1. Classification of consonants

1. Classification of consonants obstruents: noticeably restricted airflow, the articulators are in complete closure or close approximation sonorants...
Author: Egbert Waters
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1. Classification of consonants

obstruents: noticeably restricted airflow, the articulators are in complete closure or close approximation

sonorants: free passage of the airflow through the vocal tract; no restriction in the oral tract or nasal tract opened

stricture type

consonants

vowels

stops: complete closure of two articulators + velic closure fricatives: narrowing of two articulators + a turbulent airstream affricates: sequence of a plosive+fricative (involving a specific transition) nasals: complete closure of two articulators + soft palate lowered liquids a)lateral approximants: the obstruction is located centrally and the air passes out at the side b) trills: articulator set in vibration by the airstream glides (approximants): approximation of two articulators with no turbulent airstream oral: free passage of the airflow through the vocal tract, nasal tract blocked off nasal: free passage of the airflow through the vocal tract: nasal tract opened

2. Stops 2.1.

Production

Depending on the place of articulation we distinguish the following stops in Polish: a) bilabial: /p/, /b/ b) post-dental: /t/, /d/ c) palatal: /c/, /ɟ/ d) velar: /k/, /g/ In general, the production of stops involves three stages: a) closing: the active articulator is raised to come in a firm contact with the passive articulator b) closure: the articulators remain in contact and the pressure of the airstream behind the closure is built up c) release: the active articulator is lowered and the air is released with some force 1

In connected speech the closing and/or release stage may be missing. The closure stage is what decides whether the sound is a stop or not. If a stop follows a homorganic stop (i.e. a stop of the same place of articulation) then there is no closing stage, e.g. dąb /domp/, zmoknięty /zmokɲenty/ If a stop precedes a homorganic stop then its release stage is missing e.g. “to jest dom” The same phenomena are observed if two identical plosives follow one another e.g. jest to 2.2.

Types of releases

Depending on the context the release stage may involve different articulatory actions. a) Nasal release: It can occur in clusters of a plosive followed by a nasal (pm, bm, tn, dn, kɲ and gɲ) of the same place of articulation: after the release of the closure the oral tract can still be blocked off (by the active articulator) and the pressure of the air increases to such an extent that it forces its way through the nasal tract by lowering velum for the nasal. b) Lateral release: occurs in clusters of an post-dental plosive preceding an alveolar lateral approximant /l/ e.g. tlen (PL). The centre of the tongue tip remains in contact with the alveolar ridge for the /l/ and the built-up air is released when the sides of the tongue lower.

3. Distribution /p/, /b/, /t/, /d/, /k/ and /g/ do not occur before /i/ and /j/. Before /i/ and /j/ palatal (or palatalized) variants are realized: /p,/, /b,/, /t,/, /d,/, /c/, /ɟ/. Palatal /p,/ and /b,/ are pronounced with a greater degree of lip spreading and with the body of the tongue raised towards the hard palate comparing to non-palatal /p/ and /b/.

/p,/

In case of dental /t,/ and /d,/ the place of articulation is moved to the back (i.e. towards the hard palate) the and in case of palatal /c/, /ɟ/ more to the front of mouth comparing to the non-palatal variants.

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/c/

/ɟ/

Clusters consisting of /k/ or /g/ followed by /ɨ/ are rare and occur mostly in words of a foreign origin (e.g. kynolog) or proper names (e.g. Kydryński, Kyrenia). In Polish aspiration is not a regular feature of voiceless plosives as it is in English. It can occur, but it is speaker dependent rather than context dependent. (There are two additional allophonic variants of dental /t/ and /d/ which are realized only before post-alveolar fricatives /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, and transcribed as /ḍ/ and /ṭ/ e.g. trzeba / ṭʃɛba/, drzewo /ḍʒɛvɔ/.)

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3.1.

Glottal stop

In Polish it is realized only in the context of vowels when they occur word-initially, in the position of a hiatus (at the morpheme boundary: one ending and the other starting with a vowel) or pronounced in isolation e.g. nauka /naʔuka/, uiścić /ʔuʔiɕtɕitɕ/, o /ʔɔʔ/. 3.2.Exercises 3.2.1. 3.2.1 /p/, /b/ in consonant clusters

dać-dbać darzyć-obdarzyć tak-ptak kroki-kropki gór-gbur kacie-kapcie zadać-zbadać wić-wbić wieża-wierzba Ten gbur nie dba o swoje psy. Chłopcy mają podobne czapki, spodnie i kapcie. Nad brzegiem rośnie wierzba płacząca i bzy.

dat^ɕ dbat^ɕ daʒɨt^ɕ ɔbdaʒɨt^ɕ tak ptak krɔci krɔpci gur gbur kat^ɕɛ kapt^ɕɛ zadat^ɕ zbadat^ɕ vit^ɕ vbit^ɕ vjɛʒa vjɛʒba tɛn gbur ɲɛ dba ɔ sfɔjɛ psɨ xwɔpt^sɨ majɔw~ pɔdɔbnɛ t^ʃapci spɔdɲɛ i kapt^ɕɛ nad bʒɛɟjɛm rɔɕɲɛ vjɛʒba pwat^ʃɔnt^sa i bzɨ

3.2.2 /t/, /d/ in consonant clusters

len-tlen za-zda kura-która łany-ładny usną-ustną dziesiąte-dziesiątce

lɛn tlɛn za zda kura ktura wanɨ wadnɨ usnɔw~ ustnɔw~ d^ʑɛɕɔntɛ d^ʑɛɕɔntt^sɛ 4

maki-matki lis-list kosz-koszt krzywa-krzywda Magda ma wyjazd z dworca w Bydgoszczy. Aktor był głodny, dlatego zjadł kotlet i sałatkę z octem.

