes project has successfully prepared the Finland-based company for international growth. This development project focused on improving the overall process and scope of the research service offering, and productize the approach to make the business more scalable, transforming the company from a project-oriented business to a provider of recurring research activities and research programs. The year 2010 was used for streamlining the panel study process, productizing the service offering, and defining the product that is being sold into a form that fits well with the go-to-market plan and customer needs. As an outcome, there is now a well-defined sellable product prepared and piloted, that is the basic requirement for scaling sales activities during 2011. Through the practical experiments the key foundations of the commercial model, developed over years 2004-2009, MT Innovations was converted into a serious commercial player in the field of mobile audience measurements. The key steps that were achieved during 2010 are: 1. A formal description of the productized research approach (scope, process description) was prepared 2. The new approach was piloted with one commercial customer 3. The benchmarking process as part of delivering insights to customers in research projects was tested 4. A go-to-market and partnership plan for year 2011 was prepared with the newly developed approach 206

The project significantly developed the company's service offering and its delivery process to be ready for a commercial research business, streamlining key project management/analysis processes based on customer needs. A competitive early-mover advantage was achieved during the project regarding data analysis and provisioning of mobile audience measurement platforms.

Publications The following publications were published or accepted during the project. Verkasalo, H. (2010). A Measurement Framework of Mobile Service Adoption. JHCR. Verkasalo, H. (2010). Analyzing the Stickiness of Mobile Service Usage. Promoting New Telecom Infrastructures: Markets, Policies and Pricing, edited Morten Falch. Project Participants

The project was principally conducted by MT Innovations Oy, although there were lots of supporting partners (not formally in the project), including Helsinki School of Economics, Helsinki Center of Economic Research, Helsinki Institute of Information Technology, Helsinki University of Technology, Nokia Siemens Networks Oy, Ericsson AB, Microsoft International, Nokia Oyj, Xtract Oy, Hewlett Packard, Marshall School of Business, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, York University, Technical University of Delft, International University of Japan. Project Manager

Hannu Verkasalo MT Innovations Oy Tel. +358 (0)40 5959663 [email protected]

Locational Advantage in a Global Digital Economy Description of the background and objectives of the project BRIE – the Berkeley Roundtable on the International Economy at the University of California at Berkeley, and ETLA, The Research Institute of the Finnish Economy (Helsinki, Finland), carried out a joint collaborative research program to examine the changing patterns of knowledge creation and use in the global digital economy. Previously technical innovation was largely a domain of advanced markets and developed regions. Today, emerging markets and developing regions have become equally – if not more – important targets for and sources of technology. As a consequence, increasing off-shoring of ever-higher value-added activities – including core R&D – is transforming the industrial structure in both Europe and the US. Location still matters – it is just that in relative terms regions outside traditional hotspots such as the Silicon Valley in California and metropolitan Helsinki in Finland have become much more attractive. We have just seen the beginning of a major shift in how knowledge creation and use locate. Ultimately this shift will have major consequences in both old and new or emitting and absorbing regions.

Structure of the Project The project lasted three years (2005– 2007/8). It organized several workshops in California and Europe which were attended by Finnish company representatives (Nokia, TeliaSonera, TietoEnator), Tekes staff, and the research teams.

The program consisted of four main research themes: •• Evolution and off-shoring of processes, production, and services, •• Creating value in the global digital economy, •• Adoption and use as well as enduser innovation in digital technologies, and •• Changing roles and structures of national innovation and policy systems. The project was integrated to the work of CITRIS, The Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (spanning over numerous departments at four UC campuses at Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz), including (but not limited to) a BRIE-ETLA workshop in the context of the CITRIS in Europe meeting in June 20–21, 2006, in Finlandia House (Helsinki).

