* Also from Palgrave Macmillan. Also by Sydney D. Bailey

THE KOREAN ARMISTICE Also by Sydney D. Bailey BRITISH PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY CEYLON * FOUR ARAB-ISRAELI WARS AND THE PEACE PROCESS THE GENERAL ASSE...
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THE KOREAN ARMISTICE

Also by Sydney D. Bailey BRITISH PARLIAMENTARY DEMOCRACY CEYLON * FOUR ARAB-ISRAELI WARS AND THE PEACE PROCESS THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF THE UNITED NATIONS HOW WARS END (2 vols) THE MAKING OF RESOLUTION 242 NAISSANCE DE NOUVELLES DEMOCRATIES PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT IN SOUTHERN ASIA THE PROCEDURE OF THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL PROHIBITIONS AND RESTRAINTS IN WAR THE SECRETARIAT OF THE UNITED NATIONS *THE UNITED NATIONS: A Short Political Guide VOTING IN THE UN SECURITY COUNCIL *WAR AND CONSCIENCE IN THE NUCLEAR AGE Edited by Sydney D. Bailey ASPECTS OF AMERICAN GOVERNMENT THE BRITISH PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM * THE FUTURE OF THE HOUSE OF LORDS HUMAN RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES IN BRITAIN AND IRELAND: A Christian Perspective PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT IN BRITAIN PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT IN THE COMMONWEALTH PROBLEMS OF PARLIAMENTARY GOVERNMENT IN THE COLONIES

* Also from Palgrave Macmillan

The Korean ArlDistice Sydney D. Bailey

Palgrave Macmillan

ISBN 978-1-349-22106-6 ISBN 978-1-349-22104-2 (eBook) DOI 10.1007/978-1-349-22104-2

© Sydney D. Bailey 1992 Softcover reprint of the hardcover 1st edition 1992 All rights reserved. For infonnation, write: Scholarly and Reference Division, S1. Martin's Press, Inc., 175 Fifth Avenue, New York, N.Y. 10010

First published in the United States of America in 1992 ISBN 978-0-312-07920-8 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Bailey, Sydney Dawson. The Korean annistice / Sydney D. Bailey. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index. ISBN 978-0-312-07920-8 1. Korean War, 1950-1953-Annistices. I. Title. DS921.7.B35 1992 951.904'2-dc20 91-43998 CIP

Contents List of Maps

viii

Map of Korea

ix

List of Abbreviations

x

Preface

xi

1

1 Korea Divided 2 Victory or Negotiation?

10

3 Armistice Attempted

70

4 Armistice Attained

113

5 The Geneva Conference

150

6 An Uncertain Peace

171

7 Problems of Coalition Diplomacy

189

Appendices

Resolutions of the UN Security Council and General Assembly (1) Security Council res. 82(S/1501), 25 June 1950 (2) Security Council res. 83(S/1508/Rev.l, S/1511), 27 June 1950 (3) Security Council res. 84(S/1588), 7 July 1950 (4) General Assembly res. 376(V), 7 Oct. 1950 (5) General Assembly res. 384(V), 14 Dec. 1950 (6) General Assembly res. 498(V), 1 Feb. 1951 (7) General Assembly res. 500(V), 18 May 1951

I

v

209 209 210 210 212 212 213

Contents

vi (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17)

General Assembly res. 3 Dec. 1952 General Assembly res. 18 April 1953 General Assembly res. 23 April 1953 General Assembly res. 28 Aug. 1953 General Assembly res. 3 Nov. 1953 General Assembly res. 3 Dec. 1953 General Assembly res. 10 Dec. 1954 General Assembly res. 11 Dec. 1954 General Assembly res. 29 Nov. 1955 General Assembly res. 11 Jan. 1957