maci matci lis list kɔʃ kɔʃt kʃɨva kʃɨvda magda ma vɨjazd z dvɔrt^sa v bɨdgɔʃt^ʃɨ aktɔr bɨw gwɔdnɨ dlatɛgɔ zjatw kɔtlɛd i sawatkɛ z ɔt^stɛm

3.2.3 /k/, /g/ in consonant clusters

wjazd-gwiazd gubić-zgubić Zosia-Zośka wróżę-wróżkę rzep-grzeb akademiki-akademicki brama-bramka mina-gmina ono-okno na-gna bania-bańka sunie-suknie piła-piłka Maleńkie dziecko biegnie do szkoły gminnej. Sędzia zagwizdał gdy piłka wpadła do bramki. Zgubiłam gdzieś grzebień w knajpie. Zośka siedzi na oknie i żegna się z Wołgą.

vjast gvjast gubit^ɕ zgubit^ɕ zɔɕa zɔɕka vruʒɛ vruʃkɛ ʒɛp gʒɛp akadɛmici akadɛmit^sci brama bramka mina gmina ɔnɔ ɔknɔ na gna baɲa baɲka suɲɛ sukɲɛ piwa piwka malɛɲcjɛ d^ʑɛt^skɔ bjɛgɲɛ dɔ ʃkɔwɨ gminnɛj sɛɲd^ʑa zagvizdaw gdɨ piwka fpadwa dɔ bramci zgubiwam gd^ʑɛʑ gʒɛbjɛɲ f knajpjɛ zɔɕka ɕɛd^ʑi na ɔkɲɛ i ʒɛgna ɕɛ z vɔwgɔw~

4. Fricatives 4.1.

Atriculatory features

They are produced with a close approximation of active and passive articulator which form a narrow gap in the vocal tract. What is also critical in the production of fricatives is the mass and velocity of the air (Jassem). If the gap created by the articulators is small relative to the mass and velocity of the air, then the airstream from the lungs becomes disturbed, particles of the air start to vibrate irregularily (i.e. non-periodically) and the

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source of a friction is created. These non-periodical vibrations and the friction constitute the acoustic-auditory features of fricatives. Depending on the location of the narrow gap between the active and passive articulators the following types of fricatives are distinguished: a) labio-dental: /f/, /v/ b) post-dental: /s/, /z/ c) post-alveolar: /ʃ/, /ʒ/ d) alveolo-palatal: /ɕ/, /ʑ/ e) velar: /x/, /ɣ/ 4.2.

Distribution

The voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ occurs as a regional variant of the Easter borderlands. In the standard pronunciation it occurs only in the word-final position before a word starting with a voiced consonant, e.g. ruch ziemi /ruɣ ʑemi/, niech będzie /ɲeɣ beɲdʑe/, dach domu /daɣ domu/. Voiced fricatives /v/, /z/, /ʒ/ and /ʑ/ do not occur word-finally – in this position the corresponding voiceless variants are realized (/f/, /s/, /ʃ/ and /ɕ/ respectively).

/ʒ/

/ʃ/

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The alveolo-palatal /ɕ/, /ʑ/ occur mostly before vowels except for /ɨ/.

/ʑ/

/ɕ/

/f/, /v/, /s/, /z/, /ʃ/, /ʒ/ and /x/ (/ɣ/) never occur before /i/ and /j/: in this context palatal variants are realized: /f,/, /v,/, /s,/, /z,/, /ʃ,/, /ʒ,/ and /x,/ (/ɣ,/). Comparing to their nonpalatal counterparts they are articulated with the body of the tongue raised towards the hard palate. In case of palatal /f,/ and /v,/ the gap created by the approximating articulators is greater than that used in the production of non-palatal /f/ and /v/. Compare: chwała vs. chwila: /xfawa/ wada vs. wina: /vada/

/xf,ila/ /v,ina/

/f,/

In case of palatal /s,/, /z,/, /ʃ,/ and /ʒ,/ the place of articulation is moved more to the back of the oral tract comparing to their non-palatal counterparts. Compare: sam vs. sinus: koza vs. Zanzibar: szok vs. Sziwa: żuk vs. reżim:

/sam/ /s,inus/ /kɔza/ /zanz,ibar/ /ʃɔk/ /ʃ,iwa/ /ʒuk/ /reʒ,im/

In case of /x,/ (and /ɣ,/) the place of articulation is moved more to the front of the oral tract comparing to the non-palatal variant /x/ (and /ɣ,/). Compare: chata vs. Chiny: (hak vs. hiacynt:

/xata/ /x,inɨ/ /ɣak/ /ɣ,jatsɨnt/)

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/x,/ 4.3. Exercises 4.3.1. 4.3.1 /f/, /v/ in consonant clusters

chodzić-wchodzić nęka-wnęka mawiać-wmawiać lew-wlew runie-równie bary-barwy dzik-dźwig sad-wsad szedł-Szwed Szwed żwawo wchodzi do wnętrza i wzywa pomoc. Na dźwięk dzwonka łyżwiarz na chwilę przerwał ćwiczenia. Nie wmówisz mi, że właściciel hurtowni to równy gość.