Home Countries1 (p. 13–33) John H. Dunning, Sarianna M. Lundan Unbundling R&D and Manufacturing: Postindustrial Myth or Economic Reality? (p. 35–54) Mikko Ketokivi, Jyrki Ali-Yrkkö The Persistence of Home Bias for Important R&D in Wireless Telecom and Automobiles (p. 55–76) Stephen S. Cohen, Alberto Di Minin, Yasuyuki Motoyama, Christopher Palmberg Service Provision for the Global Economy: The Evolving Indian Experience (p. 77– 104) Rafiq Dossani, Martin Kenney Shaping the Architecture of the U.S. Information and Communication Technology Architecture: A Political Economic Analysis1 (p. 105-125) Peter F. Cowhey, Jonathan D. Aronson, John Richards

National Institutions and the Globalized Political Economy of Technological Change: An Introduction (p. 1–11) Dan Breznitz The Internationalization of Corporate R&D: A Review of the Evidence and Some Policy Implications for

There are several interesting and policy relevant findings in the reports. Just to take one example, Ali-Yrkkö and Ketokivi find in their econometric analysis, based on firm-level data, that co-location of R&D and manufacturing is an outcome of several factors and complex decision process. They find that product and process complexity as well as rate of new product introduction all have an effect on co-location need.

Figure 1. Determinants and different views on R&D and Manufacturing co-location.

Results, publications The project produced altogether dozens of academic and policy papers which were published both as working papers and journal articles, and discussed in the joint workshops attended by academics and business community. A summary of the results was published as two special issues of Review of Policy Research (an international peer-reviewed journal of Blackwell Publishing), Volume 26 Issue 1–2, pages 1–239 (January/March 2009) in the form of more than ten articles. These include:

The Services Transformation and Network Policy: The New Logic of Value Creation (p. 173–194) Kenji E. Kushida, John Zysman Are Intellectual Property Rights Hindering Technological Advance? The Need for Technological Commons (p. 195–217) Petri Rouvinen, Rikard Stankiewicz.

(1) Environmental factors E1

E2



R&D

RD 1

RD 2

EM

Manufacturing (3) Cross-functional Interdependencies C1

M1 M3 M4

C2 RD 3



M2

CN (2a) Intrafunctional interdependencies (R&D)

(2b) Intrafunctional interdependencies (Manufacturing)

207

They also find that R&D intensity per se is ancillary to the co-location phenomenon contrary to commonly held view among policy makers. The determinants and different views on co-location of R&D and manufacturing can be described by the figure below. Project participants, Research teams ETLA team:

•• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• ••

Jyrki Ali-Yrkkö (ETLA) Ari Hyytinen (ETLA and University of Jyväskylä) Mikko Ketokivi (ETLA and Helsinki University of Technolgy) Petri Rouvinen (ETLA) Sarianna Lundan (ETLA and University of Maastricht) Christopher Palmberg (ETLA) Pekka Ylä-Anttila (ETLA) Heli Koski (ETLA) Aija Leiponen (Cornell University and ETLA).

Brie team:

•• •• •• •• ••

John Zysman, Professor, University of California, Berkeley Stephen Cohen, Professor, University of California, Berkeley Martin Kenney (to be confirmed), Professor, UC Davies Dan Breznitz, Professor Georgia Tech, Atlanta Alberto Di Minin, University of California, Berkeley and Univ. of Pisa.

Project Volume

Three year period, 2005–2007/8, EUR 804 000, of which 50% from Tekes and 50 % from participating companies (Nokia, TeliaSonera, TietoEnator)

208

Next generator operator environment , NEON Objectives The project was set out to develop new lightweight operator environment matching the new opportunities created by packet based multi-access networks and access horizontalization, i.e. use of cellular and WLAN access. The core concept of NEON is virtual operator that is providing a rich service environment as an overlay network to end users across multiple access networks. •• Develop new business opportunities and architectural concepts for network ecosystem players. Investigate new communication propositions and their underlying technologies as exemplified by end user provided infrastructure or community networks. •• To develop virtual operator environment (e.g. overlay solution) that is capable to provide service across multiple accesses and that can scale both to consumer and enterprise services. Special attention will be paid for OPEX optimized solutions. •• Investigate and identify the key technologies needed for improving end-user experience in multiaccess networks and simplifying network service development and deployment. •• Create a set of innovation enablers for service developers. •• Provide large enough live stateof-the-art real-time communications network to be used also by other projects within the company and to create company inter-

nal community. Seek for a limited scale end-user trial with a friendly operator.

