02 ADDITIONAL SCIENCE HIGHER TIER CHEMISTRY 2

Centre Number Surname Candidate Number Other Names 0 GCSE 0240/02 ADDITIONAL SCIENCE HIGHER TIER CHEMISTRY 2 A.M. TUESDAY, 29 January 2013 45 min...
Author: Leon Martin
0 downloads 5 Views 687KB Size
Centre Number

Surname

Candidate Number

Other Names

0

GCSE 0240/02 ADDITIONAL SCIENCE HIGHER TIER CHEMISTRY 2 A.M. TUESDAY, 29 January 2013 45 minutes

ADDITIONAL MATERIALS

For Examiner’s use only Maximum Mark

1.

8

2.

7

3.

4

4.

6

5.

3

6.

7

7.

10

8.

5

Total

50

Mark Awarded

0240 0 2 0 0 01

Question

In addition to this paper you may require a calculator and a ruler. INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES Use black ink or black ball-point pen. Write your name, centre number and candidate number in the spaces at the top of this page. Answer all questions. Write your answers in the spaces provided in this booklet. INFORMATION FOR CANDIDATES The number of marks is given in brackets at the end of each question or part-question. You are reminded of the necessity for good English and orderly presentation in your answers. The Periodic Table is printed on the back cover of the examination paper and the formulae for some common ions on the inside of the back cover.

© WJEC CBAC Ltd.

CJ*(W13-0240-02)

2 Examiner only

Answer all questions. 1.

(a) Complete the following table of information about the atoms of some elements.

[5]

The Periodic Table of Elements shown on the back cover of this examination paper may be helpful in answering this question. Element

Symbol

Number of protons

Number of neutrons

Number of electrons

sodium

23 Na 11

11

12

11

calcium

40 Ca 20

20

..........................

..........................

14

13

aluminium

..........................



..........................

39 K 19

13 19

..........................

19

(b) Atoms of different elements each have a different mass, known as the relative atomic mass (Ar ). The relative atomic mass compares the masses of different atoms on a scale which gives hydrogen a mass of 1. State why the actual mass of an atom is not used. [1]



(c) Calculate the relative molecular mass (Mr ) of nitric acid, HNO3. [2] Ar(H) = 1

Ar(N) = 14

Ar(O) = 16

Mr(HNO3) = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

© WJEC CBAC Ltd.

(0240-02)

3 2.

(a) Complete the table below by giving the structural formulae for methane and ethane. [2] Name

methane

ethane

ethene

Formula

CH4

C2H6

C2H4

H Structural formula



H C

H

C H

(b) Ethene can be produced during a process known as cracking. C12H26

C10H22 + C2H4

State two conditions necessary for cracking to take place.



............................................................................................

and

[2]

............................................................................................

(c) Polythene is produced from ethene.

0240 020 0 03



Examiner only

(i) Name the process taking place when polythene is produced from ethene.

[1]

..................................................................................

(ii) Give one use of polythene.

[1]

..................................................................................

(iii) Give one reason why the recycling of plastics such as polythene is important for the environment. [1]



7

© WJEC CBAC Ltd.

(0240-02)

Turn over.

4 3.

(a)

(i) Nappies contain a type of smart material that is capable of absorbing many times its own weight of water. Name this type of smart material. [1]

Examiner only

..................................................................................

(ii) In terms of structure, state how this type of smart material is able to absorb such a large amount of water. [1]



(iii) Apart from nappies, give one other use for this type of smart material.



[1]



(b) Shape memory alloys are another type of smart material. State the property of shape memory alloys that makes them more suitable than traditional materials for making spectacle frames. [1]

4

© WJEC CBAC Ltd.

(0240-02)

5 4. The following diagram shows the apparatus used in industry to extract aluminium from its ore by the process of electrolysis.

Examiner only

graphite anodes molten aluminium oxide

oxygen

molten aluminium graphite cathode



(a) Name the type of energy required for electrolysis to take place.

[1]

.................................................................................. (b) The electrolyte used in this process is molten aluminium oxide.



(i) Use the table of common ions inside the back cover of this examination paper to give the symbols of the ions present in aluminium oxide. [1]

............................................................... and

0240 020 0 05



...............................................................

(ii) Why do aluminium ions move towards the cathode?

[1]





(c) State why the aluminium oxide must be molten in order for electrolysis to take place. [1]



(d) Give the word equation for the overall reaction taking place. ..........................................................

..........................................................

+

[2]

..........................................................

6

© WJEC CBAC Ltd.

(0240-02)

Turn over.

6 5. The following graph shows the solubility curves for potassium nitrate, lead nitrate and sodium chloride. 200

Examiner only

potassium nitrate

180 160 140 120 Solubility / g per 100 g 100 of water

lead nitrate

80 60

sodium chloride

40 20 0 20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Temperature / °C (a) Give the temperature at which the solubility is the same for both potassium nitrate and lead nitrate. [1] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . °C

(b) Give the solubility of sodium chloride at 60 °C.

[1]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g per 100 g of water

(c) Calculate the mass of crystals that would form if 100 cm3 of a saturated solution of potassium nitrate was cooled from 90 °C to 30 °C. [1]



Mass of crystals formed = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g 3

© WJEC CBAC Ltd.

(0240-02)

7 6.

(a) Potassium reacts with chlorine to form potassium chloride. Draw diagrams to show the electronic changes that take place as potassium ions and chloride ions are formed. Include the charges on the ions.