xɔd^ʑit^ɕ fxɔd^ʑit^ɕ nɛŋka vnɛŋka mavjat^ɕ vmavjat^ɕ lɛf vlɛf ruɲɛ ruvɲɛ barɨ barvɨ d^ʑik d^ʑvik sat fsat ʃɛt ʃfɛt ʃfɛd ʒvavɔ fxɔd^ʑi dɔ vnɛntʃa i vzɨva pɔmɔt^s na d^ʑvjɛŋg d^zvɔŋka wɨʒvjaʒ na xfilɛ pʃɛrvaw t^ɕfit^ʃɛɲa ɲɛ vmuviʒ mi ʒɛ vwaɕt^ɕit^ɕɛl xurtɔvɲi tɔ ruvnɨ gɔɕt^ɕ

4.3.2. 4.3.2 /s/, /z/ in consonant clusters

myć-zmyć nać-znać niknąć-zniknąć zielenieć-zzielenieć żyć-zżyć koła-kozła marnie-marznie ława-łzawa tor-tors

mɨt^ɕ zmɨt^ɕ nat^ɕ znat^ɕ ɲiknɔɲt^ɕ zɲiknɔɲt^ɕ ʑɛlɛɲɛt^ɕ zʑɛlɛɲɛt^ɕ ʒɨt^ɕ zʒɨt^ɕ kɔwa kɔzwa marɲɛ marzɲɛ wava wzava tɔr tɔrs 8

szyć-zszyć siadać-zsiadać chody-schody Zziajany Zbyszek zsiadł z kozła i wszedł po schodach. Prezes wyznał, że zrzeszenie ma zszarganą opinię. Zamarzam i jestem zmęczony, nie idę dziś na kurs.

ʃɨt^ɕ sʃɨt^ɕ ɕadat^ɕ sɕadat^ɕ xɔdɨ sxɔdɨ zʑajanɨ zbɨʃɛk sɕatw s kɔzwa i fʃɛtw pɔ sxɔdax prɛzɛz vɨznaw ʒɛ zʒɛʃɛɲɛ ma sʃarganɔw~ ɔpiɲɛ zamarzam i jɛstɛm zmɛnt^ʃɔnɨ ɲɛ idɛ d^ʑiʑ na kurs

4.3.3. 4.3.3 /ʃ/, /ʒ/ in consonant clusters

mara-marża far-farsz han-chrzan runie-różnie poła-poszła rama-szrama loch-szloch mąka-mrzonka lej-lżej mer-szmer myca-mszyca mija-żmija W oberży chłopy żrą dorsza z chrzanem i żłopią piwo. Żniwa zniszczyła mżawka i szron. Dalszą trasę przeszła czarnym szlakiem. Ulżyło mu że zrzucił jarzmo i koszmar się skończył. Nie pieprz Pietrze wieprza pieprzem, bo przepieprzysz pieprzem wieprza.

mara marʒa far farʃ xan xʃan ruɲɛ ruʒɲɛ pɔwa pɔʃwa rama ʃrama lɔx ʃlɔx mɔŋka mʒɔŋka lɛj lʒɛj mɛr ʃmɛr mɨt^sa mʃɨt^sa mija ʒmija v ɔbɛrʒɨ xwɔpɨ ʒrɔw~ dɔrʃa s xʃanɛm i ʒwɔpjɔw~ pivɔ ʒɲiva zɲiʃt^ʃɨwa mʒafka i ʃrɔn dalʃɔw~ trasɛ pʃɛʃwa t^ʃarnɨm ʃlacjɛm ulʒɨwɔ mu ʒɛ zʒut^ɕiw jaʒmɔ i kɔʃmar ɕɛ skɔɲt^ʃɨw ɲɛ pjɛpʃ pjɛtʃɛ vjɛpʃa pjɛpʃɛm bɔ pʃɛpjɛpʃɨʃ pjɛpʃɛm vjɛpʃa

4.3.4. 4.3.4 /ɕ/, /ʑ/ in contrast

śle-źle sioło-zioło Basia-bazia

ɕlɛ ʑlɛ ɕɔwɔ ʑɔwɔ baɕa baʑa 9

łasić-łazić rasie-razie pasie-pazie nieśli-nieźli Kasia-Kazia dusi-duzi Śledczy odnaleźli ściganego śledząc ślady na ścieżce. Zimą jadam ziemniaki z kozim serem i ziołami. Ziutek i Stasiu to duzi chłopcy. Kasia z Kaziem to źle dobrana para.

waɕit^ɕ waʑit^ɕ raɕɛ raʑɛ paɕɛ paʑɛ ɲɛɕli ɲɛʑli kaɕa kaʑa duɕi duʑi ɕlɛtt^ʃɨ ɔdnalɛʑli ɕt^ɕiganɛgɔ ɕlɛd^zɔnt^s ɕladɨ na ɕt^ɕɛʃt^sɛ ʑimɔw~ jadam ʑɛmɲaci s kɔʑim sɛrɛm i ʑɔwami ʑutɛɟ i staɕu tɔ duʑi xwɔpt^sɨ kaɕa s kaʑɛm tɔ ʑlɛ dɔbrana para

4.3.5. 4.3.5 /ɕ/, /ʑ/ in consonant clusters

pisz-śpisz nić-śnić Baś-baśń Lena-leśna rany-raźny lepy-ślepy zielenieć-zzielenieć kole-koźle miał-śmiał sinieć-zsinieć Wolisz baśń o Królowej Śniegu czy Śpiącej Królewnie? Na widok żółwia ślimak wyraźnie zzieleniał z zazdrości. To źle, że rozsiewasz te śmieszne plotki.