Methods or Processes Used The NSSP was designed to have two main functional components: the Centralised Management System and the Customer Premises Equipment. While the former was developed mainly inhouse, the latter was based on the integration of different open source components and developed in co-operation with the open source community

Results The project created a business development plan and a working reference implementation of a virtual operator concept providing services to enterprises. The concept is based on a MVNOtype of model where the virtual operator buys transport capacity from an infrastructure provider. The main difference is that in the implemented concept the virtual operator bundles WLAN and fixed line accesses into an integrated service packet. This enables service offering both at the home and office environments. Traffic is routed based on "least cost" principle and by using dynamic user profile settings in the mobile devices. The virtual operator offers an IP based service network with its own interworoking units between cellular, PSTN networks and enterprise networks. The service network includes device management (based on OMA DM and used for the dynamic user profile settings), SIP-based services (voice over IP and instant messaging) and Single Sign On service. Additional developed services include indoors location based services and calendaring exten-

Focus on end user needs to simplify the complexity of multiple accesses to services:

sions based on WebDAV. Scalability of the service environment was taken into account by distributing the functionality among a farm of servers and developing media relay functionality. The created network has been used in parallel with the company internal production network and is still operative (in year 2010 in NSN premises). The initial business plans show significant cost savings particularly in an international setting when the customer enterprises have operations and offices in different countries. The main principles of the business plan have been presented in Giga seminar in 2008.

Project Participants

Project Manager

Nokia OYj, Nokia Siemens Networks OY, AINA-group (Kalle Tarpila), TKK (prof. Antti Ylä-Jääski, Sanna Liimatainen/TKK/TML), VTT (Tapio Suihko, Heikki Pentikäinen/VTT) University of Helsinki (prof. Kimmo Raatikainen) Plenwaren (Pentti Hannelin).

Hannu Flinck Additional Information

Hannu Flinck Nokia Siemens Networks Tel. +358 (0)504839522 [email protected]

In addition the project was Nokia’s home project for MIT/CFP collaboration.

209

DVB-H LITE

Figure 1. Ilosaari Rock mobile-TV application.

Objectives The ogjective of DVB-H LITE –project was to build an mobile-tv platform that would utilize different networks. The system could be used in event, pilots and demostrations to build services that use 3G, WiFi and DVB-H networks. As part of the work carried out was OSSG (Operator Specific Service Guide) – mobile application that would hide the underlying networks. The service guide was designed to work on all DVB-H capable handsets, e.g. Nokia N92. A business model analysis regarding mobile TV in events was done as part of the project. The project started in May 2006 and was finished in March 2007. Pilot Events

Project group participated 3 events to test and pilot the developed services and to get user feedback. The first event was Ilosaari rock festival held in Joensuu in July 2006. The piloted services included the following mobile services: Live DVB-H channels from the stages and back stage, Radio channel, Video-on-demand service offering interviews and reports and informative services via 3G network. The main objective was to technically test DVB-H transmission system with Nokia N92 handset. The second event was i2010 EU conference held at Dipoli, Espoo. Project group together with LumiTools and BSMG produced live channels, which were also broadcasted in Digita’s network in Helsinki region. Conference delegates were offered timetables, presentaions, speaker bios, video 210

interviews and live broadcasts during the day. DVB-H became the hot topic of the event and both Finnish minister and EU’s commissioner gave press releases regarding the matter.

The last pilot event was the opening of Ideapark shopping center. There were seven (7) live/loop channels offered to visitors in addition to Ideapark information, maps, competitions, cou-

Figure 2. Nokia N92s showing the i2010 service.

pons and games. The Pilot lasted over the opening weekend.

Results The main objective was to increase the technical and business knowledge regarding mobile TV in general and in events. The biggest challenges during the project were the development in mobile TV standards and the lack of compatible handsets. The awareness of mobile TV among consumers during the pilots was surprisingly low, which made the end-user tests and the feedback somewhat vague. However, the business model analysis from the pilots contributed to an solid estimate of how the mobile TV in events can work now and in the future. As of now, 2 years after the end of project, it can be said that the market did not develop as estimated, although an technical and business knowledge advantage was achieved compared to other players.