The electronic structures of the elements are as follows. potassium = 2,8,8,1

[3]

chlorine = 2,8,7

(b) Chlorine gas, Cl2, consists of chlorine molecules. Draw a diagram to show the bonding in a chlorine molecule.



Examiner only

[2]

(c) The following diagram shows the structure of graphite.

Explain why graphite can be used as a lubricant.

[2]







7 © WJEC CBAC Ltd.

(0240-02)

Turn over.

8 Examiner only

7. Ammonia is produced from atmospheric nitrogen by the Haber process.

(a) Complete and balance the symbol equation for the reaction. N2 +



s

[2]

NH3

(b) The following graph shows how the yield of the reaction depends on the conditions used. 70 60 50 40

Yield of ammonia / %

30 20 10 0



(i)

0

100

200 300 Pressure / atmospheres

400

Use the graph above to give the yield of ammonia at a pressure of 400 atmospheres and a temperature of 350 °C. [1]

................................................... %

(ii) The industrial process is carried out at 450 °C and 200 atmospheres of pressure which gives a yield of less than 30 %.

Give a reason for using

I a temperature of 450 °C rather than 350 °C,

[1]







II a pressure of 200 atmospheres rather than 400 atmospheres.



© WJEC CBAC Ltd.

(0240-02)

[1]

9 Examiner only

(c) One use of ammonia is in the production of nitric acid. The first stage in the process involves the oxidation of ammonia. 4NH3 + 5O2

4NO + 6H2O

(i) Using the equation above, calculate the mass of nitric oxide, NO, produced from the oxidation of 255 tonnes of ammonia. [3] Ar(N) = 14

Ar(H) = 1



Ar(O) = 16

Mass of nitric oxide = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tonnes (ii) Calculate the atom economy of this reaction. atom economy =

[2]

theoretical mass of required product × 100 % total mass of reactants used



Atom economy = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . % 10

© WJEC CBAC Ltd.

(0240-02)

Turn over.

10 8. A sample of 3.6 g of copper oxide is reduced by heating in a stream of hydrogen gas, using the apparatus shown below. After heating, 3.2 g of copper had been produced.

Examiner only

hydrogen burning

sample of copper oxide

hydrogen in

heat

(a) Give the meaning of the term reduction.

[1]



(b) Use the figures given above to calculate

(i) the mass of oxygen in the copper oxide,



[1]

Mass of oxygen = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g (ii) the empirical formula for this oxide of copper.

[3]

You must show your working. Ar(O) = 16

Empirical formula

Ar(Cu) = 64

..................................................................................

5 END OF PAPER

© WJEC CBAC Ltd.

(0240-02)

11 FORMULAE FOR SOME COMMON IONS POSITIVE IONS Name

Formula

Aluminium Ammonium Barium Calcium Copper(II) Hydrogen Iron(II) Iron(III) Lithium Magnesium Nickel Potassium Silver Sodium Zinc

Al3+ NH4+ Ba2+ Ca2+ Cu2+ H+ Fe2+ Fe3+ Li+ Mg2+ Ni2+ K+ Ag+ Na+ Zn2+

© WJEC CBAC Ltd.

NEGATIVE IONS Name Bromide Carbonate Chloride Fluoride Hydroxide Iodide Nitrate Oxide Sulphate

(0240-02)

Formula Br– CO32– Cl– – F OH– – I NO3 – O2– SO42–

Turn over.

Be

© WJEC CBAC Ltd.

Na

24 12

Mg

K

40 20

Ca

45 21

Sc

48 22

Ti

51 23

V 52 24

Cr 55 25

Mn

(0240-02)

Rb

88 38

Sr

89 39

Y

91 40

Zr

93 41

Nb 96 42

Mo 99 43

Tc 101 44

Ru

H

Co

103 45

Rh

Cobalt

59 27

Hydrogen

1 1

Ni

106 46

Pd

Nickel

59 28

Cs

137 56

Ba

139 57

La

179 72

Hf

181 73

Ta 184 74

W 186 75

Re 190 76

Os 192 77

Ir 195 78

Pt

Fr

226 88

Ra

227 89

Ac

Francium Radium Actinium

223 87

Z

Atomic number

X Name

A

Mass number

Key:

Caesium Barium Lanthanum Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum

133 55

Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium

86 37

Fe

Iron

56 26

Group

Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese

39 19

Sodium Magnesium

23 11

Lithium Beryllium

9 4

Li

7 3

2

1

Cu

Ag

Au

Zn

Cd

Hg

Ga

C 14 7

N

5

16 8

O

6

Si

73 32

Ge

Silicon

28 14

P

32 16

S

F

35 17

Cl

Fluorine

19 9

7

75 33

As

79 34

Se

80 35

Br

Phosphorus Sulphur Chlorine

31 15

Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen

12 6

4 He

Ne

Ar

84 36

Kr

Argon

40 18

Neon

20 10

Helium

4 2

0

In

204 81

Tl

Indium

115 49

Sn

Pb Lead

207 82

Tin

119 50

Sb

128 52

Te

Bi

210 84

Po

I

210 85

At

Iodine

127 53

Bismuth Polonium Astatine

209 83

Antimony Tellurium

122 51

Xe

Rn Radon

222 86

Xenon

131 54

Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton

70 31

Mercury Thallium

201 80

Cadmium

112 48

Zinc

65 30

Al

Aluminium

27 13

Element Symbol

Gold

197 79

Silver

108 47

Copper

64 29

B

Boron

11 5

3

PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

12