piʃ ɕpiʃ ɲit^ɕ ɕɲit^ɕ baɕ baɕɲ lɛna lɛɕna ranɨ raʑnɨ lɛpɨ ɕlɛpɨ ʑɛlɛɲɛt^ɕ zʑɛlɛɲɛt^ɕ kɔlɛ kɔʑlɛ mjaw ɕmjaw ɕiɲɛt^ɕ sɕiɲɛt^ɕ vɔliʒ baʑɲ ɔ krulɔvɛj ɕɲɛgu t^ʃɨ ɕpjɔnt^sɛj krulɛvɲɛ na vidɔg ʒuwvja ɕlimag vɨraʑɲɛ zʑɛlɛɲaw z zazdrɔɕt^ɕi tɔ ʑlɛ ʒɛ rɔsɕɛvaʃ tɛ ɕmjɛʃnɛ plɔtci

4.3.6. 4.3.6 contrast /s/, /ʃ/, /ɕ/

syna-szyna-sina Sara-szara-siara syta-szyta-sita sali-szali-siali kasa-kasza-Kasia

sɨna ʃɨna ɕina sara ʃara ɕara sɨta ʃɨta ɕita sali ʃali ɕali kasa kaʃa kaɕa 10

ryś-ryż-rys kosy-koszy-kosi nosy-noszy-nosi cisy-ciszy-cisi pasę-paszę-pasie Szedł Sasza suchą szosą w czasie suszy. Kasia zanosi koszyk z kaszą do kasy. Wiesia wiesza na krześle siennik w szarej poszewce.

rɨɕ rɨʃ rɨs kɔsɨ kɔʃɨ kɔɕi nɔsɨ nɔʃɨ nɔɕi t^ɕisɨ t^ɕiʃɨ t^ɕiɕi pasɛ paʃɛ paɕɛ ʃɛtw saʃa suxɔw~ ʃɔsɔw~ f t^ʃaɕɛ suʃɨ kaɕa zanɔɕi kɔʃɨk s kaʃɔw~ dɔ kasɨ vjɛɕa vjɛʃa na kʃɛɕlɛ ɕɛnɲik f ʃarɛj pɔʃɛft^sɛ

4.3.7. 4.3.7 contrast /z/, /ʒ/, /ʑ/

zonie-żonie-zionie grozę-grożę-grozie kozę-korze-kozie gazę-gaże-gazie muzę-murze-muzie łzę-łże-łzie pozę-porze-pozie Kozie i zebrze wystają żebra. W wazie jest zimna zupa ziemniaczana z zieleniną. Kazia wiezie w wozie bazie i zioła. Wróżę Rózi duży sukces i życie usłane różami.

zɔɲɛ ʒɔɲɛ ʑɔɲɛ grɔzɛ grɔʒɛ grɔʑɛ kɔzɛ kɔʒɛ kɔʑɛ gazɛ gaʒɛ gaʑɛ muzɛ muʒɛ muʑɛ wzɛ wʒɛ wʑɛ pɔzɛ pɔʒɛ pɔʑɛ kɔʑɛ i zɛbʒɛ vɨstajɔw~ ʒɛbra v vaʑɛ jɛzd ʑimna zupa ʑɛmɲat^ʃana z ʑɛlɛɲinɔw~ kaʑa vjɛʑɛ v vɔʑɛ baʑɛ i ʑɔwa vruʒɛ ruʑi duʒɨ sukt^sɛz i ʒɨt^ɕɛ uswanɛ ruʒami

4.3.8. 4.3.8 /x/ in consonant clusters

ciało-chciało łodzie-chłodzie murka-chmurka ronić-chronić falą-chwalą jad-jacht tnie-tchnie spiż-spichrz zmierz-zmierzch Czy masz ochotę na szachy?

t^ɕawɔ xt^ɕawɔ wɔd^ʑɛ xwɔd^ʑɛ murka xmurka rɔɲit^ɕ xrɔɲit^ɕ falɔw~ xfalɔw~ jat jaxt tɲɛ txɲɛ spiʃ spixʃ zmjɛʃ zmjɛʃx t^ʃɨ maʒ ɔxɔtɛ na ʃaxɨ 11

Halinka macha chustką na odchodne. Chcę popłynąć jachtem do zachodnich Włoch. O zmierzchu schronił się przed chłodem w chatce Stacha.

xaliŋka maxa xustkɔw~ na ɔtxɔdnɛ xt^sɛ pɔpwɨnɔɲd^ʑ jaxtɛm dɔ zaxɔdɲix vwɔx ɔ zmjɛʃxu sxrɔɲiw ɕɛ pʃɛt xwɔdɛm f xatt^sɛ staxa

5. Affricates 5.1.

Atriculatory features

They are not very common in the languages of the world. Usually, if a language has affricates they are represented by a small number of variants. In this respect Polish is exceptional as it distinguishes three types of affricates:

a) dental: /d^z/, /t^s/

/d^z/

/d^ʒ/

/t^s/

/t^ʃ/

b) alveolar: /d^ʒ/, /t^ʃ/

c) palato-alveolar:

/d^ʑ/

/t^ɕ/

To some extent, affricates are phonetically similar to clusters of a plosive followed by a fricative, because they involve a closing stage, a closure and a release stage (-> plosive), 12

and a friction (-> fricative). What distinguishes affricates from such clusters is the transition between the two segments. In case of Plo+Fri clusters the transition is sudden (the active articulator is swiftly and fully lowered) is accompanied by an explosion. Affricates are characterized by a gradual transition with no release stage: the active articulator remains close to the passive articulator resulting in friction as the air passes between them. The articulation of a fricative segment of an affricate starts before the closure is released (so called open transition) as oppossed to Plo+Fri clusters where it is preceded by the release of the closure (closed transition). Compare: trzy vs. czy zatrzyma vs. zaczyna drzewo vs. dżem 5.2.