Project Participants

Icareus, University of Turku, TeliaSonera, Tekes, Tietokartano Co-opetive Participants

BSMG, Digita, Forum Virium Helsinki, Ideapark, Joensuun popmuusikot, Liikenne- ja viestintävirasto, Lumitools, Pohjoiskarjalan Ammattikorkeakoulu Project Manager

Mikko Karppinen

Heikkojen signaalien analyysimenetelmä ja työkalu digitaalisen median palvelujen alalle Project Participants

Digital Media Innovations Finland, Dimes ry Project Manager

Kimmo Ojuva

Additional Information

Mikko Karppinen Icareus Oy Tel. +358 (0)9 2289 0801 [email protected]

211

3.5 Thematic Group 5, Network Security Focus of the Group Network security working group’s main focus was developing and maintaining a roadmap for years 2007-2020. The starting point of this work is the GIGA roadmap developed in 2006-2007. The goal is to enhance it, taking account comments by the working group members. The working plan for the roadmap was following: •• Carry out threat analysis session, classify results, compare to other roadmaps •• Include technological and business trends •• Iterate threat analysis •• Suggest alternative trends and (milestones) for network security (end of 2007) •• Suggest working plan for more detailed analysis (possibly a contract project) •• Carry out more detailed analysis •• Interpret and disseminate results (Spring 2008).

Group’s Cluster/Networks in Finland The persons actively involved to the work of the thematic group were: Juhani Anttila (Quality Integration), Kaj Grahn (Arcada), Aaro Hallikainen (Poliisi), Seppo Heikkinen (University of Tam-

212

pere), Harri Heimbürger (STUK), Marko Helenius (University of Tampere), Arto Juhola (VTT), Pekka Jäppinen, (Lappeenranta University of Technology), Jorma Kajava, (University of Oulu), Jonny Karlsson (Arcada), Timo Karvi (University of Helsinki), Tomi Kelo (University of Tampere), Sami Kilkkilä (Ficora), Heikki Kontiosalo (Rovaniemen kehitys), Björn Melén (Ericsson), Hannu Nurmi (Tekes), Tiina Nurmi (Tekes), Kaisa Nyberg (Helsinki University of Technology), Janne Peräjoki (Tekes), Göran Pulkkis (Arcada), Hannu Rytilä (Tekes), Reijo Savola (VTT), Göran Schultz (Ericsson), Timo Simula (Netcare Finland), Aleksi Suhonen (University of Tampere), Esa Turtiainen (Ericsson) and Petri Yllö (Sanoma). In addition several experts visited the thematic group meetings to present their activities in the field.

Group Vision and Roadmap Main purpose in vision and roadmap work was to get a common shared understanding that could be facilitating further work in the area. The vision was collected by VTT as an external consultant and published in fall 2010 (http:// www.tekes.fi/u/GIGA-Roadmap2010. pdf ).

Other Activities and Results The thematic group had 12 meetings organized in the Helsinki area and in Oulu hosted by Ministry of Transport and Communications, Arcada, Ericsson, HIIT, VTT and Tekes. The main activi-

ties of the thematic group were to create and update the technology vision and roadmap, to organise the thematic group seminar and to follow up on the technology development with presentations by group members and experts from the field. A threat analysis session was organized by VTT.

Conclusion In general, the thematic group activities attracted good participation and made a clear contribution to the objectives set. In the beginning this was only open forum in Finland where network security aspects were discussed and the participants felt that the work of this group should be continued after GIGA was ended. The group included the most important national players both from the company and research sides. The thematic group members participated actively in the creating technology vision, which was contributed to the GIGA Roadmap 2010 as well as several other working papers nationally and internationally.

Appendix 1

Appendix 1

GIGA Programme Management Board Kari Leppänen, Nokia Oyj, Chair of Management Board 2008-2010 Seppo Borenius, Tellabs Oy Chair of Management Board 2005-2008 Raimo Vuopionperä, Oy LM Ericsson Ab Jouko Sankala, NetHawk Oyj Ari Hulkkonen, Elektrobit Group Plc. Sami Ala-luukko, TeliaSonera AB, Jonna Särs, Nixu Oy Jari Mieskonen, Conor Venture Partners Oy Mikko Valtakari, Tempo Economics ltd. Tapio Halkola, Finnish Defence Forces Jussi Paakkari, VTT Matti Latva-aho, University of Oulu (CWC) Juha Latikka, Academy of Finland Kari Tilli, Tekes Kari Markus, Tekes

GIGA Programme Operational Working Group Kari Markus, Tekes, Programme Manager and Thematic Group “Wireless Access” Timo Simula, Netcare Finland, Programme Coordinator Tiina Nurmi, Tekes, International Cooperation Kaj Nordgren, Tekes, Communications Jorma Julku, Tekes, Thematic Group “Seamless Networking” Marko J. Heikkinen, Tekes, Thematic Group “Network Support” Erkki Hietanen, Tekes, Thematic Group “Telecom Business” Heikki Hänninen, Netcare Finland, Programme consultancy

213

Appendix 2

Appendix 2

Creanord Oy

Organisations participating in GIGA programme

–– Creanord Echo Project – Platform for IP & Ethernet Network Service Delivery and Monitoring

Number of large companies funded: 16 Number of SME companies funded: 24 Number of research organisations funded: 10 Total funding decisions: 213

180

Digita Oy

–– E!3187 CELTIC SCALNET – Scalable Video Coding Impact on Networks (SCALNET)

In addition to this there has been many SME companies involved as a subcontractor especially to a large company project or participating programme seminars and other operational activities.