610(VII),

213

705(VII), 216 706(VII), 711A(VII), 714(VIII), 804(VIII), 906(IX) , 811 (IX) , 910B(X), 1010B(XI),

II Principal documents relating to the Armistice (1) Agreement for the repatriation of sick and injured captured personnel, 11 April 1953 (2) Terms of Reference for the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission, 8 June 1953 (3) Armistice Agreement, 27 July 1953 (4) Temporary Agreement supplementary to the Armistice Agreement, 27 July 1953 (5) Rules of Procedure of the Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission governing Explanations and Interviews, 25 and 26 Sept. 1953 Address to the prisoners of war from the Neutral (6) Nations Repatriation Commission (7) Message to the prisoners of war from the commander of the Indian Custodial Force (8) Judicial Sanctions - Rules of Procedure, 6 Oct. 1953 (9) Revised general rules for the control, organization, operation, and support of the Joint Observer Teams, July 1955

216 217 218 218 219 219 220 220

220 221 224 240 240 242 243 243 245

Contents

vii

(10) Agreement on the Military Armistice Commission

Headquarters Area, Its Security and Its Construction, as amended, 6 Sept. 1976

246

III Communications from the International Committee of the Red Cross (1) Fundamental humanitarian principles (a) Identical letters to North and South Korea, 26 June 1950 (b) Identical letters to North Korea and the Unified Command, Oct. 1950 (2) Prisoners of war (a) Identical telegrams to North Korea, the Chinese Volunteers, and the Unified Command, 6 Aug. 1951 (b) To the United States consulate general in Geneva, 30 Jan. 1952 (3) Allegations of bacteriological warfare (a) Telegram sent to national Red Cross societies, 12 March 1952 and subsequently (b) Aide-memoire, 25 April 1952

252 253

References

254

Select Bibliography

294

Index

300

248 249

250 252

List of Maps 1 Korea after the armistice, 1953 2 NNSC's Inspection Teams at 'ports of entry', 1953-5

i:x

174

Demilitarized Zone

o~,=5=P~19=0~~2=0=0====~,___4~qokm

b

50

160

r

.~~J

,J

Vladivostok' ! c,.--.r

~~

200 miles r· ........ ·r i.. Chongjin

Andong (Antung)

---J......--------38°

• Taejon • Nonsan

Pohang

Taegu •

o

Q

OCHEJU

Map 1 Korea after the armistice, 1953

List of Abbreviations CIA DMZ

ECOSOC FO FRUS GA GAOR GOC JCS NNRP NNSC NSC PRO SC SCOR UNCOK UNCURK UNKRA UNTCOK USNA

Central Intelligence Agency (US) Demilitarized Zone Economic and Social Council (UN) Foreign Office (UK) Foreign Relations of the United States General Assembly (UN) General Assembly Official Records Good Offices Committee (UN) Joint Chiefs of Staff (US) Neutral Nations Repatriation Commission Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission National Security Council (US) Public Record Office (UK) Security Council (UN) Security Council Official Records UN Commission on Korea UN Commission for the Unification and Rehabilitation of Korea UN Korean Reconstruction Agency UN Temporary Commission on Korea US National Archives

x

Preface This is not a book about the Korean war, but of the convoluted processes by which it was terminated short of total victory by one side and unconditional surrender by the other. An incidental purpose is to examine some of the problems of coalition diplomacy on the side of the Unified Command: there may have been similar problems on the Communist side, but this will remain a matter of speculation until the archives in Pyongyang, Beijing (Peking) and Moscow are opened to scholars. For the sake of brevity, I have used some shorthand. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is referred to simply as Britain, the Republic of Korea as South Korea, the Democratic People's Republic of Korea as North Korea. The People's Republic of China is called China, and the Guomindang (Kuomintang) regime on Taiwan as the Chinese Nationalists. The military command established following the decision of the Security Council on 7 July 1950 usually called itself 'the United Nations Command', the term used in its reports to the Security Council and in the Armistice Agreement; but the resolution of the Security Council of 7 July 1950 referred to a Unified Command under the United States, and I have preferred to use the term Unified Command, except in a few quotations. I occasionally refer to the negotiating team representing North Korea and the Chinese People's Volunteers as 'the Communist side'. After May 1951, the UN Members supplying combat units to the Unified Command are referred to as 'the Sixteen' , and at the Geneva Conference in 1954, these states minus South Africa but plus South Korea are referred to as 'the Allies'. Chinese proper nouns are romanized in Pinyin, with the GilesWade romanization in parenthesis. I have not been able to use consistently the McCune-Reischauer system for romanizing Korean proper names, as many Koreans use other forms: in any case, the McCune-Reischauer system requires the use of diacriticals. I am indebted to my Chinese teacher Hsiao Ch'ien (now romanized in Pinyin as Xiao Qian) for help in innumerable ways, including the brushwork for the title of the book in Chinese characters on the front cover. Jim Park was good enough to do the Korean characters. I am grateful to Dean Rusk, Paul Nitze, and Ernest Gross for providing background information on US policy at a number of xi