Distribution

Alveolo-palatal /t^ɕ/ and /d^ʑ/ do not occur before /ɨ/. Voiced affricates /d^z/, /d^ʒ/ and / d^ʑ / do not occur word-finally – in this position the corresponding voiceless variants are realized (/t^s/, /t^ʃ/ and /t^ɕ/ respectively). /t^s/, /d^z/, /t^ʃ/ and /d^ʒ/ before /i/ and /j/ are realized as palatalized variants: /t^s,/, /d^z,/, /t^ʃ,/ and /d^ʒ,/. Comparing to their non-palatalized counterparts they are articulated with the body of the tongue raised towards the hard palate. Compare: owoce vs. lekcja: dzwon vs. wódz (i armia): człowiek vs. Chile: dżudo vs. dżin:

/ɔvɔt^sɛ/, /lɛkt^s,ja/ /d^zvɔn/, /vud^z, i armja/ /t^ʃwɔvjek/, /t^ʃ,ilɛ/ /d^ʒudɔ/, /d^ʒ,in/

5.3.Exercises

5.3.1. 5.3.1 /t^s/, /d^z/ in contrast and in consonant clusters

noce-nodze prace-Pradze racą-radzą vice-widzę race-Rabce cena-scena owa-owca fale-wcale wał-cwał Celina spędza całe noce nudząc się i nucąc piosenki. Widzę jak prezes z vice prezesem radzą o cle. W Pradze robią operację rdzenia za bezcen.

nɔt^sɛ nɔd^zɛ prat^sɛ prad^zɛ rat^sɔw~ rad^zɔw~ vit^sɛ vid^zɛ rat^sɛ rapt^sɛ t^sɛna st^sɛna ɔva ɔft^sa falɛ ft^salɛ vaw t^sfaw t^sɛlina spɛnd^za t^sawɛ nɔt^sɛ nud^zɔnt^s ɕɛ i nut^sɔnt^s pjɔsɛŋci vid^zɛ jak prɛzɛz z vit^sɛ prɛzɛsɛm rad^zɔw~ ɔ t^slɛ f prad^zɛ rɔbjɔw~ ɔpɛrat^sjɛ rd^zɛɲa za bɛst^sɛn 13

5.3.2. 5.3.2 /t^ʃ/, /d^ʒ/ in contrast and in consonant clusters

czemu-dżemu czyn-dżyn czip-dżip czapa-szczapa szyty-szczyty łowy-łowczy łapać-człapać czytać-sczytać czasy-wczasy Na wczasach często czytuję kiczowate czasopisma. Słudzy maharadży jeżdżą dżipem po dżungli.

t^ʃɛmu d^ʒɛmu t^ʃɨn d^ʒɨn t^ʃip d^ʒip t^ʃapa ʃt^ʃapa ʃɨtɨ ʃt^ʃɨtɨ wɔvɨ wɔft^ʃɨ wapat^ɕ t^ʃwapat^ɕ t^ʃɨtat^ɕ st^ʃɨtat^ɕ t^ʃasɨ ft^ʃasɨ na ft^ʃasax t^ʃɛw~stɔ t^ʃɨtujɛ cit^ʃɔvatɛ t^ʃasɔpisma swud^zɨ maxarad^ʒɨ jɛʒd^ʒɔw~ d^ʒipɛm pɔ d^ʒuŋgli

5.3.3. 5.3.3 /t^ɕ/, /d^ʑ/ in contrast and in consonant clusters

ciało-działo cielić-dzielić jecie-jedzie kocie-kodzie grocie-grodzie sieci-siedzi wąż-wciąż koś-kość siana-ściana wyje-wyjdzie chała-chciała ma-ćma kuka-kciuka wiemy-wiedźmy maku-Maćku uczę-uczcie Maciek ciągle wcina ciasta i potem cierpi. Ta dziewczyna odziedziczyła wdzięk po dziadkach.

t^ɕawɔ d^ʑawɔ t^ɕɛlit^ɕ d^ʑɛlit^ɕ jɛt^ɕɛ jɛd^ʑɛ kɔt^ɕɛ kɔd^ʑɛ grɔt^ɕɛ grɔd^ʑɛ ɕɛt^ɕi ɕɛd^ʑi vɔw~ʃ ft^ɕɔw~ʃ kɔɕ kɔɕt^ɕ ɕana ɕt^ɕana vɨjɛ vɨjd^ʑɛ xawa xt^ɕawa ma t^ɕma kuka kt^ɕuka vjɛmɨ vjɛd^ʑmɨ maku mat^ɕku ut^ʃɛ ut^ʃt^ɕɛ mat^ɕɛk t^ɕɔŋglɛ ft^ɕina t^ɕasta i pɔtɛm t^ɕɛrpi ta d^ʑɛft^ʃɨna ɔd^ʑɛd^ʑit^ʃɨwa vd^ʑɛŋk pɔ d^ʑatkax 14

Na uczcie wiedźma zadźgała księcia.