144

Digital Media Innovations Finland Dimes ry

–– Heikkojen signaalien analyysimenetelmä ja työkalu digitaalisen median palvelujen alalle, Digital Media Innovations Finland

211

EADS Secure Networks Oy

–– Professional Mobile Communications Terminals

List of Project Organisations with Project Names

Elektrobit Wireless Communications Oy

COMPANIES 7signal Oy







–– WLAN-verkkojen laadunhallinta –– Langattomien laajakaistaverkkojen valvonta

    page

180 190

BaseN Oy

–– E!3187 CELTIC Easy Wireless 2 (EW-2) –– BaseN U.S. Expansion Phase II

140 182

Benebit Networks Oy

–– Benebit Networks Internal Security Solution –– Benebit Networks inGuard

189

–– IPv6 compatibility

Elektrobit System Test Oy

–– Crosslayer Solutions and Network Support for Broadband Wireless Access (CrossNet) –– Virtual Drive Test Solution (VDTS)

171 184

Etlatieto Oy

206

European Communications Engineering Oy

166

Concilio Networks Oy

–– Concilio Mobile Gateway Suite –– Community Connect

–– E!3187 CELTIC WINNER+ – Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio + (WINNER+) 40 –– Technologies for Wireless Converging Networks (TECWIN2) 60 –– Platform technologies for IP radio access networks 104

–– Locational Advantage in a Global Digital Economy

Birdstep Technology Oy

214

103

165 165

–– E!3187 CELTIC HOMESNET – Home Base Station: An Emerging Network Paradigm (HOMESNET)

78

Goodmill Systems Oy

–– Router Solution for Intelligent Connectivity Protection 180

–– DVB-H LITE

210

Iptune Oy

–– Iptune Virus Finder

190

Kilosoft Oy

–– kiloMESH

181

Maxisat-Yhtiöt Oy

–– E!3187 CELTIC SCALNET – Scalable Video Coding Impact on Networks (SCALNET)

144

Meshcom Technologies Oy

–– MeshNode – Wireless Mesh Technology –– Firmware Development Project

140 181

Mobile Open Access Systems M-OAS Oy

–– Mobile Open Access

–– Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe) –– Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti) –– E!2023 ITEA Easy Wireless (EW) –– E!3187 CELTIC Easy Wireless 2 (EW-2) –– Crosslayer Solutions and Network Support for Broadband Wireless Access (CrossNet) –– E! 2023 ITEA SERKET – SEcuRisation Keeps Threats: NetHawk tools in security system testing and sensor simulation (SERKET)

205

–– Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe) –– Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti) –– Protocols for Future Wireless Networks

118 127 134 134 170

187

Nokia Oyj

–– –– –– ––

Wireless Broadband Communications (Wibco) dCOM – Direct Communication Ultra Wideband Program Reconfigurable Small Mobile Terminal Antennas (RESONATE)

–– E!2023 ITEA Easy Wireless (EW)

58 79 82 97

42 62 63 71 77 105 208

119 125 140

135

Powerwave Finland Oy

–– Advanced Access for Telecommunication, AATOS

100

Pulse Finland Oy

95 96

Radio- ja televisiotekniikan tutkimus RTT Oy

–– Advanced Broadcasting Solutions 2006–2007 189

117

Plenware Group Oy

–– Multiradio Antennas –– New LTE-antennas (NELA)

Nixu Software Oy

–– SLADE

–– E!3187 CELTIC WINNER+ – Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio + (WINNER+) –– Multiradio Mobile Access (MaMA) –– Ubiquitous broadband Connectivity with IMT-A Radio technologies (UbiCAR) –– advaNced rAdio SysTems and Architectures (NASTA) –– E!3187 CELTIC HOMESNET – Home Base Station: An Emerging Network Paradigm (HOMESNET) –– L-Band Interference Measurements in Urban and Suburban Environment –– Next Generation Operator Environments (NEON) Oy L M Ericsson Ab