xii

Preface

critical junctures, and to Lord Gladwyn and Lord Franks for comparable information about the background to British policy. Kathie Nicastro of the US National Archives was extremely helpful in tracing and, where necessary, arranging for the declassification of reports to Washington from the Unified Command. David J. Haight at the Dwight D. Eisenhower Library in Abilene, Kansas, was good enough to provide me with part of the record of a crucial meeting of the US National Security Council which was excluded from the account published in Foreign Relations of the United States. Howard Wriggins helped in many ways and was a constant source of encouragement. Brigadier Timothy Hackworth provided me with background information about the working of the Military Armistice Commission in recent years, and Commodore (Retired) Gote Blom and Commodore Jan Bring of Sweden performed a similar service regarding the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission. In addition, Gote Blom and Jan Bring were good enough to comment on the first draft of Chapter 6, and Gote Blom also provided me with English translations of documents about the role of the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission (NNSC) which I had obtained from the Army Staff in Stockholm. Harold Stromeyr was a careful translator of documents on the same subject from the Federal Office of Adjutancy of the Swiss Military Department in Bern. I asked the Czechoslovak and Polish Governments for material about the experience of their officers in the NNSC, but this had not been forthcoming when the book went to press. General Sir Anthony Farrar-Hockley was good enough to advise me on a number of points. Andrea Duncan was most helpful and efficient in summarizing for me material in the British Public Record Office and arranging for the photocopying of more than 600 pages. I acknowledge with gratitude the unfailingly courteous and conscientious help of the staff of the library at the Royal Institute of International Affairs, and also that at the United Nations Information Centre in London. Diane Jumet was prompt and meticulous in sending me UN documents not available in London. Published material on the Korean war and its aftermath comes largely from the United States. No fewer than twenty-six Americans who played an active role in the Korean war have published memoirs. There are also more than 100 published reports to UN organs from the United States as the Unified Command, and five volumes of

Preface

xiii

documents in the series Foreign Relations of the United States covering the years 1950-4 have now been published. From others of the Sixteen, we have diaries or memoirs from one British politician and two officials (Eden, Jebb, Shuckburgh), one Canadian (Pearson), and two Australians (Casey, Watt). We also have articles from three Canadians (Holmes, Reid, Ronning), as well as the memoirs of Pannikar and Lie. In English from the Communist side, we have the circumspect memoirs of Peng, Wu, and Gromyko, and the indiscreet but not wholly reliable recollections of Khrushchev. There are official histories based on internal sources from the United States, Canada, and Australia, and the first volume of General Sir Anthony Farrar-Hockley's account of the British part in the Korean war has recently appeared. There is also a useful account, based on Indian sources, of the role of the Indian Custodial Force regarding POWs. The Swedish and Swiss Governments have issued guarded summary accounts of the experience of their officers with the Neutral Nations Supervisory Commission. I should like to thank the Clarendon Press for permission to reproduce sections from Case 5 from Volume 2 of How Wars End (1983).

One of the changes that has occurred in the four decades since the Korean war is illustrated by the fact that only one woman figures in these pages: Madame Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit. SDB January 1991