na ut^ʃt^ɕɛ vjɛd^ʑma zad^ʑgawa kɕɛɲt^ɕa

5.3.4. 5.3.4 /t^s/, /t^ʃ/ and /t^ɕ/ in contrast

cesze-czesze-cieszę macek-maczek-Maciek lecę-leczę-lecie płac-płacz-płać prac-pracz-prać ciec-ciecz-cieć Czy się Czesi cieszą, gdy się Czesio czesze? Cecylia czyta cytaty z Tacyta.

t^sɛʃɛ t^ʃɛʃɛ t^ɕɛʃɛ mat^sɛk mat^ʃɛk mat^ɕɛk lɛt^sɛ lɛt^ʃɛ lɛt^ɕɛ pwat^s pwat^ʃ pwat^ɕ prat^s prat^ʃ prat^ɕ t^ɕɛt^s t^ɕɛt^ʃ t^ɕɛt^ɕ t^ʃɨ ɕɛ t^ʃɛɕi t^ɕɛʃɔw~ gdɨ ɕɛ t^ʃɛɕɔ t^ʃɛʃɛ t^sɛt^sɨlja t^ʃɨta t^sɨtatɨ s tat^sɨta

5.3.5. 5.3.5 /d^z/, /d^ʒ/ and /d^ʑ/ in contrast

dał-dział podał-podział rodzinka-rodzynka radzę-radzie brudzę-brudzie gardzę-gardzie ogrodzę-ogrodzie drzwi-dźwig zjeżdżać-zjeździć Na dźwięk dzwonka rodzinka skoczyła do drzwi. Od dżemu i rodzynek bolą mnie dziąsła. Dziś słucha dżezu i popija wino z dzbanka.

daw d^ʑaw pɔdaw pɔd^ʑaw rɔd^ʑiŋka rɔd^zɨŋka rad^zɛ rad^ʑɛ brud^zɛ brud^ʑɛ gard^zɛ gard^ʑɛ ɔgrɔd^zɛ ɔgrɔd^ʑɛ d^ʒvi d^ʑvik zjɛʒd^ʒat^ɕ zjɛʑd^ʑit^ɕ na d^ʑvjɛŋg d^zvɔŋka rɔd^ʑiŋka skɔt^ʃɨwa dɔ d^ʒvi ɔd d^ʒɛmu i rɔd^zɨnɛg bɔlɔw~ mɲɛ d^ʑɔw~swa d^ʑiɕ swuxa d^ʒɛzu i pɔpija vinɔ z d^zbaŋka

5.3.6. 5.3.6 Affricates in contrast with plosive+fricative

czy-trzy oczyma-otrzyma rozpaczy-rozpatrzy

/t^ʃ/ vs. /tʃ/ t^ʃɨ tʃɨ ɔt^ʃɨma ɔtʃɨma rɔspat^ʃɨ rɔspatʃɨ 15

ʃt^ʃɛʒɛ stʃɛʒɛ ʃt^ʃɨgwa stʃɨgwa t^ʃɨsta tʃɨsta bɔgat^ʃɛ bɔgatʃɛ ut^ʃɛ utʃɛ vjɛt^ʃnɨ vjɛt^ʃnɨ mɛt^ʃɛ mɛtʃɛ lit^ʃɛ litʃɛ pɔt^ʃɨta pɔtʃɨta krut^ʃɛ krutʃɛ /d^ʒ/ vs. /dʒ/ dżem-drzemka d^ʒɛm dʒɛmka drzwi-drzewo d^ʒvi dʒɛvɔ gadżet-kadrze gad^ʒɛt kadʒɛ didżej-mądrzej did^ʒɛj mɔndʒɛj brydże-biodrze bryd^ʒɛ bjɔdʒɛ sentences Czy widzisz te trzy drzewka obok t^ʃɨ vid^ʑiʃ tɛ tʃɨ dʒɛfka ɔbɔg d^ʒvi drzwi? Didżej mógłby mądrzej dobierać did^ʒɛj mugwbɨ mɔndʒɛj dɔbjɛrad^ʑ repertuar. rɛpɛrtuar Po meczu w metrze jest dużo kibiców. pɔ mɛt^ʃu v mɛtʃɛ jɛzd duʒɔ cibit^suf Zjadł naleśniki z dżemem i uciął sobie zjadw nalɛɕɲici z d^ʒɛmɛm i ut^ɕɔw drzemkę. sɔbjɛ dʒɛmkɛ W Szczebrzeszynie chrząszcz brzmi f ʃt^ʃɛbʒɛʃɨɲɛ xʃɔw~ʒd^ʒ bʒmi f w trzcinie. t^ʃt^ɕiɲɛ Bezczeszczenie cietrzewia cieszy bɛst^ʃɛʃt^ʃɛɲɛ t^ɕɛtʃɛvja t^ɕɛʃɨ moje czcze trzewia. mɔjɛ t^ʃt^ʃɛ tʃɛvja Czy rak trzyma szczypcami strzęp t^ʃɨ rak tʃɨma ʃt^ʃɨpt^sami stʃɛmp szczawiu, czy trzy części trzciny? ʃt^ʃavju t^ʃɨ tʃɨ t^ʃɛw~ɕt^ɕi t^ʃt^ɕinɨ szczerze-strzeże szczygła-strzygła czysta-trzysta bogacze-bogatsze uczę-utrze wieczny-wietrzny mecze-metrze liczę-litrze poczyta-podszyta krucze-krótsze

6. Nasals 6.1.

General remarks

Nasals are articulated with a complete closure in the oral tract, thus they constitute a type os stops. Contrary to production of stops, in the articulation of nasals the velum is lowered and the air flows through the nasal tract. Nasals are almost always voiced and only few languages contrast voiced and voiceless nasals (e.g. Burmese). 16

Depending on the location of the closure formed by the active and passive articulators, the oral tract has greater or lesser effect on the auditory characteristics of nasals. Generally, if the closure is located in the front of the oral tract (i.e. closure formed by the upper and lower lip) the effect is greater (and as regards acoustics – the frequencies of the formants are lower). In the production of Polish nasals the closure can be located in the following places: a) the lower and the upper lip (bilabial): /m/ b) the tip of the tongue and upper teeth (dental): /n/ c) the blade and the center of the tongue and the front of the hard palate (palatal): /ɲ/ d) back of the tongue and velum (velar): /ŋ/ 6.2.