NetHawk Oy

98 103

Nokia Siemens Networks Oy

130

MT Innovations Oy

–– Mobile Audience Measurements (MAM)

–– Configurable Terminal Platform (COPLA) –– Future Nokia Radio –– Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe)

Appendix 2

Icareus Oy

145

Sanoma Entertainment Oy

–– E!3187 CELTIC SCALNET – Scalable Video Coding Impact on Networks (SCALNET)

144

Secgo Software Oy

–– Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe)

120 215

Appendix 2

STMicroelectronic R&D Oy

–– Future Nokia Radio

103

Stonesoft Oyj

–– Securing Intranets of the Future –– Protecting Critical Infrastructure Data Networks

188 191

Swelcom Oy

–– E!3187 CELTIC SCALNET – Scalable Video Coding Impact on Networks (SCALNET) Telcont Oy

–– Growth with Tekes

192

Teleste Oyj

–– Broadband Ethernet Multi Service Networks –– Ultra Broadband Networks and Services

164 175

TeliaSonera Finland Oyj

–– Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe) –– Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti)

115 126

177 178 178

Aalto University

216

120 146 155 197 199

Arcada University of Applied Science

–– Secure Network Infrastructure of Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti) 128

–– Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti) –– Future Mobility Middleware (Fuego Core 2007)

120 158

–– Advanced Techniques for RF Impairment Mitigation in Future Wireless Radio Systems (DIRTY-RF) 101 Tampere University of Technology, Pori

–– Mobile Multi-access Techniques (MMVP) 105

RESEARCH ORGANISATIONS

–– Networks of 2020 (NETS2020) –– Advances in Wireless Access (AWA) –– E!3187 CELTIC HOMESNET – Home Base Station: An Emerging Network Paradigm (HOMESNET) –– Millimetre Wave Circuit Design Using Silicon Technologies (NASTEC) –– Adaptation of Antennas to Usage Environments (AATE)

112

Tampere University of Technology

Viola Systems Oy

–– New Wireless Technologies

101

Helsinki Institute for Information Technology

Tellabs Oy

–– Multi-Service Management Platform –– Tellabs Next Generation Platform –– Superior Transmission Management

–– Advanced Techniques for RF Impairment Mitigation in Future Wireless Radio Systems (DIRTY-RF) –– Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe) –– Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti) –– Interconnected Home Broadband Networks (InHoNets) –– Trustworthy Internet: Overlay Infrastructure for Trusted Computing and Communications (TrustInet) –– Dynamics of COmpetition and INnovation in the converging Internet and mobile networks (COIN) –– Modeling of Mobile Internet Usage and Business (MoMI, MoMI II)

46 51 74 87 92

151

Technical Research Center of Finland

–– Future Radio Access Concept: Technology and performance Assessment (FRACTA) –– E!3187 CELTIC WINNER+ – Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio + (WINNER+) –– Joint Advanced Development Enabling Energy Efficient Wireless Networks (JADE) –– Cognitive and Opportunistic Wireless Communication Networks (COGNAC) –– E!3187 CELTIC HOMESNET – Home Base Station: An Emerging Network Paradigm (HOMESNET) –– Technologies for Antenna Array Front Ends (TAFE)

29 37 48 53 74 84

University of Oulu

160 131 135 141 168 175 183 186

University of Helsinki

–– Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe) –– Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti)

112 120

University of Jyväskylä

–– Management solutions for the wireless broadband services in the multiaccess networks (LaiLa)

153

–– Packet Access Networks with Flexible Spectrum Use (PANU) –– MIMO Techniques for 3G System Evolution (MITSE) –– MIMO Tecniques for 3G System and Standard Evolution (MITSE) –– Future Radio Access Concept: Technology and performance Assessment (FRACTA) –– E!3187 CELTIC WINNER+ – Wireless world INitiative NEw Radio + (WINNER+) –– IMT-Advanced Evaluations (IMT-A) –– NETWORKS of 2020 (NETS2020) –– Cognitive and Opportunistic Wireless Communication Networks (COGNAC) –– Concepts for Ultra Wideband Radio Systems (CUBS) –– Active Multi-Frequency Antennas for the Future (TAMTAM) –– Adaptation of Antennas to Usage Environments (AATE) –– Flexible Wireless Communication Systems (Flecos) –– Distributed Decision Making for Future Wireless Communication Systems (DIDES) –– Crosslayer Solutions and Network Support for Broadband Wireless Access (CrossNet) –– Quality of Experience Research Network (QERN) –– Business Dynamics and Scenarios of Change (G-MDS)