Distribution

/m/, /n/ and /ɲ/ occur in all positions. In the word–initial (pl: nagłos) or word–medial syllables (pl: śródgłos) /m/ and /n/ occur mostly before vowels except for /i/ (and /j/). /ɲ/ does not occur before /ɨ/. /ŋ/ is realized only in the middle of the word before /k/ and /g/ and as the second segment in the pronunciation of Polish nasal vowels.

Before /c/ and /ɟ/ /n/ is realized (the /ŋ,/ variant is also possible, see below). In specific contexts the following allophones of the nasal phonemes are realized: a) palatalized /m,/ and /ŋ,/:  they are articulated with the body of the tongue protruding and raised towards the hard palate  palatalized /m,/ is realized before /i/ (and /j/) at the end of the word or followed by a consonant, vowel /e/, /a/, /o/ or /u/ (also /w/)  palatalized /ŋ,/ is pronounced in sequences: -ęki(-), -ęgi(-), -ąki(-), -ągi(-) e.g. ręki /rɛŋ,ci/, obcęgi /ɔpt^sɛŋ, ɟi/, pociągi /pot^ɕɔŋ, ɟi/  palatalized /ŋ,/ may optionally be realized instead of /ɲ/ when it occurs before /k/, /g/, /c/ and /ɟ/ e.g. bańka /baŋ,ka/, mańkut /maŋ,kut/

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b) alveolar /ṇ/: occurs only before alveolar affricates /t^ʃ/ and /d^ʒ/ e.g. męczyć /mɛṇt^ʃɨt^ɕ/, tęcza / /tɛṇt^ʃa/, sączek /sɔṇt^ʃek/ c) voiceless nasals: occur optionally in the context of voiceless consonants and/or after a voiceless consonant before a pause e.g. czosnkowy, pieśń 6.3.

Exercises

6.3.1. Contrast /ɲ/ - /n/

len-leń ran-rań won-woń silne-silnie kona-konia wolnej-wolniej

lɛn lɛɲ ran raɲ vɔn vɔɲ ɕilnɛ ɕilɲɛ kɔna kɔɲa vɔlnɛj vɔlɲɛj

6.3.2. Contrast /ɲ/ - /m/

mim-nim mina-Nina dama-dania komin-Konin brom-broń dym-dyń

mim ɲim mina ɲina dama daɲa kɔmin kɔɲin brɔm brɔɲ dɨm dɨɲ

6.3.3. Contrast /ɲ/ - /n/ - /m/

sań-San-sam toń-ton-tom czyń-czyn-czym linia-lina-Lima miń-min-mim rani-rany-ramy

saɲ san sam tɔɲ tɔn tɔm t^ʃɨɲ t^ʃɨn t^ʃɨm liɲa lina lima miɲ min mim raɲi ranɨ ramɨ 18

Jako mim, Nina pilnie ćwiczy robienie min. Lecę tanią linią z Konina do Limy. Ta woń to danie z dwóch dyń.

jakɔ mim ɲina pilɲɛ t^ɕfit^ʃɨ rɔbjɛɲɛ min lɛt^sɛ taɲɔw~ liɲɔw~ s kɔɲina dɔ limɨ ta vɔɲ tɔ daɲɛ z dvux dɨɲ

6.3.4. /N/ before /k/ and /g/

ran-ranga bon-bongo Ren-ręka ranek-ranka mantra-mango tan-tango Mimo anginy, Anka od ranka do wieczora chodzi na castingi. Podczas sparingu złamał rękę i wyleciał za doping.

ran raŋga bɔn bɔŋgɔ rɛn rɛŋka ranɛk raŋka mantra maŋgɔ tan taŋgɔ mimɔ aŋɟinɨ aŋka ɔd raŋka dɔ vjɛt^ʃɔra xɔd^ʑi na kastiŋgi pɔtt^ʃas spariŋgu zwamaw rɛŋkɛ i vɨlɛt^ɕaw za dɔpiŋk

6.3.5. Nasal clusters /mn/, /mɲ/, /ɲm/

nogi-mnogi mą-mną nie-mnie duma-dumna uczymy-uczyńmy dzwony-dzwońmy Mnich siedzi w zimnej i ciemnej komnacie. Mnóstwo gimnazjalistów nie umie mnożyć.

nɔɟi mnɔɟi mɔw~ mnɔw~ ɲɛ mɲɛ duma dumna ut^ʃɨmɨ ut^ʃɨɲmɨ d^zvɔnɨ d^zvɔɲmɨ mɲix ɕɛd^ʑi v ʑimnɛj i t^ɕɛmnɛj kɔmnat^ɕɛ mnustfɔ ɟimnazjalistuv ɲɛ umjɛ mnɔʒɨt^ɕ

6.3.6. Realization of /nɲ/ (alternatively pronounced as geminate /ɲɲ/)

rodzinie-rodzinnie rani-ranni panie-pannie płynie-płynnie gościnie-gościnnie dzwoni-dzwonnik

rɔd^ʑiɲɛ rɔd^ʑinɲɛ raɲi ranɲi paɲɛ panɲɛ pwɨɲɛ pwɨnɲɛ gɔɕt^ɕiɲɛ gɔɕt^ɕinɲɛ d^zvɔɲi d^zvɔnɲik

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Panie mówią starannie i płynnie po angielsku. Ranni czynnie brali udział w obronie miasta.

paɲɛ muvjɔw~ staranɲɛ i pwɨnɲɛ pɔ aŋɟjɛlsku ranɲi t^ʃɨnɲɛ brali ud^ʑaw v ɔbrɔɲɛ mjasta

7. Liquids The main articulatory characteristic of liquids is that unlike obstruents they are produced with unhindered airflow. Contrary to vowels, their articulation involves some kind of obstruction in the oral tract. Liquids are classified as sonorants; they are almost always voiced and oral (as oppossed to nasals). 7.1.

Lateral approximant /l/ The class of lateral approximants is represented in Polish by phoneme /l/. During the pronunciation of /l/ the tip of the tongue touches near the center of the alveolar ridge, but despite this closure the air flows out freely over the side of the tongue. The phoneme /l/ is realized in all word-positions and contexts, but it does not occur before /i/, /ɨ/ and /j/*. In specific contexts one of the allophones of /l/ can be realized: a) *post-alveolar /l,/ is realized before /i/ and /j/ e.g. lipa,

ljana b) voiceless variant is realized after a voiceless consonant before a pause (e.g. kreśl), when preceded and followed by voiceless consonants (e.g. kreślcie) or when preceded by a voiceless consonant and followed by a voiced consonant (e.g. wykreślny)

7.2.

Trill /r/ /r/ is realized with the same place of articulation as /l/, but it involves different activity of the tongue. The sides of the tongue are in a firm contact with the upper teeth and gums, and at the same time the tip of the tongue vibrates and at moments it forms a closure with the center of the alveolar ridge. It can be said that what distinguishes /r/ from /l/ is the vibrating nature of the former and the lateral character of the latter.

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Trill /r/ has a polisegmental structure which is the effect of the stages of the closure and release which occur one after another as the active articulator vibrates (this is reflected on the spectrogram, see the handout on acoustic phonetics). The phoneme /r/ is realized in all word-positions and contexts, but it does not occur before /i/, and /j/*. In specific contexts one of the allophones of /r/ can be realized: a) *post-alveolar /r,/ is realized before /i/ and /j/ in words of foreign origin and at the word boundary e.g. riksza /r,ikʃa/, gloria /glɔr,ja/, wiatr i mgła /v,jatr, i mgwa/ b) voiceless variant is realized after a voiceless consonant before a pause (e.g. wiatr) and between voiceless consonants (e.g. krwawy) 7.3.

Exercises

7.3.1. Contrast /r/ - /l/

initial position lok-rok lɔk rɔk lód-ród lut rut len-Ren lɛn rɛn las-raz las ras medial position pola-pora pɔla pɔra kula-kura kula kura cela-cera t^sɛla t^sɛra filmy-firmy filmɨ firmɨ palę-parę palɛ parɛ final position pól-pór bul bur ból-bór dal dar dal-dar bal bar bal-bar pal par after consonants in initial position klan-kran klan kran blat-brat blat brat tlen-tren tlɛn trɛn flak-frak flak frak planie-pranie plaɲɛ praɲɛ pluszy-prószy pluʃɨ pruʃɨ sentences Car wydał bal u podnóża gór t^sar vɨdaw bal u pɔdnuʒa gur kaukaskich. kawkascix Bar słynie z kojarzenia par. bar swɨɲɛ s kɔjaʒɛɲa par 21

Poproszę ten szary szal w groszki. Krem tej firmy poprawia cerę. Za radą rodziców Romka zrobiła sobie loki. Raz do roku idę na rower do lasu. Brat Bronka pracuje w pralni w Krakowie. Trener trochę narzeka na brak formy. Trzeba naprawić kran i zamontować blat.

pɔprɔʃɛ tɛn ʃarɨ ʃal v grɔʃci krɛm tɛj firmɨ pɔpravja t^sɛrɛ za radɔw~ rɔd^ʑit^suv rɔmka zrɔbiwa sɔbjɛ lɔci raz dɔ rɔku idɛ na rɔvɛr dɔ lasu brad brɔŋka prat^sujɛ f pralɲi f krakɔvjɛ trɛnɛr trɔxɛ naʒɛka na brak fɔrmɨ tʃɛba napravit^ɕ kran i zamɔntɔvad^ʑ blat

7.3.2. /r/ and /l/ in consonants clusters

orlę skarlały burleska Berlin perlisty metr teatr łotr kart start Teatr w Berlinie wystawia burleskę. Wiatr zniszczył kilometr autostrady w pobliżu Tatr. Arlekin zaśmiał się perliście.

ɔrlɛ skarlawɨ burlɛska bɛrlin pɛrlistɨ mɛtr tɛatr wɔtr kart start tɛatr v bɛrliɲɛ vɨstavja burlɛskɛ vjatr ɲiʃt^ʃɨw cilɔmɛtr awtɔstradɨ f pɔbliʒu tatr arlɛcin zaɕmjaw ɕɛ pɛrliɕt^ɕɛ

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