Appendix 2

–– Multiaccess Experimentations in Real Converging Networks (MERCoNe) –– Wireless Community Services for Mobile Citizens (WISEciti) –– Algorithms for Broadband Infrastructure (ABI) –– E!2023 ITEA Easy Wireless (EW) –– E!3187 CELTIC Easy Wireless 2 (EW-2) –– E!3187 CELTIC SCALNET – Scalable Video Coding Impact on Networks (SCALNET) –– Crosslayer Solutions and Network Support for Broadband Wireless Access (CrossNet) –– Dependability evaluation methods for IP networks, phase 2 (IPLU-II) –– Product testing over converging networks (CNL-Products) –– Security Testing and Monitoring (TNT)

44 66 68 29 33 42 46 53 79 90 92 106 108 169 192 204

University of Turku

–– GAP

171

217

Tekes’ Programme Reports in English 4/2011

GIGA – Converging Networks programme 2005–2010. Final Report. 217 p.

1/2011

FinNano Technology Programme. Final Report.

6/2010

From Spearheads to Hunting – Evaluation of Nano Programmes in Finland. Tuomas Raivio, Piia Pessala, Jatta Aho, Tiina Pursula, Alina Pathan, Jukka Teräs and Kaarle Hämeri. Evaluation Report. 67 p.

3/2010

MASI Programme 2005–2009. Niina Holviala (ed.). Final Report. 137 p.

4/2009

ClimBus – Business Opportunities in the Mitigation of Climate Change 2004–2008. Final Report. 564 p.

6/2008

Finnish participation in the EU 6th Framework Programme – Evaluation of Participation and Networks. Soile Kuitunen, Katri Haila, Ilpo Kauppinen, Mikko Syrjänen, Juha Vanhanen, Paavo-Petri Ahonen, Ilkka Tuomi, Pekka Kettunen & Teemu Paavola. Evaluation Report. 91 p.

2/2008

Impact Evaluation of the Wood Material Science and Engineering Research Programme. Evaluation Report. Kimmo Halme, Sami Kanninen, Kimmo Viljamaa, Erik Arnold, Tomas Åström and Tommy Jansson. 79 p.

11/2007

DENSY – Distributed Energy Systems 2003–2007. Final Report. 155 p.

2/2007

FENIX – Interactive Computing 2003–2007. Final Report. 136 p.

1/2007

FUSION Technology Programme Report 2003–2006. Final Report. 184 p. Seppo Karttunen and Karin Rantamäki (eds).

17/2006

PINTA – Clean Surfaces 2002–2006. Final and Evaluation Report. 228 p.

13/2006

Finnish National Evaluation of EUREKA and COST. Evaluation Report. 95 p. Sami Kanninen, Pirjo Kutinlahti, Terttu Luukkonen, Juha Oksanen and Tarmo Lemola.

11/2006

Competitiveness through Integration in Process Industry Communities. Evaluation of Technology Programme “Process Integration 2000–2004”. Evaluation Report. 17 p.

8/2006

AVALI – Business Opportunities from Space Technology 2002–2005. Final Report. 79 p.

6/2006

New Knowledge and Competence for Technology and Innovation Policies – ProACT Research Programme 2001–2005. Final Report. 137 p. Edited by Pekka Pesonen.

3/2006

ELMO – Miniaturising Electronics 2002–2005. Final Report. 238 p.

Subscriptions: www.tekes.fi/english/publications

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Further information Kari Markus Tekes [email protected] Timo Simula Netcare Finland Oy [email protected]

Tekes – Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation Tel. +358 10 191 480 Fax +358 9 694 9196 Kyllikinportti 2, P.O. Box 69 FI-00101 Helsinki, Finland E-mail: [email protected] www.tekes.fi

March 2011

Tekes Programme Report 4/2011 Final Report

ISSN 1797-7347 ISBN 978-952-457-524-9

GIGA – Converging Networks programme 2005–2010

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